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mmh fax ^l^tala^vi Stv^txdB 


This Series of Theological Manuals has been published with 
the aim of supplying Books concise, comprehensive, and 
accurate, convenient for the Student^ and yet interesting 
to the general reader. 


TAMENT during the First Four Centuries. By Bbookb Foss West- 
OOTT, M.A., late Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. Crown 8vo. 
cloth. 128. 6d. 

The Author has endeavoured to connect the history of the New Testa- 
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Manuals for Theological SnuDmrrB-— Continued. 


ING THE MIDDLE AGES. By Gha&lsb Habdwick, M.A. Arch- 
deacon of Ely and Ghristian Advocate in the Univeraity of Gambridge. 
Second Edition. With 4 Maps. Grown Svo. cloth, lot. 6d, 

ING THE REFORMATION. By Abohdbaook Habowick. Grown 
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By the same AtUJior, 

MON PRAYER. For the Use of Schools and popular reading, i amo. 

cloth. iz, 6d, 
The Author having been frequently urged to give a popular abridgement 
of his larger work in a form which should be suited for use in Schools and 
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^Ijt pibble %g/ts. 




CCamttfDsf anh london. 





The present Work in its original form obtained the 
Maitland Prize for the year 1861, when the following 
subject was proposed : " The several efforts made during 
the Middle Ages to propagate the Gospel, considered 
with reference to the external and internal condition of 
the Christian Church at the time." 

In deference to the wishes of the Examiners the pub- 
lication of the work has been postponed somewhat be- 
yond the usual period, in order that the numerous refer- 
ences might be verified and expanded. 

This I have endeavoured to do to the best of my 
power, amidst many other and more pressing duties, and 
have taken the opportunity also of amplifying details, 
especially in the xvi*^ and xvii*** Chapters, which I was 
originally prevented by a severe illness from presenting 
otherwise than in a meagre outline. 

The quotations which occur from time to time in the 
notes, I have given, as far as possible, from the original 
authorities, and I trust I have carefully acknowledged 
my obligations to others, where I have been unable to 
consult the originals. 


Although I cannot claim to have recorded m anyfacts 
in these pages that may not be found in the larger Eccle- 
siastical Histories, yet I am not aware of any work, in 
the English language, in which the various e£forts made 
during the Middle Ages to propagate the Qospel are 
grouped together and presented at one view. 

The Mediaeval period, indeed, has been but little repre- 
sented in modem accounts of Christian missions, and yet 
it was fertile in noble and heroic men, who laid, always 
in self-denial and self-sacrifice, sometimes in martyrdom 
and blood, the foundations of many of the Churches of 
modem Europe. The age to which they belonged was 
not the age of the nineteenth century; their thoughts 
were not our thoughts, nor their ways our ways; but 
while there is much to blame, there is much to admire 
in their operations ; and the modem missionary in our 
numerous Colonial Dioceses will perhaps see a reflection 
of his own trials and difficulties, of his own hopes and 
aspirations, in the life and labours of the founder of the 
far-famed monastery of lona, of the monk of Nutescelle, 
of the Apostle of Denraaik, or the enthusiastic Bay- 
mund Lull. 




Afosixmulo contact with pore barbarism : 

St Paul at Lystra and Malta 1-3 

limitB of the Church daring the first four centuries 4 

Its vitality in spite of persecution 5 

Causes of the Churches triumph : 

(a) Indirect 6 

(6) Dunect 7 

Incoming of the new Races „ 

Problem proposed to the Church 8 

The Miuion-Fidd qf the Middle Ages. 

Hie new Races surreyed under three groups : 

(i) The Celt, \ 

{2) The Teuton,! 9, 10 

(3) The Slave ) 

L The Cdt: 

Early contact with Rome 11 

Religious system; the Druidic Order 12 

Hie Ollamh; the Seanchaidhe 13 

Celtic worship of the powers of nature 14 

Features of the religious system 15 

viii Contents. 


il 7%e Teuton: 

ComprehenBiyeness of the term i6 

Earlier Teutonic belief 17 

Allfadir 18 

Sabsequent declension : 

(i) Nature-worship 19 

(ii) Hero-worship— Thor, Tyr, Freyr, Baldr, Frigga... ao-21 

Adverse Powers, Loki ; Baldr's encounter with him 12-35 

Teutonic temples; the Irminsaule 76, 17 

Teutonic sacrifice, animal, human 28, 19 

iil The Slave: 

Early settlements 30 

Characteristics 31 

Slavonic religion 32 

Temple at Aroona ; image of Sviantovit 33 

Sacred horses 34 

Slavonic ritual 35, 36 

Early ^orts qf the Church among the new Races, 

A.D. 340 — 508. 

Scantiness of early missionaiy records 37 

Missionary efforts of Ulphilas : 

His early Life 38 

Labours amongst the Goths 40 

Translates the Scriptures ,, 

Pleads for the Goths at the Court of Valens 41 

Gothic colony in Moesia 42 

Zeal of St Chrysostom for promoting the Gothic Missions 43 

Labours of early Anchorites : 

(a) Valentinus in Vindelicia 45 

(b) Severinus, in Bavaria and Austria : 

Obscurity of his early life 46 

His heroic zeal 47 

Influence with barbarian chiefs 48 

Rebukes Gisa queen of the Kugii 50 

His death i 51 

Cl(mtent84 ix 


Co&TefBion of the Frankg : 

Maniage of CloYiB and Clotilda 53 

In«fiectaal efforts of Gbtilda to convert her husband 53 

Battle of Tolbiac;CloviB baptized 54 

Importance of his conYendon 55 

Safaseqoent degeneracy of the Frankish Church 57 

New influence needed ; supplied by the sister Churches of Ireland 

and Scotland 58 

The Church qf Ireland, and the Mission qf St Patrick, 

• A.D. 431—490. 

Uncertainty respecting the Origin of Christianity in Ireland 59 

Mission of Palladius ; its failure 60 

Mission of St Patrick : 

His birth, true name, and eariy years 61 

His captivity 62 

His escape and travels 64 

Lands in Ireland 65 

Preaches at Tara 66 

Opposition of the Druids 67 

His mode of preaching 69 

Letter to Coroticus , 70 

Missionary totirs ; Early Irish synods 7^,3 

Reflection on his work; his death 74,5 


St Ckdumba and the Conversion qf the Picts. 

Labours of the successors of St Patrick 76 

Irish missionary seal 77 


His birth-^legends of his early years 78 

His education 79 

Legend respecting his ordination 80 

Founds many monastic cells 81 

Conflicting accounts of the origin of his mission to Scotland ... .^ 



Legend of St IlDne&'i Pmlter 89, 5 

St Columba sets out for Hy 84 

Description of early Irish mooMteriee. 85 

The Columbian Kale 86 

His personal appearance 87 

Conversion of the Picts 89 

Council of Druimceatt ; regulations as to the Bardio Order 91 

St Columha's later years ; his death ^ 93 

Importance of the Irish missionaries 94 


Mistion qf St Augustine to England. 
A.D. 596 — 6a 7. 


Gregoiy the Great: 

Sees the Anglo-Saxon boys in the Roman Fomm 96 

Determines to undertake the English misrion 98 

Marriage of Ethelbert and Bertha „ 

Mission of Augustine : 

Landing of the missionaries 100 

Reply of Ethelbert loi 

Preaching of Augustine; baptism of Ethelbert 101 

Questions proposed to Gregory ; his replies 104 

Arrival of fresh missionaries 105 

Conference with the British clergy 106 

Death of Augustine 107 

Pagan reaction; apostasy of Eadbald 108 

Extension of the mission to Northumbria no 

Edwin's early life; attempted assassination in 

Zeal of Paulinus for his convendon iia 

The conference; speech of Coifi X13 

Destruction of the temple at Godmundingham 114 

Baptism of Edwin i^ 


Progress qf Missionary work in England. 

A.D. 617—689. 

The Northumbrian mismon ; success of Paulinus 115 

CoilTersion of East Anglia ; arrival of bishop Felix 116 

OofUents. xi 


Kdwin slain by Penda ; flight of PftulinuB 117 

AooMBon of Oswald ; he sommons miasionaries from lona 118 

Aidan*s misiioDary labours 119 

Convenion of Wessez 110, i 

Miisionafy success in Merda 112 

Battle of Winw^ field 123 

CoDvefsion of Essex 134 

Conflict between the Irish and Roman miasionaries ; synod of Whitby 1 26 

Arguments of Wilfrid ; decision of Oswiu 138 

Convenion of Sussex 139 

Cloee of the missionary period in England 131 

Celtic Misnanaries in SotUhem Germany, 

A.D. 59s— 630. 

Story of Goar and Wulflaich 133, 3 

Irish miasionaries on the Continent 134 

i. Columbanus : 

Hia birth and education 135 

Founds the monasteries of Anegray and Luxeuil 136 

Severity of hia Rule 137, 8 

He writes to Gregory the Great and the Frankish synod 140, i 

Opposition of TMerri and Brunehaut 143 

Columbanus banished ; bis return; retires to Zug 144 

Founds a monastery at Bregenz 145 

Destruction of three images 146 

Retires to Bobbio 148 

iL Labours of St Gall : 

Founds the monaatery which bears his name 151 

liL Labours of Fridolin, Magnoald, Trudpert, Kilian 153, 4 

Celtic zeal rouses that of the Prankish Churches i55) 6 

Missionary tfforts in Friesland and parts adjacent. 

A.D. 628 — 719. 

Danger of the Frisian mission 157 

Efibrtsof ^ 

(i) Amandus 158,9 

(1) Livinus 159 

xii Cantentss 

(3) Eligiua 160 

His sennons 161-5 

(4) Wilfiid 167 

(5) Ecgbert 168 

(6) Willibrord and Suidbert 169,170 

„ in Fositeslaod i7ii^ 

(7) The brothers Ewald 173 

(8) Adelbert and other miasionaries 174 

(9) Wolfram of Sens : 

His labours ; protests against human sacrifices 175 

Radbod at the baptismal font 177 

Curious legend 178-80 


St Boniface and the Conversion qf Germany, 

A.D. 715—755. 

Partial character of past efforts 181 

Labours of Winfrid, or Boniface, the ^'Apostle of Germany :** 

Birth and education „ 

first journey to Friesland 181 

Visits Rome; second journey to Friesland 183 

Second visit to Rome; consecrated regionary bishop; oath of 

obedience 185 

Labours in Hesse and Thuringia 187 

Destroys the Oak of Giesmar 188 

Appeals for aid to the English abbots 189 

Third visit to Rome 191 

Joined by Wunibald, Willibald, And others 193 

Death of Charles Martel ; revival of the synodal system 194, 5 

Ecclesiastical discipline; Adelbert, Clemens, Yirgilius I97) 8 

Gerold and Gewillieb 199,100 

Foundation of the monastery of Fulda loi 

Letter to Fuldrede 102 

Martyrdom of Boniface 104 

Characteristics of his work ^05,6 

Contents. ziii 

^orti qf the Duciples qf St Boniface. 

A.D. 719 — 789. 

I. Gregoiy of Utrecht : 

His first meetiiig with Boniface 107 

Becomes a fellow-worker in the mission-field 208 

Premdee over a missionary College at Utrecht 309 

BUs character and death aio 

1. Starnd of Fulda: • 

Birth and education iii 

Founds the monastery of Fulda 311 

The Bole of Folda 114 

Evangelizes the pagan Saxons 216 

His death ai8 

1. St Leboin : 

Builds an oratory on the banks of the Tsell „ 

Boldly confronts the Saxon Council 219 

His narrow escape from the anger of the chiefs no 

The spirit of his address the spirit of the times 211 

Ineffectual protests of Alcuin cai 

4. Liudger: 

Early Hfe 

Located by Charlemagne near Groningen and Norden 22$ 

Viats Fositesland 134 

5. Willehad: 

His labours near Groniogen; narrow escape ; sacred lots 22$ 

Located in Wigmodia ; coDseorated bishop 226 

CloM of Charlemagne's wars against the Saxons 228 

MUsionary ^orte in Denmark and Sweden, 

A.D. 800— J 01 1. 

Chariemagne and the Norsemen 139 

Ravages of the Norsemen 130 

Early missionazy efforts in Denmark 231 

Viait of E^arold Klak to the court of Louis-le-D^bonnaire 231 

Baptism of Harold 333 

xiv Contents. 


Anskar the Apostle of the North: 

HiB birth and education 934 

Deeply afiected by the news of Charlemagne's death „ 

Besolvee to undertake the Danish miBsiou 935 

DIfficalties of the undertaking 336 

Partial success in Denmark ; efforts in Sweden 937 

Advanced to the archiepiscopal dignity 938 

Driven from Hamburg by a rising of the Northmen 339 

Takes refuge in Holstein ,, 

Constancy of Herigar, a native chief 241 

Conflict of Christianity and Odinism 343 

Revival of the mission ; Anskar revisits SwedA 244 

The reception of Christianity decided by the sacred lots 345 

Permission given to preach at Birka 246 

The work retrogrades in Denmark 247 

Anskar's last efforts, and death 248 

Efforts of his successor Bimbert 250 

Harold '* Blaatand ;" story of Poppo 251 

Apostasy of Sweno 1^2 


T?ie Conversion qf Norway, 

A. D. 900—1030. 

Condition of Norway till the ninth century 25.^ 

Reforms of Harold Haarfager 254 

Consequent emigration of the Norsemen ,, 

i. Hacon succeeds to the Norwegian throne 255 

Resolves to put down heathenism „ 

Proposition made at the Thing ; opposition of the bonders 256 

Declines to eat the sacred horseflesh 257 

Vow of four chiefs 258 

Hacon falls in battle 259 

Violent efforts of his successors to enforce Christianity , , 

ii. Accession of Olaf Tryggvason 260 

His character >» 

Encounters Thangbrand; visits the Scilly Isles 261 

Visits England and Ireland ,, 

Succeeds to the throne of Norway, and resolves to put down 

heathenism t» 




Oppontfon of the bonden 261 

Compulaory baptisniB, and destroction of heathen templet 963 

Great Thing at Nidazoe ^64 

Destmction of the image of Thor at Mere 365 

Story of Rand the Strong a66 

Attempts to chrietianize Iceland ; Thangbrand*i violence 367 

Ohf falls in battle a68 

iiL Accession of Olaf Haraldson : 

Ss efforts to pat down heathenism 169 

Storj of Dale Gudbrand.. 170 

Hie Thing summoned; the image of Thor brought into the 

Thingfield 171 

Destruction of the idol 973 

Ckxnpulsory oon^rsions in Greenland and the Orkneys ^74 

Olaf retires to Russia ; returns; defeated and slain 175 

Regarded as a Saint I'jS 

OlaTs history a sign of the times „ 

Gradual civilization of the Norsemen ^77 

MUHon$ among the Slavic or Slavonic Eaeee. 

A.D. 800— looa 

I^stribution of the Slavonian family 278 

Missionary efforts in 

i. Bulgaria : 

Early eaoouDters of the Eastern Emperors with Bulgaria 379 

Bogoris and the monk Cupharas 380 

Methodius, and his picture of the Last Judgment 381 

Intervention of the Pope in the Bulgarian mission ,, 

Letter of Nicolas to Bogoris «8i, 1 

Jealousy of the Eastern Church 983 

ii. Moravia : 

Early efforts of Charlemagne and Louis-le- D^bonnure „ 

Appeal to Constantinople for teachers 284 

Labours of Cyril and Methodius 285 

Opposition of the German Clergy „ 

Pope John VIII. and the Slavonic Liturgy «86 

M<»mvia absorbed in the kingdom of Bohemia „ 


zyi Contents. 

iii. Bohemia : 

Visit of duke Borziwoi to the court of Swatoplok 287 

His baptism ; efforts of the pious Ludmilla 288 

Diethmar, bishop of Prague ; efforts of his successor Adelbert 389 

The Bohemian Church organized on the German model ^90 

iv. Bussia: 

Legends respecting the origin of Christianity in Bussia „ 

Baptism of the princess Olga 391 

Her grandson Vladimir visited by various missionaries 393 

Embassy to Constantinople ; effects of the Service 393 

Vladimir lays siege to Cherson ; his baptism 294 

The idol Feroun flung into the Dnieper 295 

Subsequent organization of the Bussian Church ^96 


TTie Conversion qf Poland and Pomerania, 

▲.D. 1000 — III7. 

i. Supremacy of SUvonic superstitions in Poland and Pomerania 997 

Conversion of Mieceslav I., the Polish duke 298 

His efforts for the conversion of the country ; his violence „ 

Polish bishopric at Posen ; Casimir I. elevated to the throne ... 999 

ii. Subjugation by Poland of Eastern Pomerania 300 

BolesUv essays the conversion of Pomerania 301 

Efforts of bishop Bernard ; their futility 301 

iii. He persuades Otho, bishop of Bamberg, to undertake the mission 303 

(o) Otho's first journey to Pomerania 304 

He reaches Pyritz ; opens his mission 306 

Seven thousand baptized ; Otho*s missionary sermon 307 

Visits to Cammin and Julin, violent opposition at Julin ... 310 

Sails to Stettin ; baptism of two young chie& 311 

Destruction of four temples ; triple head of Triglav sent to 

Bome 312 

Baptism of many at Stettin and Julin 313 

(Jb) Otho*s second journey to Pomerania 315 

Diet of TJsedom 316 

Two of hia clergy visit Wolgast ; stratagem of the heathen 

priests 317 

Otho preaches at Wolgast ; conversion of Mizlav the governor 319 

Ineffectual attempts to evangelize the island of Btigen 32 1 

Reaction against the missionaries ; danger of Otho 322 

His final efforts ; returns to Bamberg 3^4,5 

Contents. itvii 

Qmtenian qf JVmdland, Prusiia, and Lithuania. 

A.D. 1050— I4IO. 

1. Early miflnoDAry effbrtB amongst the Weodfl 326 

Bishoprics established by the emperor Otho 1 327 

Partial success ; rebellion of Gottschalk 318 

Heathen reaction; death of John, the Irish bishop of Meck- 
lenburg „ 

Ite es t ablishment of the Christian WendSah kingdom 329 

u. Labours of Yioelin 330 

Adiieyes considerable success ; becomes bishop of Oldenbeig ... 331 

iiL Christianity introduced into the island of Rugen 531 

Destruction of the temples at Arcona 333 

IT. Minionary efforts in lironia 334 

Exertions of bishop Meinhard ,, 

Jealousy of the Lieflanders 335 

Hdnhard succeeded by Berthold, who calls in a crusading army 335 

Arrival of Albert Yon Apeldem 336 

Introduction of the Knightiy Order of the Sword 337 

Miracle-play at Biga „ 

T. Condition of Prussia 338 

Organized polythdsm ; Percunos, Potrimpoe, Picullos 339 

Attempts of Adalbert, bishop of Prague, to introduce Christianity 340 

His martyrdom 341 

Efforts of Bruno and Gottfried „ 

Efforts of Bishop Christian „ 

Introduction of the Teutonic EJoights 342 

Supremacy of the order; ecclesiastical organization 343 

▼L Pagan reaction in Lithuania 344 

Partial conversion of that country 345 

Missions to the Saracens and the Mongols, 

A. D. 1200— 140a 

Limitation of the Church by the Saracens 347 

Effect of the Saraoex^c conquests on Christian missions 348 

Crrowing spirit of intolerance towards the Saracens in Spain 349 

Outbreak of the Crusades 35I 

Ifissionaiy zeal f or the conyenion of the Saracens „ 

xylii Contents* 


(i) St Francis of Assisi in the camp at Damietta 353 

He confronts the Sultan of Egypt 353 

(1) Eflforts of Raymund Lull 354 

His birth, youth, and education 355 

His oonvenion and resolve to undertake a mission to the 

Saracens 356 

The Sermon on the Festival of St Francis 357 

Enters on the study of Arabic 358 

CompoBea the An Mtyor site Oenercdii 359 

ilrst visit to Rome 360 

Repairs to Grenoa ; determines to sail to Tunis „ 

Weakness and irresolution 361 

Reaches Tunis; method of his preaching 362 

Persecution 363 

Visit to Rome 364 

Travels to Cjrprus and Armenia »» 

Second visit to Northern Africa 3^5 

Proposes the establishment of missionary Colleges 366 

Third visit to Africa ; martyrdom at Bugia 368 

Missions to the East owing to the Crusades 369 

Nestorian Missions m 

Embassies to the Mongols : 

(i) Ascelin 37© 

(1) Johannes de Piano Carpini 37* 

(3) William de Rubruquis »t 

His interviews with the Khan 37^» 3 

(4) Marco Polo 375 

(5) John de Monte Corvino 376» 7 

CompuUory Conversion of the Jews and Moors. 

A. D. 1400 — 1520. 
Effect of the Crusades on the Missionary spirit 378 

Further causes of Fanaticism : 

(a) Rise of the sect of the Bogomiles or Massilians 379 

(6) Rise of the Waldenses or Vaudois „ 

(c) Albigensian Crusades 380 

i. Efforts to christianize the Jews ; 

Condition of the Jews under the Saracens 381 

Rise of perwcution ^ 

Contents. xiz 


Bttk stoiief circulated in Europe 383 

Ontbreak of popqkr fnzy „ 

(Sv3 penaltiee 383 

Pkoponls for the estaUiahment of the loquuition „ 

InterpoatioD of Queen Isabella 384 

Fanaticism of Torquemada 385 

£]q>ulnonof the Jews from Spain , 386, 7 

H. Persecution of the Moslems : 

FaQof Granadk 388 

Bational efibrts of Fernando de Talavera to convert the Moors „ 

Ximenes de Cisneros, archbishop of Toledo 389 

His proselytizing zeal 390 

Conflagration of AraUc works 391 

Apostasy of many of the Moslems » 399 

Expulsion of the Moors from Spain 393 

New field of Missionary Enterprise : 

IKacoyery of the New World 394 

One-sided character of the Portuguese and Spanish Missions ... „ 

Terrible e&ct of the system ot repariimietUos 395 


^ Retrospect and Reflections, 

Characteristics of the Medisyal Period 397 

Ph>blems proposed to the Church 39^ 

i. Contrast between the Medieval and Apostolic Mission : 

Conversions during the latter, individual 399 

Conversions during the fonner, nafiono^ 400 

lUustrated 40» 

Beasons assigned 401 

Important results of royal marriages »» 

ix. Immense influence of individuals : 

Illustrated during (t) the Teutonic 403, 4 

(2) the Slavonic Musions 405 

HL IVominence of the monastic orders : 

Necessity for such agencies during the earlier portion of the Me- 

disval Period 406 

(i) Condition of the Roman Provinces 407 

(9) Disorganization during tiie barbarian irruption „ 

, Contents. 


(3) Effects : towns and YiUages disappear 408 

(4) Spread of Forests 408, 9 

Who would penetrate these dark retreats f 409 

Rise of Western Monasticism 410 

(i) Celtic missionariee 410, 11 

(i) Anglo-Saxon monasteries 413 

Importance of such institutions 413 

iy. Episcopal superintendence ; 

Prominence of bishops in the Medi»yal missions ...! 414 

Need of such an order „ 

Duties of the bishops 415 

Kemble on the Anglo-Saxon bishops 416 

▼. Diocesan and Provincial Synods ,, 

Their practical legislation „ 

Gradual abolition of slavery 417 

One of the most important duties of Medueval missionaries 419 

Other civilizing measures „ 

Retrospect and Reflections. 

Features of the Medisval Missionary work 421 

^) Indiscriminate baptisms 433 

Remarks on „ 

^i) Method of Mssionary instruction 433 

Illustrated Q) by the preaching of 

(a) St Patrick 4*4 

(6) Augustine „ 

(c) Oswiu 415 

(d) Gallus 416 

(ii) by the correspondence of 

(e) Daniel, bishop of Winchester, with Boniface 4^^— 9 

(/) The sermons of Boniface 4^9-43 

ig) The advice of Alcuin (i) to Charlemagne 43*--^ 

(2) toAmo 433 

^i) Absence of Vernacular translations of the Bible and the Li- 
turgy 434 

Causes >, 

Contents. xxi 


EzoeptioiiB 435 

(i) in EDgbmd : 436 

(1) <m the Continent 437> S 

Gndoftl diBooungement of puoh tnnslationa 439 

Biaeof "mrMle-Pla78"and "Mysteries*' 440, i 

(it) The policy of the Mediseyal missionaries in respect to hea* 

thenism 441 

They cannot be charged with accommodating their teaching 

to heathen errors „ 

Advice of Gregory the Great to Augustine 443 

The Beasons for his advice 444 

Difficulty of eradicating old superstitions 445, 6 

(t) Illegitimate methods of propagating the Gospel 447 

Illustrated in 

(1) the campaigns of Clovis ,, 

(9) the wars of Charlemagne against the Saxon 448 

(3) the Tiolence of the Norse jarls 449 

(4) the Albigensian Crusades, and the rise of the In- 

quisition 450 

Conclusion 451, a 

Index 453— 4<57 


S. Matt. xiii. 33. 

'0 occasions in the recorded history of the Apostle ^^^^g^^" 
we behold him brought into contact with pure bar- 

!• The first* is that familiar one, when having been JJJJJSiS!**'^* 
I from the great towns of central Asia Minor, he had 
Qpany with Barnabas, penetrated into the region of 
I and Derbe. The district here indicated was, as is ^.^^"^ 
1 to all, inhabited by a rude population, amongst 
the civilization of imperial Rome had scarcely pene- 
. The natives of these two little towns situated 
t the bare and barren steppes of Lycaonia, spoke a 
t of their own, and were addicted to a rude and 
tive superstition. Theirs was not the philosophical 
Df the educated classes at Rome or Athens. It was 
uperstition of simple pagan villagers on whom the 
h synagogue had produced little or no impression, 
nder such circumstances, it is interesting to notice 
he Christian message found an access to their hearts, 
►usly the great Apostle could appeal neither to pro- 
5S from their own Scriptures, as in the synagogues 
tioch and Iconium, nor to certain sayings of their 
»oets, as on Mars' Hill. But the Providence of God 
ied a vehicle of communication, 
mongst the groups which had gathered round the 
le, and whom he was addressing with his wonted 
ttness and zeal, was a man who had been a cripple 

1 Acts xiv. 6. 

2 Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

iNTRODuc- from his birth. Perceiving that he had faith to be healed, 


1— the Apostle bade him rise up and walk. Power accompanied 

the spoken word: he stood upright on his feet and was 
made whole. Such a cure, of such, a man, in such a manner, 
could not fail to arouse astonishment and awaken interest. 
The news soon spread through the place, and the inhabit- 
ants not unmindful, it may be, of the well-known traditions 
of the neighbourhood, rushed to the conclusion that super- 
natural powers were present among them, that their tutelary 
deities had come down in the likeness of men. What 
followed is a familiar tale. Bringing oxen and garlands 
to the temple before the town-gates, they would have 
offered sacrifice to the marvellous strangers, had they not 
been prevented by the Apostles, who straightway began 
to implore them to turn away from their dumb idols, and 
to serve the true God, the Creator of all things. But the 
impression made was on the surface only, and soon passed 
away. The inveterate enemies of the Apostles an*ived, 
and persuaded the people that they were only the victims 
of diabolical magic, and the efiect was instantaneous. The 
men, whom a moment before they had been on the point 
of worshipping, were driven ignominiously from the place. 
On the second occasion* the scene shifts to the island 

&) Malta. of Malta. The morning after the shipwreck has just 
begun to break, and St Paul, now a prisoner bound for 
Eome, has reached the shore with his companions. Here, 
too, the people he encountered were of a rude and simple 
character. But they showed no little kindness towards 
the drenched and shivering crew, and, as they kindled the 
welcome fire upon the sea-beach, the interest of the nar- 
rative again centres round the Apostle. Foremost, as al- 
ways, in seeking the general good he was actively engaged 
in gathering sticks for the fire, when a viper sprung from 
the heap and fastened on his hand. The first thought of 

^ Acts xxviii. i. 

Introduction. 3 

the islanders, as they beheld the venomous creature, was intooduc- 

that the Apostle was without doubt a murderer, who, 

though he had escaped the sea, could not escape the 
divine Nemesis. But he had no sooner shaken off the 
creature, and felt no harm, than they regarded him as a 
god ; nor was their belief in his exalted character likely to 
be weakened by what subsequently took place — the cure 
of the father of the governor of the island, and of many 
others afflicted with divers maladies. 

These two instances of the earliest meeting of the 
Apostle Paul with simple paganism are deserving of more 
than a passing glance. They serve to introduce us to the 
consideration of the missionary efforts of the Mediaeval /toc*<<r/rtrture». 
Church, which also had to deal with rude and simple 
paganism. Much that we observe here we shall observe 
again and again; features, incidents, traits of character 
will repeat themselves. Wherever we go we shall find 
that, as in those little villages amidst the dreary regions 
of Lycaonia, and that little island of the Mediterranean, 
men have never been able to exist without some form of 
religion ; that, however degraded, they have never got rid 
of the conviction, that beyond and above the powers of 
nature there is One who visits the earth, interposes in the 
affairs of men, and has in some mysterious way connected 
inextricably guilt and retribution, sin and pain. They 
may entertain very indistinct, very contradictory notions 
on these points, but in some form or other we shall find 
them lying at the bottom of their hearts, — the root and 
origin of all natural religion, and supplying the link be- 
tween the soul of man and the message of the Gospel. 
Wherever again our enquiries will lead us, we shall notice 
the weakness of this form of natural religion ; how, though 
it may have risen to the conception of the human attri- 
butes of deity, it too often recognises the divine presence 
only in the marvellous and mysterious, — when the cripple 


4 Mxsaumary History of the Middle Ages. 


iNTRoBuc- stands upon his feet, or the serpent falls off the Apostle's 

! arm, — but forgets that the sanife power is ever present in 

common blessings, — the fertilizing rain, or the ripening 
harvest. Wherever our enquiries will lead us, we shall 
further notice the effect of this adoration only of the won- 
derful, in the superficial religious excitement, and the quick 
revulsion of thought and feeling, when no deep impression 
has been made upon the heart, which it was the painful 
lot even of an Apostle to experience, and which has often so 
sadly discouraged the work of the missionary in every age. 
Up to the period when our enquiries commence, the 
Christian Church had not, except in the extreme East, ex- 
tended her conquests far beyond the limits of the Roman 
OM^ii^ Empire. Her territorial field may be said to have mainly 
(5i?J?to*^ included the countries around the Mediterranean Sea — 
Palestine, Asia Minor, Greece, Italy, Southern Gaul, 
Egypt, and Numidia — the very centre of the old world and 
its heathen culture. Within this area the kingdom of God 
had made its way silently and " without observation." Its 
going forth had not been proclaimed on the house-top or in 
the market-place. The Word had indeed been " running 
very swiftly," but it was the Word of Him whose earthly 
life had been spent in an obscure village of Palestine, and 
who had died the death of the malefactor and the slave. 
The " mustard seed," the " hidden leaven," had been time 
figures of its progress, overlooked by the world yet pene- 
trating the world with its secret and subduing force 
There is a mystery, as has been often observed, about the 
planting of the Church in various places*. Who knows 
the origin of the congregation already at Damascus when 
the disciple of Gamaliel went thither breathing forth 
threatening and slaughter against those of "the way"? 
Who can recount the circumstances to which Timothy's 
mother and grandmother owed their knowledge of the 

1 Blunts Firtl Three CenturieSj p. 190. 

Introduction. 5 

trath? Who can throw light on the planting* of that introduc- 

Church in Borne to which the great Apostle addresses so '-- 

many salutations? Who, again, so first laboured in plant- 
ing the Chnrch of Qaol, that in the second and third cen- 
turies a Pothinus and an Irenasus could enter into their 
labours? Who, lastly, can throw any certain light on the 
origin of the early British Churches? 

But, though thus hidden, it was not long before the ituvitawy 
leaven began to vivify and pervade the whole mass o{ 9fptr$ecuii<m. 
society, before what had been the consolation of the slave, 
or the fugitive in the catacombs, became the creed of the 
statesman and the magistrate. In spite of contempt and 
outrage the Gospel message commended itself to the hearts 
of men. Philosophers might scoff at the first believers; 
politicians might suspect them ; the populace might pursue 
them with ferocious yells; a Nero niight persecute them 
when goaded on by the malicious misrepresentations of 
the Jews; a Hadrian and a Trajan, as deeming them 
guilty of insubordination and treason ; a Marcus Aurelius 
and a Decius, from horror at the public calamities of the 
empire ; a Diocletian, as recognising in the new and mys- 
terious society a formidable rival to be put down and 
crushed ; but there were at all times the few to whom the 
new faith spake " as never man spake;" there were always 
the children by whom its " wisdom was justified." The 
story of Justin Martyr, after trying everything else in vain, 
commended by the old man on the seashore to enquire into 
the "new philosophy," is, no doubt, the story of many*. 
And so the still small voice made itself heard, and the 
"weakness" of God proved itself " stronger than man." 
The symbol of the most degrading punishment the Roman 
could inflict on the malefactor and the slave became the 
symbol of an empire's creed, and was blazoned on the con- 
queror's banner. 

^ See Neander^B Cliurch HUtcry, i. 44. 

6 Missionary History of th^ Middle Ages. 

iNTRODUc- And 'what had been the weapons of the Church in 

1^ — winning this signal triumph over a hostile religion and 

cXltJS> ' a hostile government, powerful in all its material appli- 
ances, and the time-honoured prestige of its name? What 
had been the influences which had placed her progress 
in exact correspondence with the decline of so potent an 
adversary ? They had been direct and they had been in- 
direct. Among the latter we may include the utter dissa- 
tisfaction of men with the existing religious and philosophi- 
cal systems, and the insufficiency and decay of heathenism, 
which, broken up into an infinity of sects and persua- 
sions, had taken deep root neither in the intellect, the 
conscience, nor the affections of mankind ^ Art and Lite- 
rature, Philosophy and Politics, had done their utmost, 
and yet man had not attained that which he felt he 
needed. His soul still thirsted, it had reached no fountain 
of " living water.'* After years of conflict and enquiry, 
he was still lost on the sliorclcss ocean of uncertainty. 
Self-convicted of his impotency to regenerate himself, he 
cried out with Seneca, that one would stretch out his 
hand^, and sighed for relief from the endless strife of 
discordant systems. And to this deep-felt want the Gos- 
pel, the message of glad tidings, responded, and thus 
exerted a direct, a divine, influence. It calmed the Clash- 
ing creeds of heathenism by proclaiming God as One ; it 
attracted the hearts of men by its revelation of His true 
character as a Father ; it proclaimed the glad tidings of 
His infinite Love as displayed in the incarnation of His 
Eternal Son ; it assuaged the sense of guilt, the craving 
for restoration, by pointing to the Sacrifice of the Cross ; 
it strengthened the power of hope by bringing to light 

^ See Be Presaense'R Relifjion^ he- quia, est: cui nihil constat, nihil diu 

fore Christy p. i88. Kurtz's Chvrch placet. Sed quomodo, aut quando 

History y p. 57. tSchai^, Apost. Hist, nos ab ea revellemus: Nemo per se 

p. 386. satis valet: oportet manum aliquis 

^ ISeneca, Ep, lii. : "Stultitia, in- porrigat, aliquis educat.'* 

Introduction, 7 

life and immortality, and the glory of the world to come, inteot^uc 

And while thus it proved its adaptation to the wants 

of men, it manifested its Divine Power sometimes in mira- 
cles and signs, the echoes of the Apostolic age, often in 
the constancy of martyrs under persecution, oftener in 
tlie upright walk, the holiness, and charity of its believers 
and teachers. Evangelists like Pantaenus and Frumentius 
proclaimed abroad its message from a God of Love, and 
adorned its doctrines by the sincerity and devotion of 
their lives; and what they effected directly was carried 
forward indirectly by Christian captives. Christian colo- 
nists, Christian soldiers. Apologists, again, like Irenaeus 
and Justin, Cyprian and Athenagoras, Origen and Ter- 
tullian, justified its claims to be the " true philosophy ;" the 
Fathers of the East moulded its creeds ; the Empire of 
the West bequeathed to it its organization and its laws; 
with Constantine it was publicly recognised as the religion 
of the State ; with Gratian and Theodosius its supremacy 
was established. 

But when the Iron Kingdom had run its race, tharnenminfjo/the 
territorial field of the Church was to be widened, it was 
to spread Westward, and Northward, and Eastward ; and 
now a very different element was proposed to the energies 
of the Christian teachers. As the Roman Empire sank 
beneath her feet, its last embers trampled out by Alaric, 
the Church found herself confronted with numberless 
hordes, that had long been gathering afar off in their 
native wilds, and were now to be precipitated over the 
entire face of Europe. Strange, indeed, in language and 
customs and mode of life, were, the nations which now 
poured forth to fill the abyss of servitude and corruption 
in which the Roman Empire had disappeared, and to infuse 
new life-blood into an effete civilization. Celt and Teuton, 
Slave and Hun followed each other in quick succession, 
each presenting to the Church some new element to be 

neir rucit. 

8 Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

iNTRODuc- controlled and brouffht into subiection. She was now 


'■ — called to allay these agitated elements of society, to in- 
troduce some degree of order, to teach the nations a higher 
faith than a savage form of nature worship, to purify and 
refine their recklessness, independence, and uncontrollable 
love of liberty, to fit them to become the members of an 
enlightened Christendom. 

It is from this point then that we set out ; at this 
critical period we take our stand to watch and see, how 
when the foundations of the great deep seemed to be broken 
up, and chaos to have come back to earth, the Christian 
Church did not falter, but girded herself for her great mis- 
sion, and strove to win over to the fold of Christ the 
dark masses of heathendom that surrounded her. Mind- 
ful of the diflSculties she had to encounter in making this 
effort, of the features of the times when it was made, of 
the interruptions, checks, vicissitudes, and delays which 
would be inevitably incident thereto, we shall learn not to 
expect too much from men who partook of the common 
infirmities of our nature, and the vices characteristic of 
their age. We shall rather rejoice to trace from time to 
time the fulfilment of the Divine Word, Behold I am 
toith you always even unto the end of the worlds and 
to see how in conformity therewith, the leaven destined 
to pervade and quicken the whole mass of European society 
was never altogether inert, impassive, or ineffectual. 



Quum barbaries penitns commota gementem 
Imieret Shodopen, et mixto turldne gentis. 
Jam deserta suae in noa transfunderet Arctos. — Claudiajit. 

jf the present chapter we shall attempt to survey what chap. i. 
nay be termed the misaton-field of the Middle Ages, and 
notice some of the more striking characteristics, social, 
Qoral, and religious, of the nations which established 
hemselves upon the ruins of the Koman Empire, and now 
waited the missionary zeal of the Christian Church. As 
n outline is all that we can possibly attempt, we may, 
inking minor divergences of race, and regarding them 
t)lely in their moral and religious aspects, arrange these 
ations under the several groups of Celts, Teutons, and 

With the first group indeed we shall be but partially i ttu cdu 
mcemed. The people it includes had already in a great 
leasure, before the time when our enquiries commence, 
eoome amalgamated with their Roman conquerors, and 
lared their manners, institutions, and mode of life : still 
ley formed that portion of the mission-field into which 
le Apostle of Ireland and his disciples first entered, and 
le members of the churches thus founded, were so pre- 
ninent for missionary zeal in England and the continent, 
lat they cannot be wholly passed by. 

10 Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. L With the Teuton we shall be mainly concerned in our 

ii. Tke T€utotu account of the propagation of the Gospel in our own 
island, and in Southern and Northern Germany. Under 
this generic term we shall include also the races, more 
developed perhaps, but for all purposes the same in moral 
character and religious belief, which peopled the Scandi- 
navian continent, and so long resisted the efforts of their 
own princes and Christian missionaries to induce them to 
lay aside their old Teutonic faith. 
HI. The Slave. The Slavonic group will arrest our attention when we 
describe the missionary exertions of the Eastern Church 
in Bulgaria, Bohemia, and Russia, or of her Western 
rival in Pomerania, Prussia, and the neighbouring coun- 
tries. The well-known inaction of the Church of Con- 
stantinople in missionary work confines us mainly to the 
West, and to the triumphs of Latin Christianity*. At 
the extinction of paganism, the Eastern churches had 
almost ceased to be aggressive, or creative ; and with the 
exception of the missions of Ulphilas to the Goths, of 
Cyril and Methodius to Moscow, of the Nestorians in 
Persia, India, and perhaps to lands still further East, they 
present but little to detain us, and were, as it has been 
strikingly said, **but the temporary halting-place of the 
great spiritual migration, which from the day that Abra- 
ham turned his face away from the rising sun, has been 
stepping steadily westward*." 
TheCeiL 1. "Wc begin then with the Celts. At a very early 

period in her history, as is known to all, Rome had en- 
countered the Cymry, or the Gael. The name of Brennus 
recals a scene in her history, when, in spite of the patriotic 

^ Milman's Latin Christianity, I. it had already entered in the 7th cen- 

3. "Islamism curtailed the Eastern tury upon the calm and protracted 

Church," remarks Hardwiok, ** on period of its decline." — Hardwick's 

all sides, but awoke not a primitive Church History, Middle Age, p. 3. 
devotion in its members, nor injected * Stanley*8 Lectures on EccUsiasti' 

a fresh stock of energy and health: cal History, p. 93. 

I%e MiSBion-Ftdd of the Middle Ages. 11 

radictions of her own historians, slie was veiy nearly chap. t. 

ambing before those gigantic warriors, whose butchery " 

er senators in the capitol was handed down from 

oration to generation, in legend and in song. From 

day forward, these half-naked tribes were a continual 

ce of terror. They swarmed into Greece, attempted 

ack Delphi, and founded kingdoms in Asia Minor. 

ing the first Punic war the Roman legionary found 

1 protecting Carthaginian cities in Sicily ; encountered 

1 in the second serving, under the banner of Hannibal, 

the bloody fields of Thrasymene and Cannse. The 

ble reverse at Tolosa roused the wrath of the avenger 

ius, and after two tremendous engagements at Pour- 

is and Vercelli, in which Rome had a foretaste of what 

in store for her degenerate emperors, the terrible 
ier of Arpinum succeeded in warding off the barbaric 
ads, and was saluted as a third founder of Rome. 
it was during the campaigns of Ca?sar, which lasted 
ards of fourteen years, and cost him two millions of 
, that the Celtic nations became really known, being 
Igamated with the fortunes and fate of the Italian 
tal. The commentaries of this great commander give 
i vivid idea of the impression they made upon him ; 
he has described with minute accuracy their gigantic 
ire, fair complexions, enormous muscular strength, 
love of personal decoration. Fond of war, hot in 
3er, but simple and void of malice, they knew little 
hat personal liberty which was the proud character- 

of the Teuton \ While the meanest Teuton was 
pendent and free, the lower orders among the Celts 
\ little better than in a state of slavery. All freedom 
power centered in their chieftains. 

* Plebes piBTie servomm habe- psychological features of the Teuton 

oo, qu» nihil audet per se, nullo and the Celt, see Mallet's Northern 

etur consilio." Caes. de B, G. ArUiquUies, p. 23. 
3. On the physiological and 

12 Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. L The same great commander has given us the fullest 

TheDntidi. s^d clearest account of the Druids^ the all-powerful re- 
ligious order of the Celtic tribes. Under their various 
divisions they were at once the ministers of a theocracy, 
and the judges and legislators of the people. Enjoying 
an immunity from service in the army and the obligation 
to pay taxes, they instructed the youth of the nation in 
the mysteries of learning, which they veiled in ininolable 
secrecy, and did not suffer to be committed to writing. 
The chief doctrine thus imparted was the immortality of 
the soul, or rather its transmigration into another body, an 
article of faith deemed of especial importance as an in- 
centive to heroic virtue. To this cardinal doctrine was 
added instruction in the nature and motion of the heavenly 
bodies, the nature of things, and the power and greatness 
of the immortal gods. 

It was the opinion of Caesar, who assures us that the 
religious belief of Gaul and Britain were the same, that 
the latter was its birthplace, and that pilgrims from Gtiul 
flocked thither as to an holy island. It is more probable 
that Druidism retained a more lasting hold over the colony 
than the mother country, traversed everywhere by the 
Roman legions. How powerful was its influence is at- 
tested by the constancy with which it was proscribed by 
successive Boman generals, and the fact that Suetonius 
Paulinus, convinced of the impossibility of subduing the 
Britons in any other way, penetrated into the sacred island 
of Mona, cutting down its sacred groves, and butchering 
its white-robed priests. But though the system thus re- 
ceived its death-blow in England, it lingered on for cen- 
turies in Ireland and the Scottish highlands. When we 
come to trace the missionary labours of the Apostle of 
Ireland and his disciples, we shall find proof that it still 
retained a portion of its once undisputed supremacy in 

^ Ccosar, B. 0, VI. 14. 

The Misstafi'Field of the Middle Ages. 


civil as well as ecclesiastical. The inyariable use chap. t. 
ves of the Irish saints of the word magus to ex- 
e Dmidic profession, sufficiently illustrates their 
9. In the Book of Armagh the monarch of Ire- 
^presented, at the arrival of St Patrick, as having 
ervice his soothsayers and magicians, his augurs 
ners^ ; and a member of the same order withstands 
ch pertinacity the first preaching of the missionary 
oa in the Scottish Highlands. Almost of equal 
1th the Druids, and as vigorously proscribed in 
by Roman policy was the OUamh, the "bard," 
tman," and only a step lower stood the Seanch- 
le " historian," or " story-teller"." The person of 
ler is represented as inviolate; with the princes, 
ids, he takes part in the great national assemblies, 
} next in precedence to the monarch himself; he 
:ed titlie in the chieftain's territory, besides ample 
tes for himself and his attendants ; and by carrying 
ng his wand to any person or place, he confers 
:ary sanctuary from injury or arrest*, 
conqueror of Gaul has also traced the main Thrveuic 
of the Celtic religious belief. However modified 
lave been by subsequent contact with Roman or 

lanman's Lift of St Colum- 
res, p. 74 n. In the Irish 
Paul's Epistles at Wurtz- 
loas on Jannes and Jam- 
n. iii. 8) is duo DraidcB 
In an ancient Hymn 
St Columba (MUceL Irish 
oc. I. 8) we find the rather 
presnon, "Christ the Son 
ay Druid:' In the Book 
we find Dathi (a.d. 405), 
lor of Niall of the Nine 
isking the Druids to ascer- 
n by their arts the events 
bo happen to him during 
flr year ; and Cormac em- 
^niids, like the medicine- 
9 North American tribes, 

to deprive the men of Munster and 
their cattle of water. O'Curry's Lee- 
tures on MS. Materials of Ancient 
Irish Hitter Iff p. 271. A decree of 
one of the Councils of St Patrick di- 
rects " Christ ianus... qui more genti- 
lium ad aruspicem meaverit, per sin- 
gu la crimina anni poenitentiam agat. " 
Spelman's Concilia^ p. 52. See also 
Patrick's Hymn in Petre's TaraJIillt 

P- 57. 

' O'Curry's Lectures, p. 3. 

' One of the questions discussed 
at the Council of Druim-ceatt in 
^'^- 575 ^<^ ^^0 expulsion of the 
Bardic Order on account of their in- 
ordinate oovetousness. 

14 Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

ClikV. I. 

Teutonic systems, it is clear that its original form was 
Sabasism, and the worship of the powers of nature. Highest 
in the great Pantheon was the sun, "the life of every- 
thing," " the source of all being," who shared the devotion 
of his votaries with the moon and stars, with genii of the 
hills and the valley, of the grove and the spring \ The 
" sacred principle of fire" also received special adoration. 
The season of the vernal equinox was ushered in by the 
sacred festival of the Baal-tinne, or the day of the Baal 
Fire, and was celebrated with peculiar rites. The sacred 
fires which once, from every hill-top in Ireland and the 
Scottish Highlands welcomed the return of the solar 
beams, and the banishment of winter's gloom, linger now 
in the fires of St John's Eve*. 

The forces of nature, now beneficent and now destruc- 
tive, have never been worshipped without suggesting the 
idea of mysterious antagonism, and reproducing more or 
less the dualism of the East, nor does the Celtic faith 
seem to have been an exception to the rule. But the 
rival votaries of the respective principles of fire and water 
could harmonise their differences by their doctrines, that 
the material world was doomed to an endless alternation 
of annihilation and reproduction, according as one or the 
other of these principles was in the ascendant'. The re- 
cords of Celtic missionary labour in Ireland and Scotland 
do not make any special mention of those numerous gods 
whom Caesar mentions as adored in Gaul, and to whom 
he has transferred the attributes of the gods of Rome. 
The names do not occur in these records of Teutates or 

^ For indications of well-worflhip 
in the times of St Patrick, see Vila 
Trip. II. 70: **Venit S. Patricius ad 
fontem in Campo Finn-Magh dicto, 
quern credulum vulgus Kegem Aqua- 
rum Tocabat, et nomen (Hibemicum) 
ex virtute quam inesse credebat ap- 
poDendo, Skan, i. e. ealutiferum, ap- 
(lellabat. Imperitum namque vulgus 

credebat in illo fonte, seu verios ip- 
sum fontem Numen aliquod esse, et 
hinc aquarum Regem vocabat, et ut 
Deum colebat." See also Vita S, Co- 
lumbm^ II. ii., and Betham's OaU and 
Cymry, p. 235. 

* See Petrie's Rcmnd Totoers, p. 3 7 . 
O'Conor's /Zcrwm Hihem. Script, i. xx. 

• Dollinger'8(7AtfrcAifi<tory,n.aa. 

The MtBsion-Field of the Middle Ages. 15 

Hsesufl, or Ceridwen, or Taranis ; but the Apostle of Ire- chap. i. 
land is represented, in the earliest annals, as recalling his 
converts from the worship not only of spectres^ and 
genii, but of idols also, the greatest of which, the image 
of Crom-cruach*, stood on the plain of Magh Slecht, " the 
plain of Adoration," and was the chief object of primitive 
pagan worship till its destruction by St Patrick, As a rule, 
the original form of the Druidic ritual was of the simplest 
character. The shadow of the sacred grove, or the wide- 
spreading oak with its mystic mistletoe, was the Druid's 
temple; the hill-top, with its crom-lech or altar-stone, 
his nearest approach to architecture; while the triple 
procession round the sacred circle from east to west, the 
search for the sacred mistletoe on the sixth day of the 
moon, the sacrifice of the milk-white bull, and the usual 
methods of augury and divination constituted the chief 
portion of his religious rites. But at particular times, 
the instinct of expiation, the earnest craving to appease 
oflfended powers, or the dread of sudden danger, or the 
outbreak of the sudden pestilence, induced those inhuman 
sacrifices which Caesar has described' as existing in his 
own day, and which long retained their gloomy ascendancy - 
over their votaries. 

With this outline of Celtic superstitions we must now 
pass on. The Celtic races, as we have already remark- 
ed, bad, except in Ireland and Northern Britain, become 
amalgamated with the institutions, feelings, and social life 
of their Roman conquerors, and had learned to ascribe to 
their deities the attributes of the gods of Greece and Rome. 
We are therefore hardly concerned with their religious creed, 
except so far as they formed an advanced outpost amongst 
the western nations, and when evangelized by Christian 

> See Annals of the Four Mai- ■ See O'Curry's Lectures, p. io.% 

tfrt, I. 155. Her, Eibem. Script, i. Annals of the Four Masters, i. 43 ». 
xxii. • i^. 0, VI. 16. 

16 Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 


U. The Teuton. 

missionaries^ became^ in their turn, signally ardent and 
successful preachers of their newlj adopted faith. 

2. The first wave indeed of immigration had flung the 
Celt on the European continent, but he soon made way for 
the Teutonic and Slavic tribes, who next left their homes 
amidst the Asiatic steppes, and poured down upon the 
frontiers of the Roman Empire. The Slave came first, 
but the Teuton quickly followed, and long anticipated 
him in his contact with the empire, as he was also his 
superior in moral and social culture. 

Under the generic name of Teuton we include, as we 
have said, not only the inhabitants of that vast region 
which, bounded by the Baltic on the North, the Rhine on 
the West, the Vistula and Oder on the East, may be 
called, with tolerable accuracy, the European home of the 
Teutonic tribes; nor the Goths only who poured down 
from the Scandinavian peninsula, and under the name of 
Ostrogoth and Visigoth, rapidly established themselves in 
Southern and Eastern Germany; we include also those 
hardy Northmen, whose gaudy but terrible barks bore 
them, during the eighth and ninth centuries, from their 
f homes in Denmark and Sweden, to be the scourge and 
terror of the European shores. Difier as these did, un- 
doubtedly, in minor points — in all the essentials of their 
moral and religious character they were similar, and for 
our purposes it will suffice to embrace them under a single 
head. And this we feel justified in doing. For it may be 
received as certain that the objects of worship among the 
Anglo-Saxons were, in the main, identical with those recog- 
nised by the wide-spread German race on the continent*. 

* " Wliile the Scandinavian mytho- 
logy, even as it has been transmitted 
to us, may be regarded as a connect- 
ed whole, the isolated fragments of 
German mythology can be consider- 
ed only as the damaged ruins of a 
structure, for the restoration of which 

the plan is wholly wanted. But this 
plan we in a great measure posseen 
in the Northern Mythology, seeing 
that many of these German ruins 
are in perfect accordance with it. 
Hence we may confidently conclude 
that the Gkrman religion, had it been 

TJiC MiSsio)l'J'i( hi of tJic MiJdh' ^Irjf'S. 


To obtain however a clear conception of the Teutonic char i. 
religious system at this era, is not easy. Tacitus, our au- 
thority respecting the earliest German races, '^has painted 
them," to quote the words of Guizot, " as Montaigne and 
Rousseau the savages, in a fit of ill humour against his 
country ;" and the missionaries of the Middle Ages seldom 
supply that accurate information regarding the religious 
faith of the pagan tribes, amongst whom they laboured, 
which we desire. Selecting then such points as appear to 
admit of least dispute, we may conclude that a distinc-'* 
tion must be drawn between that simpler and purer faith, 
which the Teuton brought with him from his home in the 
far distant Kast\ and that which afterwards, owing to 
settlement in strange lands, intermixture with other races, 
and such like causes, modified the original form. 

The earliest Teutonic doctrine, then, appears to have Eariif Teutonic 
recognised one Supreme Being, whom it represents as*^*^' 
Master of the Universe, whom all things obey«^ " Who 
is first and eldest of the gods?'' it is asked in the Edday 
and the answer is, " He is called AUfadir in our tongue \" 

banded down to U8 in equal integrity 
vith the Northern, would, on the 
whole, have exhibited the same sys- 
tem . " Miiller, A Itdeulsche Religion^ 
quoted in Thorpe's Northern Afytho- 
logy, I. 3iS. The principal German 
writers appear to be divided as to 
the existence or non-existence of a 
Gerraan mythology dittinct from the 
Scandinavian, bimrock attributes 
idaUUy of belief and worship to the 
Scandinavians and Germans. Grimm 
attempts to construct specifically Ger- 
man mythology. See Perry's PrankSf 
p. 1 1 . Kemble's Saxons in England, 
L 330. Menzell's Germany, i. 51. 

* "A comparison of the several 
myths, the Northern on the one side, 
and the Indian, Persian, and other 
kindred • mythologies on the other, 
iuggeets many striking resemblances. 
The Oriental is contemplative, the 

Northern is one ot pure action ; ac- 
cording to the first, the gods are to 
be reconciled by work oi atonement, 
according to the second, by battle.'' 
Thorpe's Northern Myth. i. 135. 

^ " Such seems to have been the 
sublime conception above, if not an- 
terior to, what may be called the 
mythology of Teutonic religion." — 
Milman's Latin Christianity, i. 158. 

3 The Semnones, a tribe of the 
Suevi, claimed for their territory the 
honour of being the original seat of 
the worship of Allfadir. See Perry's 
Franks, p. 22. Tacit. Ger mania, 
cap. 39: ''Vetustissimos se nobilis* 
simosque Suevorum Semnones me- 
morant. Fides antiquitatis religione 
confirmatur . . . Eo omnis superstitio 
respicit, tanquam inde initia gentis, 
ibi regnator omniimi deus, cetera 

18 Missionary History of the Middle Ages* 


He lives from ''all ages, and rules over his realm, and 
sways all things great and small. He made heaven and 
earth, and the lift, that is, the sky, and all that belongs to 
them, and what is most, he made man, and gave him a 
soul that shall live and never perish, though the body rot 
to mould, or bum to ashes \*' In other places he is spoken 
of, as the " Author of every thing that exists," the " Eter- 
nal," the "Ancient," the "living and awful Being," the 
" Searcher into concealed things," the " Being that never 
changes." His is an infinite power, a boundless know- 
ledge, an incorruptible justice. He cannot be confined 
within the enclosure of walls, or represented by any 
likeness to the human figure*. He has neither sex nor 
palpable form, and can only be worshipped in the awful 
silence of the boundless forests, and the consecrated grove. 
Such appears to have been the primitive faith, more de- 
veloped subsequently in the Scandinavian Eddasy but 
resting on elemental ideas common to all the Germanic 
tribes. Allfadir would be a name naturally dear to a 
people which as yet had hardly passed the limits of the 
patriarchal state, amongst whom every father of a family 
was at once a priest and king in his own house'. But 
the idea of pure spirit was too refined to retain a lasting 
hold on the mind and conscience ; it lost its original dis- 
tinctness, and retired more and more into the back ground, 
surviving only as the feeble echo of an older and purer 
revelation. Just as the Aryan* in crossing the HindA 
Alps, was spell-bound by the new and beauteous world 

* Dasent's Norsemen in Iceland, 
p. 187. Oxford Euaytj iSs^S. Comp. 
also Mil man's Latin ChriMtianky, i. 
158; Thorpe, I. 329. 

• "Nee cohibere parietihus deos, 
neque in ullam oris humani speciem 
aasimulare, ex magnitudine cselesti- 
um arbitraotur, luces ac nemora cod- 
Becrant, deonmique nominibua ap- 

pellant secretum illud quod sola re- 
verentia videt.** Tac. Germ. 9. 

• Taciti Oermania, 10: "Si pub- 
lice consuletur, sacerdos civitatis, sin 
priyatim, ipse pater familise, preca- 
tus deos." Compare Grimm, D, 
Myth. p. 80. 

* Hardwick^s Christ and other 
Mcuterif 11. p. 11, 12, 

The Mtssian-Field of the Middle Ages. 


ch he was transplanted, so the Teuton in the chap. i. 

* his migrations towards colder climes, bowed down 

the wild and overbearing powers of nature ;" but 

orship not sufficing, as it never has sufficed, there 

jcondly, an elaborate form of hero-worship, the 

1 of the conquerors of nature, that is, of man him- 

virtues, and his vices. 

Mrst, we say, there was the worship of the ele-Jj^^«ft«»*- »''<»»•- 

from the invisible One emanates, so thought the 

an infinite number of inferior deities, whose temple 

part of the invisible world. Hence the veneration 

e ; of nature in all her forms and manifestations ; 

eavenly bodies, the sun, the moon, which was re- 

18 of the male sex, the stars; the earth itself, the 

of Tacitus*, with its trees and springs, its fountains 

J ; the sea, with its storm and calm ; the falling 

d the bristling ice. And since entire nature was 

rgan or instrument of Deity, it was of the utmost 

ice, to pay attention even to the most indifferent 

•na. Nothing was too trifling. The quivering leaf, 

kling flame, the falling thunderbolt, the flight or 

>f birds, the neighing of horses', man's dreams and 

Bven the movements of his pulse, all needed atten- 

EerthuB of Tacitus (Germ, 
\f doubtless, Hertha the 
rth, or impersonated na- 
ich he describes the wor- 
iffuage singularly coinci- 
that of the Berecynthian 
Phrygia. " Milman's Lot. 
y, I. a6o. Turner's iln^^o- 
(17. Kemble's Saxons in 
337—344-. Dollinger, II. 
sula oceaniy in which Ta- 
ents her worship to have its 
!en identified by some wri- 
e island of Riigen, and the 
f ecklenburg and Pomera- 
ers with Zealand, or OeseL 
?ac. Germ, ii. c. 40. 

' Com p. Taciti Germaniaf cap. 10: 
" Et illud quidem etiam hie notum, 
avium voces volatusque interrogare: 
proprium gentis equorum quoque 
prsesagia ac monitus experiri. Pub- 
lic^ aluntur iiadem nemoribus ac 
lucis candidi et nullo mortali opere 
contacti ; quos presses sacro curru 
sacerdos ac rex vel princeps civitatis 
comitantur hinnitusqae ac fremitus 
observant. Nee ulli auspicio ma- 
jor fides, non solum apud plebem, 
apud proceres, apud sacerdotes : se 
enim ministroB deoruro, illos oon- 
scios putant.** On similar Slavonic 
customs see below. 


20 Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 


H. Hero- Wor- 

tion, all might give some sign from the other world. 
Hence amongst all the Teutonic nations, Gothic, Saxon, 
Scandinavian, the peculiar regard that was paid to oracles 
and divinations, to auspices, presages, and lots^; hence the 
functions of the prophetess and the sibyl, the enchanter, 
the interpreter of dreams, the diviner by offering cups, or 
the entrails of animals, or human sacrifices, the raisers of 
storms, the Kunic sticks, and all the usual instruments for 
exploring the secrets either of the past or future. Upsal 
was the Teutonic Delphi, as famous for its oracles, as for 
its sacrifices'. Here, as in other places, might be found 
diviners, both male and female, who could supply runes to 
secure victory in the battle, to preserve from poison, to 
heal bodily infirmities, to chase away melancholy, or to 
soften the heart of a cruel mistress. Thus all nature had 
a voice for the imaginative Teuton, the skies, the woods, 
the waters, were his books, his oracles, his divinities. 
Again and again, the records of missionary labour will 
disclose the worship of the spring and the well, the belief 
in spirits of the hill and of the lake. 

ii. But nature-worship does not satisfy. Man ceases 
to quail before her mighty powers, he learns to defy the 
wind and storm, the frost and cold, and nature-worship is 
blended with a complicated system of human gods. The 
first and eldest of the gods, we saw, was Allfadir, Odin, 

* The IndladusSiqyeritUionxim and 
the lives of mediseval missionaries 
afford an insight into the various 
kinds of Teutonic sorcery. We find 
sortiUgi, diviners by lot ; incantatoreSf 
eDcbanters ; somnium conjectoren, in- 
terpreters of dreams ; cochUaini^ di- 
viners by the offering-cup ; haru«- 
pictSf consulters of entrails ; immis- 
tore* tempt'Htatum, raisers of storms. 
Thorpe, iV. M. p. 34 2 . Boniface writing 
to Cuthbert in 745, informs him that 
by a decree of a recent Council, "Sta- 

tuimus ut singulis annis unusquipque 
episcopus parochiam suam soUicit^ 
circumeat, populum con6rmare, et 
plebeni docere, et investigare, et pro- 
hibere paganas observationes, divinos 
vel 8ortUcgo8t auf/uria, phylacteria, 
incantationes, vel omnes spurcitiaa 
gentilium.*' Ep, Ixiii. ed. Migne. 
Compare also the Appendix to Kem- 
ble's Saxons in England^ Vol. i. 

• Adami Bremensis Ge^a PP. 
Hammahurfj. Migne's Patrologia 
Latina, T. cxLVi. p. 642. 

Tie Mission-Field of the Middle Ages, 21 

or Wotan*. But this Monotheism quickly fades away. 
The Great Father is resolved into his attributes, his 
power is divided amongst a number of inferior divinities, 
sprung from himself, to each of whom he imparts a portion 
of his greatness. Hence the twelve jEsir, and the twelve 
Asyniar. And as in the Hindti mythology Brahm is 
almost forgotten before Vishntt, or the more terrible Siva 
and Kali, so Odin shares the worship of his votaries with 
Thor*, the Thunderer, the " chief of the gods in strength 
and might;" with T^r*, the Teutonic Mars, the "bravest 
of all the gods, the giver of victory, and god of battle;" 
with Freyr*, the god of fertility, of seed-time and harvest. 



* Woden, Norse Odinn^ old German 
Wmoian (whence Wodnes-dsg, Odins- 
dagr, Wednesday) ; to him &e ruyal 
families of ail the Teutonic races trac- 
ed their lineage, and he is identified 
hy Tacitus {Gtrm. c. 9), though for 
what reason is not quite clear, with 
Mercury. *' Woden sane, quem ad- 
jecta litera Gwodan dixerunt, ipse 
est, qui ^ud Romanes Mercurius 
dicitur, et ab univerais gentibus ut 
deas adoratur.*' Pauli Diac. i. 9. 
"Woden, id est, Fortior^ bella regit 
hominumque minis trat virtu tern con- 
tra inimicos.*' Adami Bremensis 
Gtata PP. Hammaburg^ iv. 16. On 
his worship among the Suevi on the 
Lake of Constance, see Jonse Vita 
S, Columbani, 11. a6. Kemble, 
SaxonSj i. 343, remarks, ''So com- 
mon in every part of England are 
names of places compounded with 
bis name, that we must admit his 
worship to have been current through- 
oat the island." 

* Thor=Donar, "qui pnesidet in 
aere, qui tonitus et fulmina, ventos 
nnbresque serena et fruges guber- 
nai.'* Adam Bremensis, Gesta PP. 
JIammaburg, iv. 26. The prevalence 
of the worship of this deity (after 
whom ooroes Dunres-ds^, Thunres- 
dsg, dies Jovis) is attested by the 
Low German formula of renuncia- 
tuMiy "£c forsacho allum diaboles 

uuercum and uuordum tkunaer ende 
uuoden esndeSaxnote ende allem them 
umholdum the hira genotas sint." 
Thoipe, N. Myth. i. i^on. 

• Tyr = Tiu (whence Tivfes-dteg 
Tuesday) = Ziu = Jfars, the 'Afni^^po- 
roKoiybit fiiaupiyos, of Homer, wor- 
shipped chiefly amongst the Hermun- 
duri, Tencteri, Suevi, and Scandina- 
vians. See Grimm, i). if. 180, 181. 
Of his worship Jornandes says, "Mar- 
tem semper asperrima placavere cul- 
tura ; nam victimsB ejus mortes iuere 
captivorum, opinantes beUorum pr«- 
sulem aptius huraani sanguinis etfu- 
sione placatum." HUt. Goth. cap. v. 
Kemble {Saxons^ I. 353) traces the 
presence of this deity in Eresburg in 
Saxon Westphalia, = Mons Martis, 
now Mersbei^, the hill of £r, Ziu, 
or Mars. 

* Frejnr = Fred = Old German FrOf 
one of the chief gods of the Swedes, 
the seat of whose worship was at Up- 
sala. *'Fricco pacem voluptatem- 
que largiens mortalibus ctyus etiam 
simulacrum fingunt cum ingenti pri- 
apo." AdamBrem. lY. 76. ^'Si nup- 
tisecelebrande suntsacrificia ofiferunt 
Fricconi." iv. 27. Thor^^ aN.Myth. 
2y n. He enjoyed an extensive wor- 
ship in all parts of Europe. His sa- 
cred animal was the boar. On the 
connection of his worship with the 
needfire so often forbidden by the 

22 Miastonary Hiatory of the Middle Ages. 



of marriage and froltfalness ; with Baldr^ fairest of all 
his sons, and wisest of the jEsit, ''the restorer of peace, 
the maker up of quarrels ;" while Frigga*, Odin's wife, 
presides over the sweet spring-time, and the rising seed, 
with her attendants Fulla, plenty, Hlin, warmth, and 
Gna, the sweet and gentle breeze. The ^sir and the 
Asyniar are the blithe, beneficent powers, but the Teuton 
could not look out upon the natural world, without tracing 
in its contradictory phenomena, the operation of other dark 
and sinister powers, who had brought about a convulsion 
in high places, and with whose machinations the human 
race has become entangled. Hence the belief in monstrous 
fiends and giants, cruel and inexorable. Chief of all these 
was Loki, whom in language strongly recalling Eastern 
traditions, the Teuton called the "calumniator and backbiter 
of the gods," the " grand contriver of deceit and fraud." 
In his form he is fairer than any of human mould, but his 
mind is evil ; his nature feeble ; " he cheateth in all things, 
and in the arts of perfidy and craft he hath no equal." 
Once the friend and associate of the -^sir, united with 
them in sacred brotherhood, he fell like Lucifer, and 
ten-ible is his three-fold ofi*spring, the first, Fenris-wolf, 
the second, Midgard's-worm, the third, a daughter, Hel, the 

Christian minsionaries, and the ex- 
istence of his worship even in the 
1 3th century, see Kemble, I. 359. 

^ Baldr = Baldseg, the Phcebus 
Apollo of Scandinavia, with whom 
Grimm identifies Phol, and of whose 
worship under the name of Pol or 
Pal Kemble discovers some obscure 
traces in Polebrooke in Northamp- 
tonshire, Polesworth in Warwick- 
shire, Polstead in Surrey, and other 
pUces. ** Baldr*s lay," he observes, 
*'niay not have been entirely with- 
out influence upon the progress of 
Christianity among the Saxons, if, 
as is probable, it resembled in its 
main features the legend of the Scan- 

dinavians." Saxons in England^ I. 
367. See also Thorpe^s Northern 
Mythology f i. 13 n. 

* See Thorpe's Northern Mytho- 
logy, I. 167. Other goddesses men- 
tioned by Bede {Rerum Nat. XV.) are 
HredCy in whom Kemble would trace 
in some form or other Frigga, Wo- 
den's wife, and £ostre or JSattre, a 
bright goddess of light and of the 
newly awakened year. Scutons, 1.375. 
"That she was deeply impressed upon 
the mind and feelings of the people 
follows from her name having been 
retained in the great festival of the 
Church." SeeTumer'a Anglo-Saxons, 
I. 318. 

The Mia&ion^Fteld of the Middle Ages. 


goddess of deatb. These are the enemies of the ^sir, the chap. i. 
authors of disquiet and strife*. So long, indeed, as the 
^sir had Baldr amongst them, thej were safe in Asgard, 
nor could sin and wickedness prevail on earth. But on a 
sudden, Baldr the Beautiful began to be haunted with boMt. 
terrible dreams that his life was in peril. In visions and 
soothsaying it was darkly hinted that some great trouble 
was in store for the gods from the giant-brood of Loki, 
who never ceased to work evil among the ^sir. 

In alarm, Frigga, the mother of gods and men, bound 
with an oath all created nature, that the pride of the 
.£sir, the darling of the Asjniar, should take no harm of 
" fire and water, of iron and all kinds of ore, of stones, 
trees, sicknesses, beasts, birds and serpents." And all 
created nature took the oath, except one thing only, a 
sprig of mistletoe, then thought too young to enter into so 
solemn a compact. And Baldr, believing he was invul- 
nerable, offered himself as a mark for the spears and maces 
of his fellow-gods. In vain was each shaft aimed against 
his beauteous form ; axe and mace and spear glanced off 
harmlessly from him whom all nature had sworn to save. 

But the malignant crafty Loki bore him ill-will. " So 
lie took on him a woman's likeness," says the Edda^ 
"and went to Frigga. And as they talked together, 
Frigga asked her visitor if she knew what the gods dii 
at their meetings. The woman said she heard they all 
shot at Baldr, and that he was unscathed." " Yes," says 
Frigga, "no weapon nor tree may hurt Baldr, I have 
taken an oath of them all." 

J "With the entrance of Loki 
into the Scandinavian mythology, 
the milder natural religion of the 
Teutons took a more warlike and 
savage character, instead of ruling 
the world in peace, the father of gods 
and men becomes a god of battles. 

Valfadir. To this period too must 
be ascribed the cooception of Odin's 
preparing his feast in Valhalla." Da* 
Rent's Norsemen in Icelcmd, p. 191. 
Compare Mallet's Northern Antiqui- 
tieSf p. 90, and Prou Edda, p. 446. 

24 Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. I. "What! havB all things swom to spare Baldr?" asks 

the woman. ** Well," replied the goddess, " eastward of 

Valhalla, grows a tree-twig, called mistletoe, that we 
thought too young to crave an oath of\" Thereupon the 
traitor took the mistletoe, and at the meeting of the gods 
placed it in the hands of the sightless Hodr, and the 
shaft pierced Baldr through, so that he fell down dead. 

Deep and sore was the affliction of the gods, when the 
darling of heaven yielded to death. But not without some 
attempt to ransom him was he to descend to the abode 
of Hel. Odin himself, on the high-stepping Sleipnir, 
went down to the infernal palace, if haply he might per- 
suade the awful goddess to restore his son. And from 
Hel's palace he returned with the glad tidings that Baldr 
might be restored to the world above, if all nature that 
had swom to preserve him would now lament his death. 
And all nature wept, and it seemed that he would return, 
but as the messengers came back from Ilel, they came 
upon an old hag seated in a cave. Her name was Thauck, 
and when she was asked to weep for Baldr, she ex- 

"Thauck will bewail 

With dry tears 

Baldr^s baleful fire. 

Nor quick nor dead gain 

By man*8 son, 

Let Hel hold her own." 

So spake the crone, whose form men guess the hateful 
Loki had assumed, and Baldr's fate was sealed. Odin 
could not conquer Death. Around the pile in his good 
ship Ringhom, whereupon was laid the fairest of the 
^sir side by side with his beautiful Nanna, whom no- 
thing could induce to survive her lord, gathered the gods 

* Prose Edda^ 'M.i^ei^n Northern ArUiq^. p. 446. Dasent's Nonemen in 
Iceland, p. 195. 

I%e Mtasum^Field ofihe Middle Ages. 25 

and goddesses, and wept that for Baldr there was no chap. i. 
resurrection ; that in the dark realm of Hel, in the cold 
kingdom of the dead, the beauteous god of light must lie 
for ever*. 

And yet not for ever, for with the universal protest /?Mftir«ite»torrt- 
against a religion of despair, it was whispered by those 
that knew the Fates that Baldr would yet arise, not now 
indeed, but in the after time, when the twilight of the 
gods was passed. Then after awful prodigies, after the 
crash of an old and wicked world, in glory and joy 
shall he return; and over the new earth, purified from 
sin and sorrow, the god of innocence and purity shall 
reign, and there the good shall dwell, and happiness en- 
joy for evermore*. 

Such, roughly and briefly, were the outlines of the 
Teutonic creed, and it was suited to the race. As in pro- 
cess of time war followed war, and the Saxon first, and 
the Northman after him was fain to leave his country, 
and conquer new kingdoms, his creed would become 
more warlike. Allfadir would become Valfadir, the "ffod Thecreea 
of war,' the "terrible and severe god, the "father of'*'*^^ 
slaughter," who welcomed the warrior in Valhalla. But 
everywhere and at all times it was a creed to which the 
Teuton clung, and for which he died, " for it was but the 
transfiguration of the natural man, with all his virtues 
and vices, with all his feelings, and passions, and natural 
affections'." And hence, too, the free and easy way in 
which the Teuton regarded his gods. If he honoured 
them aright, and oflTered the due sacrifices, he claimed his 
reward ; but if he considered himself unfairly treated, as 

^ For the beautiful and analogous i. 411. Thorpe's Northern Mytho- 

legend of ''Maui the Young/' the logy^ I. 77, 78. Baldr's death was 

Prometheus of the Southern Seas, supposed to have been avenged by 

•ee Hard wick's Christ and other Mm- Odin's son Vali, who slew Hodr. 
tertf lu. 203. " Dasent's Burnt Njaly i. xvii. 

' See Kemble*8 Saxons in England j 

26 Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 



we shall see, once and again^ he openly reproved them, 
forsook their worship, and destroyed their temples. For 
though it may be true that in early times the Teuton had 
no temples, that the deity whom no inclosure could con- 
tain, or mortal form represent, received the adoration of 
his worshippers in the obscurity of the wood, or on the 
lonely moimtain-top; yet it is certain that with the intro- 
duction of an elaborate form of polytheism there gradu- 
ally grew up a more elaborate form of external worship. 
The transition from the sacred oak, or the mysterious 
grove, to the hill altar and the cairn was easy ; as easy, 
the transition thence to the temple of wood, with its nave 
and shrine, its holy and most holy place*. In the Norse 
temples, formed doubtless on a plan common in earlier 
times, the images of the gods stood on a platform in the 
shrine'. In front of them was the altar, on which burnt 
the holy fire. On it, too, was laid the great ring, which, 
stained with the sacred blood, was placed in the hand of 
such as were about to take any solemn oath. Hard by, 
also, was the brazen vessel in which the blood of the 
slaughtered victims was caught, and the brush or twig 
wherewith the worshippers were sprinkled. The latter 
stood opposite the platform of the gods, behind a partition 
wall, over which, in the outer court, they beheld the 
ceremonies*. The temple of Upsal, the Teutonic Delphi, 
was in circumference not less than nine hundred ells, 
and glittering on all sides with gold"; in it Odin was re- 

^ See the speecli of Coifi at God- 
mundingham, and other instances in 
the account of the MiflsionB in Scan- 

* Burnt Njal, I. xxxvii. 

' The fact that the temples were 
of wood, and probably, at least in 
great part, the idols also, accounts 
for the fact that we have no single 
extant example of a Teutonic idol. 
HeQ Archaoloffia, Vol. zxxv. p. 379. 

* See Metcalfe's Oxonian in Ice- 
land, p. 164. 

• "in hoc templo [scil. Ubsola] 
quod totum ex auro paratum est, 
statuas trium deorum veneratur po- 
pulus, ita ut potentiasimus eorum 
Thor in medio solium habeat tricli- 
nio; hinc et inde locum possident 
Woden et Fricco." Adam Brem. iv. 
26. Mallet, 109. 

The Missicn^Field of the Middle Ages. 27 

presented with a sword in his hand, while on his left chap. t. 
stood Thor with the insignia of a crown, a sceptre, and a 
hammer, and on his right Frejja, an hermaphrodite, with 
many emblems characteristic of productiveness. Near Eres- '^'rmin- 
burg, on the DrimeP, stood, till the times of Charlemagne, 
the celebrated Saxon idol, called the Irmin-Saule. On a 
high stone column rose the figure of a gigantic warrior, 
girt with a sword, holding in his right hand a banner, on 
which was painted a bright red rose, in his left a balance : 
the crest of the warrior's helmet was a cock, on the breast 
was figured a bear, on the shield was the representation of 
a lion in a field full of flowers. The image itself was 
eleven feet in height, and of a light red colour ; its base * 
was of rude stone, surrounded with belts of orichalcum, 
of which the upper and lower were gilt. It was the largest 
idol of all Saxony, and pictures of it were suspended in 
other temples; its priests were in high repute; it could 
aid the warrior in the din of battle, who oftentimes rode 
round it and murmured to it his prayers for aid ; and some- 
times it was borne into the field, and, when the conflict 
was over, all the prisoners, and all who bad disgraced 
themselves by cowardice were immolated at its foot*. 

The offerings presented in these temples consisted oi The sacrifices. 
all living things, sheep, oxen, swine, and especially horses. 
The latter sacrifice was particularly characteristic of the 
Germanic races'. The victims having been slaughtered 

' See Meibomius de Irminruld. 
'* Imago statuse erat vir terribilis, et 
gUulio accinctus : in gale& atabat gal- 
lu8 loco ooni : in thorace expressus 
niBUfl ; in clypeo leo. Manu dextrft 
ferebat vexQlum, cum insigni roam 
mbeae ; in sinistra lancemsequilibrem, 
qu«e item in clypeo spectabatur." 
Adam Brem. i. 6. Grimm's D. M. 
8 1, 208. Latham's Tac. Germ. p. 48. 
Akerman, in hu Pajrjan Saxondomf 
(p. zzi.) says the Irminstil was wor- 

shipped under the joint attributes of 
Woden, Mara, and Mercury. "The 
Irminstil, a mysterious symbol, in 
which might be seen the image of 
the world or of one's country, or of 
a god or of a hero." Michelet, I. 

' See Turner's Anglo-Saxons, I. 

p. 224. 

• See DaaenVB Burnt NJal, i. xxxix. 

Metcalfe's Oxonian in Iceland, p. 164. 

Mallet's iVortAem AntiquUieSy p. 109. 

28 Misaumary History of the Middle Ages. 


Human viclinu. 

before the images of the gods, the heads were by pre- 
ference offered to them, and with the hides were fixed or 
hung on trees in the sacred groves \ The blood was 
caught in the blood-bowl and sprinkled with the blood- 
twig on the altar, the images, and the people, while the 
fat was used for anointing the images, which were then 
rubbed dry. The flesh was boiled down in caldrons, over 
fires placed along the whole length of the nave. Round 
these the worshippers took their seats, and ate the flesh, 
and partook of the broth, while the chief, to whom the 
temple belonged, blessed the cups of mead or beer in 
honour of Odin, Freyr, Thor, Freyja, and last, of departed 
friends. Then the rest in order took the cup, and each 
made his vow or offered his prayer, and so the feast went 
on, terminating too often in riot and drunkenness. Such 
were the usual sacrifices. But human victims were also 
offered on great occasions, particularly slaves, criminals, 
and captives'. This custom was common to all the Ger- 
manic races, and answered to our public executions. But 
at Upsal, the ninth month of each year, and every ninth 
year appear to have been specially set apart for these 
mournful ceremonies'; and on such occasions the presence 

Snorro, I. 3^7. The horsefleah 
branded by the Christian mission- 
aries was the flesh of the sacred 
horses offered before the heathen al- 
tars, at the great feasts in honour of 
the gods. 

* Thorpe's Northern ArUiq. I. 265. 
The discovery of bones, but especi- 
ally the teeth of ruminants, in our 
pagan Saxon burial grounds may be 
accounted for by the practice (for- 
bidden by Christian missionaries, see 
£p. Bonif. Lxxi.) of placing the heads 
of animals slain in sacrifice on poles 
or stakes near the graves of the dead. 
"Thus exposed to the effect of wnd 
and weather, the teeth would be- 
come detached and strewn upon the 
jrround, aud as successive interments 

took place, would be mingled with 
the earth which filled the graves." 
Akerman's Pagan Saxondom, p. xvii. 
Archccologia^ xxxv. p. 379. 

• Bartholini Antiq. Danicce^ 388 — 
396. Thorpe's N, Myth. I. ^64. La- 
tham*8 Taciti Germ. p. 49. Milman, 
I. 260. There is distinct evidence of 
the practice of human sacrifice among 
the Goths, Frisians, Heruli, Thuria- 
gians, Swedes, and Danes. 

' "Reges et populi, omnes et Bin- 
guli sua dona transmittunt ad Ubso- 
1am... Ex omni animante, quod mas- 
culinum est, novem capita otferuntur, 
quorum sanguine decs placarc mon 
est. Corpora autem suspenduntur 
in luco, qui proximus est templo... 
Ibi canes et equi pendent cum homi- 

The Mission^Field of ilie Middle Ages, 


of the king, together with that of all citizens of importance, chap. t. 
was deemed absolutelj essential. Human victims appear 
to have served often as sacrifices of atonement, being 
offered either to the malign deities, or as propitiatory 
sacrifices to the dead in the nether world \ In seasons of 
more than ordinary calamity, the king himself might be 
required to lay down his life. Thus, on occasion of a great 
dearth, the first king of Vermaland, in Sweden, was burnt 
in honour of Odin ; the jarl Hakon offered up his son to 
procure the victory in the great sea-fight with the Joms- 
burg pirates; and Aun, another king of Sweden, immo- 
lated, at the shrine of Odin, nine of his sons, in order that 
his own life might be prolonged*. 

3. But it is now time to glance at that third group of ««. Thesia»e. 
nations, the Slavonic, which, as we have remarked, has 
an especial interest for us, inasmuch as the conversion 
of these races was to the Church of Constantinople, what 
the conversion of the Teutonic family was to the Church 
of Rome. Though they became known to Western Eu- 
rope and the Byzantine writers only in the sixth century, 
they were not imknown to the Greek father of history. He 
has told us of the Callipidae and Alazones, and other 
Scythic tribes which have been identified with the Slavo- 
nians, and Pliny and Tacitus have mentioned them under 
the names of Venedi, Serbi, and Stavani. Without pausing, 
however, to investigate their origin and parentage, we may 
observe that gradually they became known to Western 

nibus, quorum corpora mixtim sus- 
pensa narravit mihi aliquis Christia- 
norum 72 vidisse.'' Adami Bremen- 
sis Gtt^a PP. J/ammaburg, iv. 26. 

1 Dithmar, bishop of Mersebiu^, 
writiug in the nth century, says, 
"There is in 2^land a place which 
is the capital of Denmark, named 
Lederun ( = Lethra). At this place, 
every nine years, in the month of 
January, the Danes flock together 

in crowds, and offer to their gods 
ninety-nine men, as many horses, 
dogs, and cocks, with the certain 
hope of appeasing the gods by these 
victims.'* Mallet, p. 114. 

* Compare Tac. Germ. c. 39. 
"Deorum maxime Mercuriimi co- 
lunt, cui certis diebus humanis quo- 
que hostiis litare fas habent." Yng- 
ling, Sag. 29. Mallet's Northern 
AfUiquitiety p. 112. 

30 Missionary Sistory of the Middle Ages* 

CHAP. I. Europe after the Teutonic races had settled down in the 
Southern and Western prorinces of the Eoman Empire. 
jeftjSiSlZr"*'^ They established themselves as a peaceful nomad race on 
the lands which previous immigrations left unoccupied, till at 
length they gave their name to that part of Europe which 
extends from the Elbe to the Don, and from the Baltic 
to the Adriatic Sea. On a map of Europe in the begin- 
ning of the sixth century, they are represented forming 
three principal branches or aggregates of tribes \ Towards 
the East, resting on the Euxine, and extending from the 
Dniester to the Dnieper and the Don, are the Antes, the 
progenitors of the great Russian people. The Western 
branch consisting of the Venedi, or Wends, rests upon 
the Baltic, and in process of time builds along its shores 
Lubeck, and Julin, and other seaport towns. Between the 
two intervene the Slavenes, a nomad race, blending some- 
times with the Eastern, sometimes with the Western 
branch. At a later period their settlements embraced on 
the North of the Carpathian mountains Pomerania and 
Brandenburg, Saxony and Silesia, Bohemia and Moravia, 
Poland and Russia; while on the South of the same 
range, they settled in Moldavia and Wallachia, and gradu- 
ally formed the kingdoms of Slavonia and Bosnia, Servia 
and Dalmatia, throwing offshoots even into Illyria and 
Carinthia*. Their first coming, we have said, was peace- 
ful. They occupied quietly such lands as their Teutonic 
brethren left them, and thence pushed forward. Eastward, 
and Southward, and Westward, building trading cities 
like KiofF and Novgorod and Arcona in Rugen, sinking 
mines in Germany, smelting and casting metals, preparing 
salt and planting fruit-trees, leading a quiet and contented 
life. Early writers uniformly speak of them in favourable 

1 For their diatribution in the linger, m. ai, GiW)on, v. 167 n. 
times of Adam of Bi-emen, see his "See Kmainski's Lectures on Sla- 

Hist. Ecclci, n. 18. See also Ddl- vonia, p. 4. 

The Miawm^FUld of the Middle Ages. 31 

terms. Frocopius describes them as free from malice and chap. t. 
fraud, generous and hospitable. Adam of Bremen* ex- 
tols their kindness and hospitality, and we shall find the 
biographer of an eminent missionaiy Bishop not only 
praising the same virtues in the Slavonians of Pomerania, ^S^J^" 
but stating that their objections to Christianity were based 
on the rapacity and immorality of its professors*. But they 
became at an early period the victims of unparalleled 
oppressions, and the consequences were discernible in 
their national character*. Under the iron heel of the 
Germans on the North, the Turks on the South, and 
afterwards the Mongols on the East, their veracity and 
good £Edth were exchanged for duplicity and cunning. As 
they were first seen by Western Europe, they displayed 
all the simple and well-known characteristics of the pas- 
toral tribe. Living in huts of rough timber in the 
depth of forests, or along the banks of rivers, tending 
their numerous flocks of sheep and cattle, or sowing the 
millet which they ate mingled with mares' milk, defending 
themselves in time of war almost naked with nothing but 
a shield for a weapon of defence, and for ofience, a bow 

^ Hi*t. Ecdet, n. \i, "Onmes 
adhuc paganicifl ritibua oberrant, ce- 
temm moribus et hospitalitate nulla 
gena honestior aat benignior poterit 
inyeniri." See also Helmold, Chron, 
Slavorumy cap. ii, 

* Vita Ottomty II. 40, Pertz, xn. 
800. Boniface, writing to Ethelbald 
{Ep. LXii. ed. Migne) in the year 745, 
■aya, '' Winedi, quod est fcedissimum 
et detenimum genus hominum, tarn 
magno zelo matrimonii amorem mu- 
taum servat, ut mulier, viro proprio 
mortuo, vivere recuset, et laudabilis 
mnlier inter illas esse judicatur, que 
pit^jria manu sibi mortem intulit, ut 
m QOA strue pariter ardeat cum viro 
sao.** Speaking of the Pomeranians 
the biographer of Otho sajrs, ''Tanta 
▼ero est fides et societas inter eos, ut 
furtorum et fraudum penitua inex- 

pert!, cistas aut scrinia seratas non 
habeant. Nam seram vel clavem ibi 
non vidimus, sed ipai admodum mi- 
rati sunt, quod cUtellas nostras et 
scrinia serata viderunt. Vestes suas, 
pecuniam et omnia preciosa sua in 
cuppis et soliis suis simpliciter co- 
opertis recondunt, fraudem nullam 
metuentes, utpote inexperti." John 
de Piano Carpini mentions exactly 
the same thing of the Tartars, Hak- 
luyt's Voyage*, I. 55. 

' "The wild but plaintive spirit 
of the hereditary bondman yet lives 
in bis national music, as it breaks 
upon the ear, in the low, melancho- 
ly wail of the wind-instruments 
from the bands of Croat and 8cla- 
vonian r^ments on the Glacis of 
Vienna.'* Sheppard's NcUioncUUies, 
p. 147. 

32 Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

^^^^' I- and a quiver of poisonous arrows*, or the lasso, they 
presented a ready object for oppression, and seemed to 
court it by their pastoral simplicity and inexperience. 
And centuries of oppression did their usual work. They 
became demoralized and debased ; submissive in adversity, 
they were tyrants in their hour of power, and obtained 
notoriety for cruelties practised only amongst the most 
savage nations. 
j[[^^«*«wifc Their religious system was of a much simpler cha- 

racter than that of the Teuton. " The Slavonians," says 
Procopius, " worship one god, the maker of the thunder, 
whom they hold to be the only Lord of the universe, and 
to whom they offer cattle and different kinds of victims. 
They do not believe in fate, or that it has any power over 
mortals. Whenever they are in danger of death, either 
from illness or from the enemy, they make vows to God 
to offer sacrifices if they should be saved. When the 
peril is over, they fulfil their vows, and believe that it 
was this which saved them. They also worship rivers, 
nymphs, and some other deities, to whom they offer sacri- 
fices, making divinations at the same time*." This de- 
scription is applicable generally to the Slavonic tribes we 
shall notice in our record of missionary zeal. The " Lord 
of Thunder" appears under the name of Peroun at Kioff 
and Novgorod, and in Moravia his idol was of wood, with 
a head of silver. Triple and many-headed divinities, as 
Triglav and Eadegast' the god of war, were peculiar to this 
group of nations, and as their system was dualistic, they 
had not only their good, but evil powers, their white and 

^ Gibbon, v. 170, ed. Smith. num constnictura est demonibus, 
' ProcopiuB de bello Gothico, m. quorum princeps est Redigas. Si- 
Krasinski, p. 14. mulacrum ejus auro, lectus ostro pa- 
* " Medii ot potentissimi omnium ratue." Adam Brcm. 11. 18. Tliiet- 
(Slavorum)8unt Retharii, civitas eo- mar, Chroniconf vi. 17. Herbordi, 
rum vulgatiseima Rethro (juxta vil- Vita S. Ottonis, 11. 29. Saxo Gram- 
lam Priilicitz prope Neu-Strelitz) se- maticus, Hist. J)anic(e, cap. xiv. 
des idolatriee. Templum ibi xuag- 

The MiaatonrFidd of the Middle Ages. 



black divinities, Belbog and Zernabog^ The most famous chap, l 
idol, at least of the Baltic Slavonians, was Sviantovit, or 
Swantevits. His fane was at Arcona, the capital of the Tmpuca, 
island of Bugen, and was not destroyed till the year 1168. 
A Danish historian', who may have been present at its 
destruction, informs us that the temple which was of wood, 
beautifully constructed, rose &om a level spot in the 
middle of the town'. It had two enclosures. The outer 
consisted of a wall with a roof painted red; the interior 
was hung with tapestry, and ornamented with paintings. 
The idol which stood in the sanctuary was of a gigantic image ^r 
size, with four heads, as many necks, two chests, and 
two backs, one turned to the right and another to the 
left. In his right hand he held a horn, made of various 
metals, which was once a year filled with mead by the 
attendant priest. His left arm was bent on his side in the 
form of a bow. He was arrayed in a long flowing robe 
reaching down to the feet. Around him were placed his 
bridle, and sword of a very large size with its beautiful 
silver hilt and scabbard. The worship of the idol was 
defrayed by an annual tax, payable by every inhabitant 
of the island, by a third of the spoils taken in war, and 
the numerous votive offerings sent to the temple by Sla- 
vonic and neighbouring chiefs. A regiment of three hun- 
dred chosen cavalry was especially dedicated to Sviantovit ; 

* See Dollinger, nr. ai. Blum- 
hardt, EUM. du Chrittianitmt, iv. 6. 

* Saxo Grammaticus, Jiisioria Da- 
micoff Lib. xiv. At Rugen were aUo 
tbe images of Porenut, the god of 
the ■eaaons, with four faces and a 
fifth on his breast, also of Rhugevit, 
the god of war, with seven faces, and 
seven swords suspended at his side, 
and an eighth in his hand. 

' Ibid. p. 310. Similarly in the life 
of Otto, bishop of Bamberg, we find 
tbe Slavonic temples at Stettin thus 
*' Erant in civitate Steti- 

taensi cortinag quatuor, sed una ex 
his, quffi principalis erat, mirahili 
cultu et artificio constructa fuit, 
interius et exterius scuipturas ha- 
bens, de parietibus prominentes ima- 
gines hominum et volucrum et besti- 
arum, tarn proprie suis habitudinibus 
expressas, utspirarepu tares ao vivere; 
quodque rarum dizerim, colorum 
ima^num eztrinsecarum nulla tem- 
pestate nivium vel imbrium fuscari 
vel dilui poterant, id agente iadus- 
tria pictorum/' Herbordi Vita Ot- 
tonUf II. 31, Pertz, xii. 794. 


34 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

cn.u». T. 

Hitctrd hcrfa. 

in his name they went forth to fight, and brought bacfc 
the booty which the priest made up into different kinds of 
ornaments for the temple^. The god himself was believed 
to accompany his worshippers to the battle-field on a 
white horse which specially belonged to him. It was a 
sin to pull a hair from his tail or mane, and the priest 
alone might feed or mount him: he also knew when he 
had been forth to battle, for in the morning he was found 
from time to time in his stable reeking with sweat and 
covered with mud*. This horse was especially consulted 
on going forth to war, for it could ^reveal the secrets of 
the future. When the tribe wished to declare war three 
rows of spears were laid down before the temple. Solemn 
prayers were then offered up, and the horse was led forth 
by the priest. If in passing over these spears he lifted 
his right foot first, then the war would be prosperous ; if 
the left, or both together, it was a fatal omen, and the 

* See for a like description of 
the votive offerings in the Slavonic 
temple of Stettin, Ottonis Vita^ II. 
31 : "Crateres etiam aureos vel ar- 
genteos qui bus augurari epulari et 
potare nobiles solebant ac potentes, 
in diebus solempnitatum quasi de 
sanctuario proferendos ibi collocave- 
runt. Coniua etiam graudia tauro- 
rum agrestium decorata et gemmis 
intcxta, potibun apta, et comua 
cantibus apta, mucrones et cultros, 
multainque supellectilem pretiosam, 
raram et visu pulchrani, in omatum 
et honorem deoruin suorum ibi con- 

* Uulorice DaniccBy lab. xiv. The 
drKcription of the sacred horse in the 
temple of Stettin, ivhicb, however, 
was black instead of white, is given 
iu very similar terms in Ottonis Vitaf 

'■ II. 32 : ** Habebant caballum miree 
magnitudinis et pinguem, nigri co- 
loris et acrem valde. Iste toto anni 
tempore vacabat, tantsE^que f uit sanc- 
titatifi, ut nullum diguaretur sesso* 
rem, habuitque unum de quatuor 

sacerdotibus templorum custodem 
diiigentissimum. Quando ergo iti- 
nere terrestri contra hostes aut prse- 
datum ire cogitabant, eventum rei 
hoc modo per ilium solebant pne- 
discere : Hastse 9 disponebantur hu- 
mo, spatio unius cubiti ab inviccm 
diHJunctae. Sirato ergo caballo at- 
que frenato, sacerdos, ad queni illius 
pertinebat custodia, tantum freno 
per jacentes hastas in transversum 
ducebat ter atque reducebat. Quod 
si pedibus inotiensis hastisque in- 
disturbatis, equus transibat, signum 
habuere prosperitatis, et securi por- 
gebant; sin autem minus, quiesce- 
bant." See also Thietmar, Chronicon, 
Lib. VI., who describes the same form 
of augury as existing among the 
Leuticians: ''Equus, qui maximun 
inter alios habetur, et ut sacer ab iis 
veneratur, super fixas in terram du- 
orum hastilium inter ue transmisso- 
rum cuspides, supplici obsequio du- 
cunt et prsemissis sortibus, quibus 
id prius exploravere, per hunc quaui 
diviniun, deuuo augurautur." 

The Mission-Field of the Middle Ages. 


3n was given up. The most solemn festival was chap. i. 

Test. On this occasion the people of Rugen as- 

, offered sacrifices of cattle, and held a solemn 

The priest, conspicuous for his long hair and beard, sianmic 

I for the ceremony by sweeping carefully the most 

ce into which he alone might enter. In doing so 

)bliged to hold his breath lest the divine presence 

be defiled, and if he wished to respire he was 

to go out into the open air\ On the morning of 

7al he brought forth to the assembled people the 

lead-cup taken from the idol's hand. If the mead 

reased therein, he announced the fact to the mul- 

md bade them beware of scarcity; if it had in- 

it was an omen of abundance. The old liquor 
1 poured forth as a libation at the foot of the idol, 
priest refilling it, engaged in solemn supplication 
>cople, praying for prosperity and victory in war. 
I emptied the horn at a single draught, and re- 
:, placed it in the right hand of the idol, where 
led till the next year. Round cakes of flour and 
irere then offered, and the priest concluded the 
y by blessing the people in the name of the god, 
g them to frequent sacrifice, and promising them, 
reward, victory by sea and land. The rest of the 

spent in feasting on the remains of the offerings, 
people were taught that, on this occasion, intem- 
was a virtue, sobriety a sin*. 
L is the account given by a contemporary waiter of 

DaniccCy Lib. xiv. : "Ob- 
intra sedem halitum fim- 
lo quoties capessendo vel 
opus habebat, toties ad 
acurrebat, ne videlicet dci 
mortalis Bpiritus contagio 
.** The only genuine mo- 
f Slavonian idolatry which 
down to us were discover- 

ed at PrillwitZf on the banks of the 
lake Tollenz, in Mecklenburg, the 
supposed site of Rbetra ; they were 
dug up about the end of the 17th 
century. Krasinski, p. 16, n. 

^ '* In quo epulo sobrietatem vio- 
lare pium sestimatum est, servare ne* 
fas habitum." UiU. Damcas, xiy. 


36 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. I. this celebrated Slavonic idol ; and it gives us a very vivid 
siwoMc duaium. ^dca of Slavouic worship as it was observed as late even 
as the middle of the twelfth century*. The characteristics 
of Slavonic heathenism are plain. It was marked, on the 
one hand, by the worship of the gladdening, fructifying 
powers of nature, and, on the other, by the deprecation of 
dark and sinister powers, who manifest their malignant 
arts by creating discord, sickness, and death. The first 
were symbolized by Lada, the goddess of love and pleasure, . 
Kupala, the god of the fruits of the earth, Koleda, the god 
of festivals, who delighted in offerings of the fruits of the 
earth and in songs and dances round lighted fires'. Of the 
others, the chief was Zemabog, the Black Deity, whose 
name recalls the Matchi Manito of the Mexicans, and who« 
like the latter, was approached with fear and horror, and 
propitiated with human sacrifices and darker rites. The 
belief in fairies and sprites, in water-nymphs and wood- 
nymphs, in sorcery and magic, was as active amongst 
the Slavonians as amongst their Teutonic brethren, while 
the respect paid by them to their priests, who united civil 
and religious functions, was as submissive as tliat of the 
Celt to his Druid teacher. 

With this sketch of the religious systems of the three 
great groups of nations now presented to the energies of 
the Christian Church, we pass on to describe the lives and 
labours of tliose who now appeared to communicate to 
them the Word of Life. 

^ The Sclavonic population of the 
countries on the Baltic, Prussia, 
Courland, Livonia, Esthland, and Li- 
thuania, and the mixed Lettic and 
Sclavonic |x>puIation of Prussia, con- 
tinued pagan till the [3th century. 
** The Lettic tribes added a god in 
the form of a bird ; they had their 
sacred trees and groves, offered hu- 
man sacrifices, and were, like the 
Finlauders, skilled in the arts of ma- 

gic and sorcery." Dollinger, nr. 278. 
' Ilistorias DanicxB, Lib. xrv. As 
in other countries, so in Poland and 
Russia, on the eve of St John the 
Baptist (June a 3) youths dance round 
lighted fires in honour of ^ John Ku- 
pala ; the festival of Koleda is repeat- 
ed in that of Christmas, and Christmas 
is even called Koleda in some parts 
of the same countries. See Krasinski, 
p. 15. Bankers Scrvia, Introd. 




A.D. 340—508. 

Ka2 oihe al iv T€pfic»lcus Upvfihcu, iKK\rfffieu SXKus ireirtaTe^Kaffi ^ efXXfayt 
vo^adtd^oufv, oih€ i¥ reus 'IprjplcuSy oUrt ip KeXroTt. — Ibenaus. 

When we proceed to enquire in what way a knowledge of chap. ir. 
Christianity was diffused among the nations which thus scanivrecord$nf 
established themselves on the ruins of the Roman Empire, ^thTSi^^ 
we find, at least at the outset, that ecclesiastical history mUws. 
can give us but scanty information. " We know as little 
in detail," remarks Schlegel, " of the circumstances under 
which Christianity became so universally spread in a short 
space of time among all the Gothic nations, as of the 
establishment, step by step, of their great kingdom on the 
Black Sea\" The rapid and universal diffusion, indeed, 
of the new faith, is a proof of their capacity for civilization, 
and of the national connection of the whole race ; but where 
shall we find the details of their conversion ? We have 
not a record', not even a legend, of the way in which 
the Visigoths in France, the Ostrogoths in Pannonia, the 
Suevians in Spain, the Gepidoe, the Vandals, the followers 

1 F. 8chlegel*8 Ledures on M(h of CbriRtianity in €rennany, see Fa- 

dem ffutory, p. 5 1 . bricii, Salut. Lux Evangdii, pp. 4 1 7— 

* MOman's Latin Christianity^ i. 419. Wiltech'A Geography qjf tht 

169. Smith's Gibbon, it. 324. Dol- Churchy I. 109. Eng. Trajisl. 
HogcTj II. 7a. On the early traces 

38 The MissioTiary History of the Middle Ages. 


A.D. 325* 

eparts of 

of Odoacer, and the fiery Lombards, were converted 
to the Christian faith. We may trace this, in part, to the 
terrible desolation which at this period . reigned every- 
where, while nation warred against nation, and tribe 
against tribe ; we may trace it, still more, to the fact that 
every one of the tribes above mentioned was converted to 
the Arlan form of Christianity, a sufficient reason in the 
eyes of Catholic historians for ignoring altogether the 
efforts of heretics to spread the knowledge of the faith. 
And till the close of the sixth and the opening of the 
seventh century, we must be content with the slenderest 
details, if we wish to know anything of the early diffusion 
of Christianity on the European continent. 

The record, however, of one early missionary has 
" forced its way into the Catholic histories." In the reigns 
of Valerian and Gallienus, the Goths descending from the 
North and East, began from their new settlements on th^ 
Danube to threaten the safety of the southern provinces 
of the Empire. Establishing themselves in the Ukraine 
and on the shores of the Bosphorus, they spread terror 
throughout Pontus, Bithynia, and Cappadocia. In one of 
these inroads, they carried off from the latter country a 
multitude of captives, some belonging to the clergy, and 
located them in their settlements along the northern bank 
of the Danube. Here the captives did not forget their Chris- 
tian duties towards their heathen masters, nor did the latter 
scorn to receive from them the gentle doctrines of Chris- 
tianity. The work, indeed, went on in silence, but from 
time to time, we have proofs that the seed had not been 
sown in vain. Among the 318 bishops at the Council of 
Nice, the light complexion of the Gothic bishop Theo- 
philus must have attracted notice, as contrasted " with the 
dark hair and tawny hue of almost all the rest\" But 
Theophilus was the predecessor and' teacher of a still 

* Stanley's Lectures on the Eastern C7iurch, p. i lo, 2nd Edition. 

Early Efforts of (he Church amongst the Kew Maces. 39 

greater missionary. Among the involuntary slaves car- crap. tt. 
ried off in the reign of Gallienus were the parents or an- J732s! 
cestors of Ulphilas, who has won for himself the title of 
"Apostle of the Goths." Born, probably, in the year 
318, he was, at a comparatively early age, sent on a 
mission to Constantinople, and there Constantine caused 
him to be consecrated bishop by his own chaplain, Eu- 
sebius of Nicomedia\ From this time he devoted him- 
self heart and soul to the conversion of his countrymen, 
and the Goths were the first of the barbarians, among 
whom we see Christianity advancing general civilization, 
as well as teaching a purer faith". 

But his lot was cast in troublous times : the threatened ad. 348-374. 
irruption of a barbarous horde, and the animosity of the^^'JJe** 
heathen Goths, induced him to cross the Danube, where 
the Emperor Constantine assigned to his flock a district 
of country ; and here he continued to labour with success. 
The influence he had already gained, and the natural 
sense of gratitude for the benefits he had bestowed upon 
the tribes by procuring for them a more peaceful settle- 
ment, rendered his efforts comparatively easy'. Rejoicing 
in the woodlands and pastures of their new home, where 
they could to advantage tend their numerous flocks and 
herds, and purchase corn and wine of the richer provinces 
around them, they listened obediently to the voice of their 
bishop, whom they likened to a second Moses. And the 
conduct of Ulphilas justified their confidence. With sin- 
gular wisdom he did not confine his efforts to the oral 
instruction of his people; he sought to restore to them 
the art of writing, which probably had been lost, during 
their migration from the east to the north of Germany. 
Composing an alphabet of twenty-five letters, some of 

' See 7%e Life of Ulphilas by one ' See Mulleins Lectures on the Sci- 

o( his pnpiK bihop Auxentiua, pub- ence of Language^ p. 173. 
lisbed by WaiU of Kiel, 1840. * Smith's Gibbon, ly. 314. 


40 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. II. which he was fain to invent, in order to give expression 
. 348-374. ^^ sounds Unknown to Greek and Latin pronunciations 
he translated the Scriptures into the native language of 
his flock, omitting only the four books of Kings*, a pre- 
caution he adopted, from a fear that their contents might 
tend to rouse the martial ardour, and fierce spirit of a 
people, who, in this matter, to use the quaint language of 
the historian, "required the bit rather than the spur." 

After a while, he was constrained to act the part of 
mediator between the Visigothic nation and the Roman 
Emperor Valens. In the year A.D. 374 the barbarous 
horde of the Huns burst upon the kingdom of the Ostro- 
goths, and having subdued it, turned their eyes to the 
lands and possessions of the Visigoths. Unable to defend 
the line of the Dniester, the latter fell back upon the 
Pruth, hoping for safety amidst the inaccessible defiles of 
the Carpathian mountains. But sensible that even here 
they were not secure, a considerable party began to long 
for an asylum within the Roman dominions, and it was 
agreed that ambassadors, with Ulphilas amongst their 

AD. 376. number, should repair to the court of Valens, and eiidea- 

courtqfVaUni. vour to obtaiu a new settlement. 

Valens was an Arian and a controversialist. At this 
very time he was enforcing at Antioch, "by other weapons 

1 "Ulphilas," remarks Mtiller, 
*' must have been a man of extraor- 
dinary power to conceive, for the first 
time, the idea of translating the Bible 
into the vulgar language of his peo- 
ple. At his time, there existed in 
Europe but two languages which a 
Christian bishop would have thought 
himself justified in employing, Greek 
and Latin. All other Languages were 
still considered as barbarous. It re- 
quired a prophetic sight, and a faith 
in the destinies of those half -savage 
tribes, and a conviction also of the 
utter effeteness of the Koman and 

Byzantine empires, before a bishop 
could have brought himself to trans- 
late the Bible into the Vulgar dialect 
of his barbarous countrymen." Ler- 
ture^, p. 175. Gibbon, iv. 323, ed. 

s '< For the Old Testament he used 
the Septuagint;^ for the New, tiie 
Greek text ; but not exactly in that 
form in which we have it." MUlIer's 
LecturtSf p. 174. Gieseler, 11. 79. 
On the celebrated Codex Arpen- 
teus see Davidson's Biblical Criti- 
cum, p. 676. Wetatein, ProUgom, i. 

Early Efforts of the Church amongst the New Races. 41 
than those of reason and eloquence," a belief in the Arian ohap. il 

theology; and when the poor bishop presented himself ^.d. 878-388. 
and requested aid in the dire necessity of his people, the 
emperor is reported to have persecuted him with dis- 
cussions on the hypostatic union, and to have pressed upon 
him the necessity of repudiating the confession of Nice, 
and adopting that of Rimini. Ulphilas was in a great 
strait, but being a simple-minded man, and considering the 
question one of words, and involving only metaphysical 
subtleties, not worthy of consideration in comparison with 
the sufferings of his people, he assented to the emperor's 
proposal, and promised that the Grothic nation should 
adopt the Arian confession. The emperor, on his part, 
consented to give up certain lands in Moesia, but annexed 
to this concession two harsh and rigorous conditions ; that 
before they crossed the Danube, the Goths should give up 
their arms, and suffer their children to be taken from them 
as hostages for their own fidelity, with the prospect of 
being educated in the different provinces of Asia\ 

On these hard terms, instructions were issued to the Gothic coum^ 
military governors of the Thracian diocese, bidding them 
make preparations for the reception of the new settlers. 
But it was found no easy matter to transport across a 
river more than a mile in breadth, and swelled by in- 
cessant rains, upwards of a million of both sexes and of 
all ages. For days and nights they passed and repassed 
in boats and canoes, and before they landed, not a few 
had been carried away and drowned by the violence 
of the current. But besides the disciples of Ulphilas, 
thousands of Goths crossed the river who still continued 
&ithful to their own heathen priests and priestesses. 
Disguising, it is even said, their priests in the garb of 
Christian bishops and fictitious ^ascetics, they deceived 

* Smith*8 Gibbon, m. 320. Dollinger, IT. 16. 

42 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. iL the credulous Romans, and only when on the Roman 
A.D. 376-388. side of the river did they throw off the mask, and make 
it clear that Valens was not easily to have his wish 
gratified, and see them converted to Arianism. One of 
the hereditary chiefs, Fritigem, a disciple of Ulphilas, 
adopted the creed of the empire, the other, Athanaric, 
headed the numerous party which still continued devoted 
to the altars and rites of Woden. The latter faction 
placing their chief god on a lofty waggon, dragged it 
through the Gothic camp ; all who refused to bow down, 
they burned with their wives and children ; nor did they 
spare the rude Church they had erected, or the confused 
crowd of women and children who had fled to it for 
protection. But while the great bulk of the Gothic 
nation were involved in constant wars with the Roman 
armies, and under the two great divisions of Ostrogoths 
and Visigoths were gradually spreading tlierasclves over 
Gaul, Italy, and Spain, Ulphilas continued, till the year 
388, to superintend the temporal and spiritual necessities 
of the peaceful and populous colony of shepherds and 
herdsmen, which, as in another Goshen, he had formed on 
the slopes of Mount Ha^mus, and to whom he had pre- 
sented the Gothic Bible in their own tongue*. 

The zeal he had displayed found an imitator in the 

i?. chrjfsoKUm. gi'eat Chrysostom*. What was the measure of his success 

we have no means of judging, but it is certain that he 

A.D. 404. founded in Constantinople an institution in which Goths 

might be trained and qualified to preach the Gospel to their 

fellow-countrymen". Even during the three years of his 

* "The translation of Ulphilas was fiurdpovi^ iral BiaxSwovs, Kal toi>j ri 
used by all the Gothic tribes when ^6?o {nr.aifayiPi»xTKOirras \6yia irpo- 
they advanced into Spain and Italy." pa\\6fi€Pos fiinif ro&roii dvipcipLCP iK- 
— MUller*8 Lectures^ p. 174, ^tXi^^of, «roi 5id ro^tav xoXXoi>j rwy 

* See Guericke^s JbTanuo/ of Eccl, trXavujx^vujp iSi^pevaep. — Theodoret, 
Antiq. p. 91. H. E, v. 30. 

^ '0/ixayX(iTT0Vf 7ip iKelyots Tpta- 

Early, Efforts of the Church amongst the New Races. 43 

banishment to the remote and wretched little town of chap. ii. 
Cucusns, among the ridges of Mount Taurus, amidst the ^.©.404. 
want of provisions, frequent sicknesses without the possi- 
bility of obtaining medicines^ and the ravages of Isaurian 
robbers, his active mind invigorated by misfortunes found 
relief not only in corresponding with Churches in all 
quarters, but in directing missionary operations in Phoe- 
nicia, Persia, and amongst the Goths'. In several extant 
epistles we find him advising the dispatch of missionaries, 
one to this point, another to that, consoling some under 
persecution, animating all by the example of the great 
Apostle St Paul, and the hope of an eternal reward. 
And in answer to his appeals, his friends at a distance 
supplied him with funds so ample, that he was enabled to 
support missions and redeem captives, and even had to 
beg of them that their abundant liberality might be di- 
rected into other channels. IIow far his exertions prevailed 
to win over any portion of the Gothic nation to the 
Catholic communion, we have no means of judging. Cer- 
tain it is that from the Western Goths, the Arian form 
of Christianity extended to the Eastern Goths, to the 
GepidsB, the Alans, the Vandals, and the Suevi'; and, it 
has been justly remarked that we ought not to forget 
"that when Augustine, in his great work on the * city 
of God,' celebrates the charity and clemency of Alaric 
during the sack of Komc, these Christian graces were 
entirely due to the teaching of Oriental missionaries, 
heretics though they were\" 

' S. Cbrysost. Op. xii. Ep. xiv. 
' Opera, VoL Xii. pp. 729, 747, 

748, 749» 750. 799- Gibbon, iv. 
157. Wiltach'a Church Geog. i. 187. 
• "Sic quoqae Visigothi a Va- 
lente Imperatore Ariani potius qaam 
Chrifltiaiii effecti. De csetero tarn 
Oitrogothis, quam Gepidis parenti- 
bus waSok per affcctionis gratiiun evan- 

gelizantes, Imjiu perfidisa Golturam 
edocentes omnem ubique lingii» 
bujuB nationem ad culturam bujus 
sectaB incitavere.!' Jomand. c. xxv. 
Gieseler, ii. 80. DbUinger, ii. 16. 

* Stanley's EatUm Church, p. 291^ 
2nd Edition. See Aug. de Civitate 
Dei, Lib. ill. chap, jg : '' Galli qui* 
dem trucidaverunt senatum, quid- 

44 The Missionary History of the Middle Ayes. 

CHAP. n. 
orly AnchO' 

8. Valentinui, 
A.D. 440. 

But even during the present period of disorder, while 
the different nations were moving forward, to take up their 
position on the ruins of the Roman Empire, instances 
are not wanting, of men who were willing to leave their 
homes, to evangelize the heathen, or reclaim the Arian- 
ised tribes. Scanty, indeed, are the records of their 
labours which have come down to us, but as drops be- 
tokening the coming shower, as the " cloud no bigger than 
a man's hand," which told of " abundance of rain," their 
preparatory efforts must not be passed by. Of a few of 
these, we will first speak, before we recount the circum- 
stances that led to the baptism of Clovis, and the con- 
version of the Franks, events pregnant with the most 
important issues to the ecclesiastical history of Europe, 
and, not least, to the subsequent encouragement and pro- 
tection of missionary labour. 

One of the first of these early labourers, Valentinus*, 
appeared in the year 440, in the neighbourhood of the 
modem Passau, then called Castra Batava, a town or rather 
fort in Vindelicia, at the junction of the Inn and the 
Danube. Eagerly desirous to preach to the pagan inha- 
bitants, but reminded of the words of the Apostle Paul, 
" How shall they preach, unless they be sent," he is said 
to have betaken himself to Rome, and sought from Pope 
Leo authority to commence his labours. Successful in his 
petition, he returned to Passau, and commenced his work, 
but his efforts were ineffectual owing to the opposition of 
the Arians, and the tenacity with which the heathen ad- 
hered to their superstitions. Again, therefore, he repaired 
to Rome, and begged that he might be sent to some other 

quid eiuB in urbe. . .reperire potuerunt 
...Gotbi vero tarn multis senatoribus 
pepercenint, ut magis minim ait 
quod aiiquos peremerunt.** 

^ In 8uriu8, Acta SS. Aug. 4, 
we have a life of this missionary 
based on an ancient reoord of his 

laboun said to have been found, 
about the year iiio, beside his body 
under the church of Passau. It is 
described as written ^'tabulA plum- 
beA, et ut vix posset intelligi...tum 
yetustate, turn terra putrefactione 


Early Efforts of the Church amongst the New Races. 45 

quarter of the mission-field, where he might behold some chap. ii. 
reward for his toil. Leo received him kindly, and urged ^p, 440. 
him to make a final effort, empowering him if again unsuc- 
cessful, to seek some other sphere of labour, and ordaining 
him a regionary Bishop. For the third time he now re- 
paired to Passau, to find himself still unable to make any 
impression. The Arians, with whom he would hold no 
communication whatever, and not even eat or drink*, re- 
sented his interference with cruelty, and he was forced to 
retire to the highlands of the Bha^tian Alps. Here he 
built himself a cell amidst the passes of the Tyrol, and ' 
lived the life of a solitary. His austerities speedily attract- 
ed the notice of the surrounding population, his retreat 
became the resort of numbers, who flocked to hear the word 
of life from his lips, and to receive baptism at his hands. 
With the assistance of a few others whom he had per- 
suaded to adopt an ascetic life, he constructed a Church, 
and devoted himself to prayer and contemplation, to read- 
ing and almsgiving; and while he was reaping the harvest 
denied him among the people of Passau, that neighbour- 
hood was visited by one, whose self-denying labours have 
won for him the title of the " Apostle of Noricum*." 

A curious mystery veils alike the birth-place, and the a.d. 454—482. 
early years of Severinus. None could tell whence he came, ^- scverinus. 
when, soon after the death of Attila, he made his appear- 
ance in the country now known as Bavaria and Austria. 
From his speech it might have been inferred that he was a 
Latin or a North African, but from his own lips nothing 
more could be learnt, than that in a distant province of the 
East, he had once encountered great danger, from which 
the Providence of God had delivered him. But he never 
revealed the particulars of his early life, and men scarcely 

* "Verrotiaa haBreticonim toto municare vellet." Vita S. VoUcn^ 

studio decliuabat, ita ut nee audire tini, 

eo«, nee in cibo, potu, aut quolibet * Vita S. Severini, Acta SS, Bol- 

amicitis oonjunctiooe cum eis com- land. Jan. 8. 

46 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages* 

CHAP. iL dared to ask him. On one occasion, when every one else 
AD 454-482- ^^°g back, a certain presbyter, by name Pirmenius^ had 
the courage to put the question, and to him the saint re- 
plied in a playful strain, "What! do you take me for 
some runaway slave? Provide then a ransom which you 
may pay for me, if I am inquired for." And then he con- 
tinued in a more serious tone, " What advantage can it be 
for a servant of God to specify his country or his descent, 
when, by keeping silence, he can so much better avoid 
all boasting? Notwithstanding be assured that the same 
God who ordained that thou shouldest be a priest, bade 
me come to the assistance of the suffering people of this 
country." On another occasion, however, he went so far as to 
hint, that from a wish for close communion with God and 
the unseen world, he had fled in early life to an Eastern 
desert : but in his retreat, he perpetually seemed to hear 
voices, which bade him show forth his love to Christ in a 
more practical way, and labour for the welfare of the hea- 
then tribes on the distant Danube. 
ifiMmirHaruny Hc had comc, therefore, to the province of Pannonia, 
uoniu. and found the country a scene of the wildest confusion. 

Law and order had fled ; tribe after tribe crowding upon 
one another, passed through the land wasting and destroy- 
ing ; the people afflicted by alternate war and famine, saw 
themselves stripped of their possessions, and sold into 
slavery. In spite of scenes like these the good man did 
not despair; he would comfort the hearts of the afflicted 
people; he would live amongst them a life of absolute 
self-denial ; he would spend and be spent in their behalf ; 
and by his own example hc would teach them how they 
might bear their trials. Accordingly he took up his abodo 
in the neighbourhood of Vienna, and here and near Passau 

^ " Pirmenius quidam, presbyter »ndcr*8 Memoriala of C7iris(ian Life, 
Itoiise, nobilia et totiun auctorita- p. 333. DoUiuger, li. 74. 
lis." Vita S. Severini, Cap. 4. Ne- 

Early Efforts of the Church amongst the New Races. 47 

he built for himself a cell, and shortly afterwards a mo- chap. ii. 
nastery, where he trained a few faithful followers to become A.D.i54— 482. 
preachers in Pannonia and Noricum. 

Nothing daunted his heroic courage. Though a native hu heroic . 
of the East, he contrived to inure himself to every hard- 
ship, so that in time he could travel barefoot in the midst 
of winter! over frozen rivers, in order to collect from the 
different tribes food and clothing for the naked and the 
hungry, or means whereby to ransom those who had been 
sold into slavery. Though merciful to others he never 
spared himself, but consented to submit to the greatest 
hardships, if he could thereby minister to the wants of his 
flock. His fame spread far and wide ; his cell was visited 
by multitudes wh6 regarded him as a prophet and a 
teacher from a higher world. His advice was asked and 
acted upon, without question or doubting. On one occa- 
sion, his exhortation to Christian charity sank so deep 
into the hearts of his hearers, that they made their way 
in the depth of winter, over mountains, and through track- 
less forests, amid snow and ice, to bring clothes and food 
to their poorer bretliren. On another occasion, he received 
from some merchants a quantity of olive oil, then very 
scarce and precious. Assembling his people in Church, 
and returning thanks to God, he there distributed to each 
a due proportion, counselling some, at the same time, to 
fly to the fortified towns for protection, and exhorting all 
to thank God for His great mercies, and amid the con- 
stant and devastating ware which had driven them from 
their homes, to put their full trust and confidence in Him, 
and to believe that He was doing all things well. His 
love was comprehensive. In barbarians, whether ortho- 
dox or Arian, he recognised brethren needing aid, and 

' " Calceamenio oullo penitus in- Sis pedibus semper ambulare con ten • 
dutufl, ita inedi& hyeme, quae in illis tus, singul^ire pationtbs dabat exem- 
regionibuB BSBviore gclu torpt»cit, nu- plum." — Eugippii Fi ta, cap. 2. 

48 The Missionary Hiatory of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. II. drove none away. The Arian chief of the Rugii* sought 
A.i»- 464-482. his advice ; in the spirit of the Apostle of the Gentiles 
he received him, "but not unto doubtful disputations," 
and gave him good counsel in his necessities. All were 
won by the attractive power of his love, by the sincerity 
and devotion of his life. The sick in their afflictions, the 
penitent in their remorse, rough soldiers in times of danger, 
sought his counsel; some he healed, others he advised, 
all he comforted. 
SS-'JS^^ Such was his influence, that barbarian chiefs consented, 
<*^'- at his instance, to spare beleaguered towns, to restore cap- 

tives, and to refrain from cruelty. Even the garrisons of 
Boman fortresses implored his presence among them, be- 
lieving that thus they were protected from harm. On 
one occasion, the king of the fierce Alemanni approached 
the town of Passau, threatening to besiege it In their 
alarm, the inhabitants sought the aid of Severinus, whose 
cell was close by the confluence of the Inn and the Danube. 
He went forth to meet the king, with whom he was not 
altogether unacquainted. The reverence of the latter for 
the man of God was so great, that he not only did not 
dare to attack the town, but abstained from laying waste 
the neighbouring territory, and restored the captives he 
had taken. The courage, moreover, that Severinus exem- 
plified himself, he could inspire in others. The city of 
Vienna was once besieged by a barbarian horde, who 
carried off the flocks and herds of the inhabitants, and 
wasted their lands to the very walls. "Hast thou no 
soldiers t<5 pursue these marauders?" said Severinus to 
the commander of the garrison. " With my small force 

^ ''Bugionimrex...habenBGothos annecteret, ma^ me de vita perpe- 

ez inferiore Pannoniil vebementer tuitatt ddmUtt conmdere; sed quia 

infenfl09...beatis8im\im Severinum in tantum de prcBsenti salute toUicitus, 

Bxna periculis consulebat. Tunc ergo quae nobis est communis, interro* 

a viro Dei hoc responsum pr»dictu8 gas, instniendus ausculta.'* — Eugip- 

accepit: »i noi una CcUholica fides pii Vita, c. 3. 

rUf Efforts of the Church amongst the New Races. 49 

not venture," replied the other, " to attack such a chap. n. 
ititude ; but if thou biddest me go, I will go, trusting ^0.454-483^ 
to conquer, not by force of arms, but by thy prayers." 
"Go forth," said the holy man, **and put thy trust in 
God. Take weapons from the foe, and arm thy troops 
with them. The merciful God goes before thee, and the 
weak shall become strong; but slay not thy captives, 
bring them all to me unharmed." The commander went 
and conquered; the captives were brought to Severinus, 
who caused them to be refreshed with meat and drink, 
and then sent them back to their countrymen with a 
warning not to venture there again for the sake of plun- 
der, as they would assuredly not escape the wrath of God 
who fought for his people- 
No wonder that by a gratefril and admiring people ^'*^««"^*^- 
such a man was regarded as a prophet and a worker of 
miracles. Yet he himself did not seek notoriety: some- 
times he enjoined silence, always he bade his hearers 
ascribe the praise to God, " who doth wonders in heaven 
and on earth, quickening the lost to salvation, and calling 
back the dead to life." No wonder also that the rough 
soldier chiefs attracted by the heroism of his life invoked 
his aid in times of danger, or when undertaking a new 
enterprise. Thus Odoacer, who had led a wandering life 
among the barbarians of Noricum, having made up his 
mind to the desperate adventure of seeking a kingdom in 
Italy, solicited the approbation and blessing of the saint. 
The lowness of his cell would not admit the lofty stature 
of the chief, but Odoacer stooped, and received the encou- 
ragement he desired ^ " Proceed," he was told, " to Italy ; 

1 "Odoacer... viliBsimo tunc ha- 'Yade/ inquit, 'aditaliam, yade^vi- 

bitu, juvenis statura procerus adve- lissitnis nunc pellibus coopertus, sed 

nerat. Qui dum se, ne huinile tec- multia cito plurima largiturus.' " — 

turn cellulse suo vertice contingeret, Vita S. Sevenni, cap. a. Gibbon, IV. 

inclinasset, a viro Dei glorioeum se 199. 
ibre cognovit. Cui etiam valedicenti. 

50 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

cHAP.n. though clothed now with a coarse garment of skins lltou 

▲.DL^M-Hsai ^^^* ®^^° ^^®* ^^ away, and bestow wealth on many." 

In behalf of his people, Severinus never failed to stand 
np and protest against oppression or cruelty threatened 
them by any of the barbaric chiefs. On one occasion, he 
heard that Gisa, queen of the Bugii, had taken some Ro- 
man captives, and had condemned them to cruel slave 
labour. The man of God interposed and petitioned ear- 
nestly for their release. This the queen stoutly refused, 
and bade him keep to his cell and his prayers, and leave 
her to treat her slaves as she pleased. '' I trust in my 
Lord Jesus Christ," replied the other, "that what she 
will not do willingly, she may be compelled to do even 
against her will." His prayer was before long fulfilled. 
In a narrow cell some goldsmiths were condemned to 
labour beyond their strength in fashioning royal orna- 
ments. Hither one day the queen's little child ran in 
sport ; the prisoners seized it, and swore if they were not 
released they would first kill the child and then them- 
selves. The queen in this dilemma relented, gave the 
prisoners their freedom, sent a messenger with all speed 
to Severinus to acknowledge her fault and implore his 
pardon, and at the same time sent back the Boman 

HUD^ath, At length the man of God lay on his deathbed. For 

thirty years he had continued to labour amongst his peo- 
ple, to bear the burden of their sorrows, and to animate 
them to sustain their numerous trials ; declining the honour 
of the episcopate, he had preferred to go on as he had 
begun, and now his work was ended. But even on his 
deathbed he did not cease to reprove and exhort the bar- 
barian chiefs. Sending for the king and queen of the 
Bugii, he reasoned with them long and .earnestly of " right- 
eousness, and temperance, and judgment to come." At last 
stretdhing forth his hand, and pointing to the king's heart. 

Early Efforts of the C/uirch amongst the Xeic Piaces. 51 

**Gisa," he asked, " whicli, tell me, lovest thou most, this chap, il 

soul, or gold and silver?" And when she replied that ^^ 454-482. 

she loved her husband more than all the treasures of the 

world, "Beware," he continued, " of oppressing the inno* 

cent, lest their affliction bring your power to destruction ; 

oftentimes you stand in the way of the king's clemency, 

and therefore I on the brink of the eternal world implore 

you for the last time to desist from all such evil deeds, 

and adorn your life with good works." The king and 

queen retired, and shortly afterwards the man of God em* 

braced his brethren who had continued stedfast amidst all 

his dangers, and bade them farewell; he received the 

holy sacrament, and when they for sorrow could not sing 

the psalm that he desired, he began himself to sing, and 

with the words "let everything that hath breath praise 

the Lord" upon his lips, he expired on New Year's Day, 

AJO. 482. A.i> 482. 

Such are a few of the many instances recorded by his 
biographer of the way in which this eminent missionary 
ministered to the wants, spiritual and bodily, of the tribes 
near the Danube, amidst the ravages and desolation of 
this period. - Nor were the impressions made by his sojourn 
lost on the different chiefs. Many a deed of mercy and 
unexpected kindness was owing to his intrepid expostu- 
lations, and those of other solitaries who, braving the 
dangers and difficulties incident to such a calling, settled 
down with true missionary zeal amongst the wild and law- 
less tribes, and awed them into obedience by the austere 
holiness of their lives. 

But fourteen years after the death of Severinus, thecbmyrHm^ 
chief of a tribe \ which had settled along the Eastern bank 
of the Ithine, from its mouth to its junction with the Maine, 
espoused the Catholic Faith, and his conversion and that of 

> On ocmvarrion of the Burgnn- Ozanam, CivUitation chat U» Frane$, 
diMii^Me Sooatei, Ecd. Mid. vii. 50. p. 5 1 . 


52 The Missionary History of the Middle Ayes. 

CHAP. iL his subjects demands oar attention, not onlj as illustrating 

^ ~4gi^ many of the secondary agencies which extended Chris- 
tianity among the different nations at this period, but as 
exerting in its remote and its immediate consequences no 
little influence on the ultimate civilization of Europe. 

In the year 481, Clovis or Chlodwig succeeded to the 
chieftaincy of the Salian Franks. He was only fifteen 
years of age, and the extent of his territory and the num- 
ber of his subjects were extremely small, but the unusual 
daring and energy of his character speedily shewed that 

A.D. 486. he was destined to effect great results. He had no sooner 
reached the verge of manhood than be entered on that 
career of conquest which eventually laid at his feet a 
wider kingdom than that of modem France. His first 
campaign brought him face to face with Syagrius, anni- 
hilated the shadow of the old Roman dominion, gave 
him possession of Soissons, Rheims, and other Roman 
towns, and extended his borders to the Loire, the limit 
of the Visigoths. Ten years of comparative repose 
elapsed before his next victory over the Alemanni in a 
great battle near Ziilpich, and in the meantime he had 

A.D. 493. married Clotilda, the daughter of Chilperic, king of 

ckluicH'^ The family history of this princess illustrates the tur- 

bulence of the times, and proves how little as yet Chris- 
tianity had allayed the ferocity of the barbarians. She 
had seen her father, mother, and two brothers all murdered 
by her uncle Gundebald, who, as though this was not 
enough, besieged his own brother in his castle, and burnt 
him alive. Though brought up in an Arian court, she had, 
through what influence is unknown, been educated in the 
Catholic faith. On her marriage with Clovis, she was 
permitted to conform to her own religion, and it naturally 
became her earnest desire to see her husband lay aside 
his idola, and adore with her the same God. But Clovis 

Earhj Efforts of tlic CJiurrli amongst tlic X( ic Itarrs. /;3 

was little disposed to yield to her suggestions, and re- chap. it. 
mained profoundly indifferent to her entreaties. In time ^j, 493^ 
she g^ve birth to a child, and with Teutonic indifference 
the Salian chief permitted it to be baptized. The cere- 
mony was performed with no little pomp, the Church, where 
she worshipped, was hung with curtains and tapestry, and 
the queen hoped that the spectacle of the splendour with 
which the sacred rite was performed might effect what her 
own arguments had proved unequal to accomplish \ But 
the child died, and this event served only to prejudice her 
lord still more, who saw in it the manifest resentment of 
his gods. Another child, however, was soon after born, 
and with the same strange indifference he allowed the 
dangerous experiment to be repeated. The child was 
brought to the font, and when it began to sicken, the 
king prophesied that it too was doomed to die. The 
honour of her God amongst the heathen was now at stake, 
and the queen prayed earnestly that the child's life might 
be spared, and her prayer was heard. Gregory of Tours 
tells us, that this made a profound impression on the 
warrior's mind. But it was not by these gentle influences 
that the omnipotence of the Christian's God was established 
to his satisfaction. In vain the queen recounted to him 
the miracles wrought at the tomb of St Martin at Tours, 
how the blind received their sight, and the dumb spake, 
and the deaf heard, and the lame walked ; how perjurers 
were constrained to confess their sins, or were struck down 
by divine judgments ; how dust from the saint's grave, or 
fragments of the wax tapers that burnt before his shrine, 
or of the curtains that concealed it, were possessed of 
resistless efficacy. 

The warrior listened with the same careless indifference. 

^ "Adornari eoclesiam pnecipit tor ad oredendum, qui flecti pT»di- 
(k. regina) veils atque corticulia, quo catione non poterat. — Greg.Taron. 
faciliiis Tcd boo mysterio proYocare- n. 19. 

54 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

OHAP. n. 

A.D. 496. 


These were not the "evidences" to have much weight with 
him. At length, on the battle-field of Tolbiac, his incre- 
dulity came to an end. The fierce and dreadful Alemanni, 
fresh from their native fbrests, had burst upon the kingdom 
of his Ripuarian allies ; Clovis with his Franks had rushed 
to the rescue, and the two fiercest nations of Germany 
were to decide between them the supremacy of Gaul. The 
battle was long and bloody, the Franks after an obstinate 
struggle wavered, and seemed on the point of flying, and 
in vain Clovis implored the aid of his own deities. At 
length he bethought him of the vaunted omnipotence of 
Clotilda's God, and he vowed that if victorious he would ab- 
jure his pagan creed, and be baptized as a Christian. There- 
upon the tide of battle turned; the last king of the Alemanui 
fell, and his troops fled in disorder, purchasing safety by 
submission to the Frankish chief. On his return Clovis 
recounted to his queen the story of the fight, the success of 
his prayer, and the vow he had made. Overwhelmed with 
joy, she sent without delay for Remigius, the venerable 
bishop of Rheims, and on his arrival, the victorious chief 
listened attentively to his arguments. StiH he hesitated, 
and said he would consult his warriors. These rough 
soldiers evinced no unwillingness ; with, perhaps, the same 
indifference that he himself had permitted the baptism of 
his children, they declared themselves nothing loth to 
accept the creed of their chief*. 

Clovis therefore yielded, and the baptism was fixed to 
take place at the approaching festival of Christmas. The 
greatest pains were taken to lend as much solemnity as 
possible to the scene^ The Church was hung with em- 
broidered tapestry, and white curtains, and blazed with a 

* "Omnifl populus pariter accla- 
mayit, '*Mortales deos abjicimus, pie 
rex, et Deum, quern RemigiuB pre- 
dicat, sequi parati fiumus.*" — Greg. 
Turon. u. 3 1 . But see Perry's Franktf 

p. 80, n. 

* Compare the account of the 
baptism of Constantine given iu 
Stanley's EoMiam Church, p. 316. 

Earhj Efforts of the Church amongst the Xew Races. 55 

thousand lights, while odours of incense, ^^'Kke airs of chap. ir. 
paradise," in the words of the excited chronicler, " filled ^^ 49^, 
the place." The new Constantine, as he entered, was 
stmck with awe. '' Is this the heaven thou didst promise 
mer" said he to the bishop. ''Not heaven itself, bat the. 
beginning of the way thither," replied the bishop. The 
service proceeded. As he knelt before the font to wash 
away the leprosy of hia heathenism, '^ Sicambrian," said 
Bemigios, "gently bow thy neck, bum that thou didst 
adore, adore that which thou didst burn\" Thus together 
with three thousand of his followers, Clovis espoused 
Clotilda's creed, and became the single sovereign of the 
west, who adhered to the confession of Nics&a. Every- 
where else Arianism was triumphant. The Ostrogoth 
Theodoric in Italy, the successors of Euric in Visigothic 
France, the king of Burgundy, the Suevian princes in 
Spain, the Vandal in Africa, all were Arians. 

The conversion of Clovis, like that of Constantine, 
is open to much discussion. It certainly had no effect 
upon his moral character. The same "untutored savage" 
he was, the same he remained. But the services he ren- 
dered to Catholicism were great, and they were appreciated. 
" God daily prostrated his enemies before him, because he 
walked before Him with an upright heart, and did what 
was pleasing in His eyes." In these words Gregory of 
Tours expresses the feelings of the Gallic clergy, who 
rallied round Clovis to a man, and excused all faults 
in one who could wield the sword so strenuously in be- 
half of the orthodox faith'. His subsequent career was 
a succession of triumphs: Gundebald the Burgundian king 
felt the vengeance of Clotilda's lord on the bloody field 

^ The wordi are yarioualy given. Vita Bemigii the wordi are, "Mitii 

In \hit Hidorieiu de laFranee,T. ill. depone oella Sicamber: adon quod 

p. (^ we haye, ''Mitia Sicamber, de- incendisti, inoende qaod adoraaii." 
pone ooUa^ idola Taria crema, cultum ' Perry's Franks, p. 77. Sir J. 

▼enerare divinum.** In Hincmar's Stephen'! Lectnuru, I. p. 6o> 

56 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. iL of Dijon on the Onsche, and the cities on the Saone and 
^ ^ 5Q7. the Rhone were added to the Frankish kingdom. A 
^2*»^ few more years, and the Visigothic kingdom in the Sonth 
felt the same iron hand. The orthodox prelates did not 
disguise the fact that this was a religious war, and that 
the supremacy of the Arian or Catholic Creed in Western 
Europe was now to be decided \ Clovis himself entered 
fully into the spirit of the crusade; on approaching Tours 
he made death the penalty of injuring the territory of the 
holy St Martin ; in the church of the saint he publicly 
performed his devotions, and listened to the voices of the 
priests as they chaunted the 18th Psalm, Thou hast girded 
mey Lordy with strength unto the hattU ; thou hast sub- 
dued unto me those which rose up against me. Thou hast 
also given me the necks of mine enemies^ that I might destroy 
them that hate me^. Whether he understood the words or 
not, they seemed prophetic of the subsequent career of 
the new champion of Catholicism. The orthodox histori- 
ans exhaust the treasury of legends to adorn his progress. 
A " hind of wonderful magnitude'" guided him through the 
swollen waters of the river Vienne ; a pillar of fire blazed 
forth from the cathedral as he drew nigh Poitiers, to 
assure him of guccess. At last, the bloody plains of Vougl^ 
witnessed the utter defeat of the Arian Goths, and Alaric 
their king was mingled with the crowd of fugitives. Bor- 
deaux, Auvergne, Rovergne, Toulouse, Angoul6rae, suc- 
cessively fell into the hands of the Frankish king, and 
then before the shrine of St Martin the " eldest son of the 
Church" was invested with the titles of Roman Patricius 
and Consul, conferred by the Greek Emperor Anastasius*. 

We have thus sketched the rise of the Frankish mon- 
archy because it has an important connection with the 

^ HalUun*8 Middle Ageg, I. 3. Greg. Toron. n. 37. 
* ^ihnan^B Latin CkriaUanity,Yo\. * Ferry's Franks, p. SS. Hallam^s 

I. 979. Middle Agea, SapplemenUl Notes, 

*Michelet*8^tf(oryo/i^raiicf,i.5i. p. 7. 

Karlff Etjoi'ts of the C/iurch amnvfjst the }s()r liftrrs. .">7 

history of Christian missions. Orthodoxy advanced side chap. ii. 
by side with the Frankish domination. The rude war- ^ ^^ ^qq. 
riors of Clovis, once beyond the local boundaries of their 
ancestral faith, found themselves in the presence of a 
Church which was the only stable institution in the coun- 
try, and bowed before a creed, which, while it offered infi- 
nitely more to the soul and intellect than their own super- 
stitions, presented everything that could excite the fancy or 
captivate the sense. Willingly, therefore, did they follow 
the example of their king, and for one that embraced the 
faith from genuine, a thousand adopted it from lower mo- 
tives. And while they had their reward, the Frankish 
bishops had theirs too, in constant gifts of land for the 
foundation of churches and monasteries, and in a speedy 
admission to wealth and power. 

But the Frankish Church was not destined to evan- j)tf,meraeroffh« 
gelize the rude nations of Europe. The internal dissen- •'^«"*'«*^*«**^ 
sions, and constant wars of the successors of Clovis, were 
not favourable to the development of Christian civilization 
at home, or its propagation abroad. Avitus of Vienne, 
Cassarius of Aries, and Faustus of Riez proved what might 
be done by energy and self-devotion*. But the rapid ac- 
cession of wealth more and more tempted the Frankish 
bishops and abbots to live as mere laymen, and so the 
clergy degenerated, and the light of the Frankish Church 
grew dim. Not only were the masses of heathendom lying 
outside her territory neglected, but within it she saw her 
own members tainted with the old leaven of heathenism, 
and relapsing, in some instances, into the old idolatries'. 
A new influence, therefore, was required, if the light of 
the Frankish Church was to be rekindled, and the Ger- 
manic tribes evangelized. And this new influence was at 
hand. But to trace its origin, we must leave the scenes 

* Netnder, v. 4. • Perry'g Prmlct, p. 488. 

58 The Mtssumary Sutorjf of the Middle Agee. 

OHAP. n. of the labours of Ulphilas and Severmus, for two slater 
isles high up in the Northern Sea almost forgotten amidst 
the desolating contest, which was breaking up the Boman 
world. We must glance first at the origin of the Celtic 
Church, in Ireland and the Scottish highlands, whose hum-' 
ble oratories of timber and rude domes of rough stone^ 
might, indeed, contrast unfavourablj with the prouder 
structures of the West, but whose missionary zeal burnt with 
a far steadier flame. We must, then, turn to the shorea 
of Kent, where the story of Clovis and Clotilda was to be 
re-enacted, and a Teutonic Church was destined to arise, 
and send forth, in its turn, missionary heroes amongst 
their kindred on the continent, not more zealous, perhaps, 
or more loving, but more practical and more judicious 
than their Celtic forerunners. 

* Petrie*8 iZottfici Towen, I. 158 — 
193, and Mr Mure*8 ChcmicteristicB 
of Old Church ArchiUiture in the 

MaUtlAnd and Western l9Umd$ of 
ScoUandy p. x8|. 




AD. 431—490. 

S«l Deal vidt in me et resiitit illis omnibus, ut ego venirem ad ffibernas 
genles evangelium pnedicare. — S. Pat&icii Confess. 

It is not our intention to enter upon the vexed and diflS- chap. hi. 
cult question how far Christiarity had spread in Ireland 
during the first four centuries of our era. Without press- 
ing the boast of Tertullian that parts of the British islands 
never visited bj the Romans had received the faith ; or the 
authorities collected by Archbishop Ussher^, which would 
make us believe that the introduction of Christianity into 
the island was due to the labours of Apostles, we may 
accept it as certain that at a very early period Christian 
communities were established here, and that their intro- 
duction originated in the commercial relations which we 
know from Tacitus' obtained in the earliest times between 
Ireland and the continent of Gaul. 

Whatever uncertainty, however, hangs over the dawn p^HJ^ 
of Irish Christianity, begins to disappear about the middle 
of the fifth century. From the Chronicles of Prosper we 
learn that in the year a.d. 431, the attention of Pope Ce- ad. 43L 
lestine was drawn to the wants of this distant island, and 

^ Tertnlliaii, Lib, adv, Judaos, 2B6,lMDigBJi*»Ecel.ffist. of Ireland, 

e. Tn. Enaeb. Dett^ Evang, iii. 7. I. 3. 
Nioeph. HuA. Lib. ill. i. Usnber's * VUa Agrieola, c. 24 

BriL BecL Antiq. c. XTI. Works, VI. 

60 The Missumary History of the Middle Ages. 

▲.D. 431. 

CHAP. iiL that he dispatched hither a bishop named Palladios. But 
"the words of the chronicler do not explain the precise 
object of his mission. ** To the Scots believing in Christ," 
he writes, " Palladias ordained by Pope Celestine is sent 
as the first bishop ^*' These words are ambiguous, and 
have excited considerable discussion, on which we need 
not enter. Whether the purpose of the coming of Pal- 
ladius was to preside over already existing Churches, or 
to check, as some have supposed, the inroads of the Pe- 
lagian heresy, it appears certain that he landed with twelve 
companions on the confines of Wicklow, and after some 
opposition, owing to the hostility of one of the Irish 
princes, succeeded in baptizing a few converts, and erect- 
ing three wooden churches*. But his stay was of no long 
duration ; from some unexplained cause his work did not 
prosper, and he retired to Scotland with the intention of 
proceeding to Rome, but died some little time after at 
Fordun in Kincardineshire*. 

But within a year he was followed by another mis- 
sionary, who was destined to produce very different results. 
The form of the great " Apostle of Ireland " is almost lost 
in a halo of extravagant and miraculous legends. By some*, 
in consequence, his very existence has been doubted; and 
to extract the truth from the mass of fable with which his 
life and labours have been well-nigh buried, is a work of 
considerable difficulty. In the following sketch we shall 


^ "Ad Scotos in Christum cre- 
dentes ordinatus a Papa Celestino 
Palladius primus Episcopus mitti- 
tur." Prosper. Chron. a.D. 431. 
Bede, ff. E. i. 13. Jaffe*s Regetta 
Pont. Rom, p. 5 a. Innes' Civil and 
Eccleaiaslictu History of Scotland, i. 

* "Nathi, eon of Garcliu, refused 
to admit him; but, however, he 
baptized a few persons in Ireland, 
and three wooden churches were 
erected by him, [namely] Cell-Fhine, 
Teach-na-Romium, and Domnach- 

Aria. At Cell-Fhine he left his 
books, and a shrine with the relics 
of Paul and Peter, and many mar- 
tyrs besides. He left these four in 
these churches: Augustinus, Bene- 
dictus, Silvester, and Solinus." An- 
naU of the Pour M<uter$f I. 129. 

' NenniuB, Hiat, Brit., Gale, 
Script. XY. p. 94. Lanigan, 1. 39. 
Innes, p. 65. Hussey n. in Bede, 1. 1 3. 

* See Sdioell. de Ecclesiasticre Bri- 
tonum Scotorumque HiatoricefontilnL$, 
pp. 61— ^59. 

ITie Church oflrdandf and the Mission of St Patrick. 61 

confine ourselves as much as possible to the information ohap. ul 
derivable from authentic sources, the short treatise of St ZZi: 

. ^*- 887' 

Patrick, entitled his Confession^ his letter to Coroticus, and 
the canons of one or two councils assembled hj him, and 
shall make but little use of the lives of the saint drawn up 
in an age of credulity bj Probus and Jocelin^ 

The true name of the " Apostle of Ireland" was " Sue- HUbMhand 
cath." He was bom of Christian parents ; his father Cal- 
phumius was a deacon, his grandfather Potitus a priest'; 
though an ecclesiastic, Calphumius appears to have held 
also the rank of Decurion', and may, therefore, have been 
of a Roman or provincial British extraction. The birthplace 
of the saint is uncertain, and has been hotly disputed. 
Bonaven Tahemim is the locality mentioned by himself in 
his Confession, as the residence of his parents\ By 
Lanigan and Dollinger the place thus indicated has 
been identified with Boulogne in Normandy', while Arch- 
bishop Ussher, Ware, Innes, and other eminent au- 
thorities' place it in Scotland, and identify it with the 
present Kirkpatrick, between the castle of Dumbarton 
and the city of Glasgow. The weight of evidence seems 
to favour the latter conclusion, and of the various years, 
which have been assigned for his birth, the balance of au- 
thorities seems to point to A.D. 387 as the most probable^ 

* " Among the various monu- * *' Patrcm habui Calpornium dia- 

ments of his (St Patrick's) history," conum, filium quondam Potitipresby- 

fiays Father Innes, ** nothing ap- teri." S.Pat licii Cow/cmo, O'Uouor'a 

pears to me a more proper voucher Prolcg. ad Hibtm. Script. I. evil, 

and more assured foundation to go ' ''Ingenuus fui secundum car« 

upon, than the short writing called nem, decurioue patre nascor." Ep, 

his Confession, which is generally ad Coroticum. 

esteemed his own work, is quoted * **Fuit in vico Bonaven Tabemise. 

by the anctentest authors of his life, Yillulam £non prope habuit, ubi 

and contains an account of him as capturam dedL" S. Patricii Confei, 

an apostolical man, incomparably ^ Lanigan, I. c. 3. Dollinger, u. 

more answerable to that character ai. King's Primer, I. 16. 

than any one of his lives or all of • Ussher, Works, Vol. vi. 375. 

them put together." CivU and Ec Ware, Script, ffibem.]^. 101. Innes, 

cktiattical History of Scotland, p. 35. p. 34. 

8ee also GallancUi Prolegomena de ^ The intricate question is fully 

S. PtUrieio, and Gieseler, u. 81 n. discussed in Lanigan, i. ch. 4. 

A.o. 887 1 


.0, 408 ? 

62 The Miasionarjf Eiaiory 4^ the Middh Age&. 

CHAP. m. His pafents, as we liave said above, were Christiaius, 
' and from his Confession it would appear that the Gos- 
pel had been published and received to some extent 
in the neighbourhood of his father's home. Whatever 
amount, however, of instruction he may have received 
was rudely interrupted when he was sixteen years of age. 
The coasts of Scotland were at this time peculiarly exposed 
to the predatory excursions of Irish chieftains, who landed 
in their swift barks, ravaged the country, and having carried 
off as many as they could of the inhabitants, consigned 
them to slavery. In one of these expeditions the house of 
Calphumius was attacked, and the future missionary with 
two of his sisters, and many hundreds of his countrymen, 
was carried away from his home, and conveyed to the 
North of Ireland. Here he was purchased as a slave by a 
chief named Milcho, who inhabited that part of Dalaradia\ 
which corresponds to the present county of Antrim. The 
work assigned him was that of tending his master's flocks 
and herds, and in his Confession he has drawn an affecting 
picture of the hardships to which at this period he was 
exposed. As he wandered over the bleak mountains he 
was often drenched with rains, often numbed with the 
frosts. And being thus thrown back upon himself, he 
could find alleviation only in frequent prayer and medita- 
tion. The good seed sown in early years now sprang up, 
and the religious emotions he afterwards so eminently dis- 
played began to stir within him. His period of servitude 
lasted six years, and during this time he would seem to 
have made himself acquainted with the language of the 
native tribes, and to have learnt their habits and modes of 

^ On Dalaradia consult Reeves* 
Ecclesiastical Anliquitiet, p. 339, and 
the note there from the Four Mas- 
ters, In the latter annals we read, 
"▲.D.38S Milchuo, son of HuaBuain, 
)dng of North Dalaradia." ''This 

was the master," says Beeves, ''un- 
der whom St Patrick served ; he is 
called in the Tripartite Life ' Milcho 
Buani filius Piinceps DalaradiaB.* " 
Tr. 1%. p. 119. 

TJid Cliurcli of Ireland y o.nd the Mission <f Si T\itrir-l\ 03 

life. At length either through the operation of an old law^ chap. hi. 
which gave freedom to domestic slaves in the seventh year, a.©. 410? 
or, according to his own account, in consequence of a 
thneam warning him to prepare for his return, he succeeded 
in effecting his escape to the seaside ; there he took ship 
and after a tempestuous passage regained his father's house. 
His stay, however, was but brief. In a second predatory 
excursion he again was taken captive, and again after a 
short interval made his escape. 

Had he listened to his parents he would now have set- Meduaut the 
tied down amongst them : but other ideas had filled his JUSSS^ ^ 
mind, and he "heard voices bidding him ''leave his own 
country and his father's house.'* " The divine response," 
he writes, '' frequently admonished me to consider whence 
I derived this wisdom which was not in me, who neither 
knew the number of my days nor was acquainted with 
God.; whence I obtained afterwards so great and salutary 
a gift as to know or to love God." During the weary 
hours, moreover, of his captivity he had often reflected 
how blessed it would be, if he, to whom it had been given 
to know the true God and His Son Jesus Christ, could 
carry the Glad Tidings he himself had heard in early 
years, to his master's people and the land of his exile. And 
now by dreams and visions the old desire was awakened 
afresh. "One night," to borrow his own words, "he had 
a dream, in which he thought he saw a man coming from 
Ireland, whose name was Victoricius, with a great number 
of letters. One of these he gave him to read, and in the 
beginning occurred the words, " the Voice of the Irish." 
While he was reading this letter, he thought he heard the 
voice of the people who lived hard by the wood of Foch-ladh, 
that is, of Hy-Amalgaidh now Tirawley, crying to him 
with one voice across the Western Sea, " We intreat theci, 
holy youth, to come and walk among us." 

1 Luugan, L chap. 4, note 43. Todd*8 Ixiah Nenxuas, aoa -n. 

64 The MUaumary Hiatory of the Middle Ages. 

OHAP. iiL Obedient, therefore, to what he deemed a voice from 
^^ ^Qj heaven, and resisting the argaments and entreaties of his 
uittravdi. relatives and friends, who seem to have regarded his en- 
thusiasm with little favour, he set out for the monasteries 
of Southern Gaul, there to prepare himself for the great 
work of preaching the Gospel in the land of his captivity. 
Amidst the conflicting legends which now follow him at 
everj step, it seems certain that he repaired to the monas- 
tery of St Martin bishop of Tours, and submitted himself for 
some time to the strict discipline of that famous seminary* ; 
that afterwards he studied with Germanius at Auxerre^ 
and thence betook himself to one of the '^ islands of the 
Tuscan Sea," probably Lerins', where Hilary of Aries, 
and Lupus of Troyes had been educated. Ketuming thence 
to Auxerre, it is not improbable that he was actively em- 
ployed for some little time in pastoral duties, having been 
successively ordained deacon and priest during his sojourn 
amongst the Gallic monasteries. 
AD. 429. There is a tradition that in the year 429 he visited 

Britain in company with Germanus and Lupus, and assist- 
ed them in eradicating the Pelagian heresy*, and on his re- 
turn, he is represented by some writers as having been sent 
by Germanus to Celestine, together with Segetius, a priest, 
who bore letters recommending him to the Pope. That 
the attention of the Pope had been directed to the wants of 
the Irish Church is manifest from the mission of Palla- 
dius in 431. But the fact that he consecrated St Patrick 
bishop for the work of evangelizing the Irish is not to be 
met with in any lives, as Lanigan admits, except Jocelin's 
and the Tripartite". It is not admitted even by the Bol- 

> Lnnigan, I. 156. Innes, p. 37. ' Lanigan, I. 174, Acta SS. Mart, 

' "Patrick went to the south to 17. Innea, p. 37. 

Rtudy, and he read the Canons with * Lanigan, I. 180. 

German (Germanus of Auxerre)." ^ Lanigan, I. 19a. See also Giese- 

NenniuR, Historia Britonum, edited ler, IL 81 f>. 

by Dr Todd, Dublin, 1848. 

landists or Colgan, and the absence of any allusion in the 'cha?. in. 
saint's Confessions to a consecration^ by Cdestine, where he j^;432. 
could hardly have passed it over, is no slight argument 
against its veracity. In the year 432, however, he would 
appear on good authority to have been ordained bishop in 
Gaul, and on hearing of the failure of the mission of Pal- 
ladius ^ to have sailed for Ireland with Isserninus, Auxi-> 
lius, and a few other fellow-labourers. 

Landing, in the same year, somewhere on the coast of the LanOi in ire- 
present county of Wicklow, he and his companions were, at 
first, received with hostility, and were obliged to return to 
their boat, and seek a more favourable spot. Sailing north- 
wards along the coast, they put in at Holm-patrick, where 
they stayed some time. After gathering a few converts in this 
neighbourhood, St Patrick repaired to the Bay of Dun- 
drum, and landing with his companions advanced some little 
way into the interior. They had not gone far before they 
encountered a native chieftain named Dichu at the head of 
a band of men, who, mistaking their leader for the chief of 
one of the many pirate crews which then often appeared 
upon the coast, was on the point of putting him to death. 
But struck by the reverend appearance of the missionary, 
and seeing that he and his companions were unarmed, he 
stayed his hand, and hospitably received them at his house. 
In frequent interviews he now heard the doctrines of the 
faith, and was baptized with his whole family. He also 
bestowed upon his instructor the ground, on which his bam 
was erected; and here arose the celebrated church called 
Sdbhall Padruic, " the bam of Patrick," the ruins of which 
may still be traced at Saul, in the county of Down. The 

^ In the Book of A rmagh we read, death." Sir W. Betham, Researches, 

'* The death of Palladius among the p. 306. '* It is more than probable 

Britons was soon heard of, for his that it was at Bray, Patrick landed." 

disciples, L e. Augustinus, Benedic- O'Donovan, note in Annals of tht 

tus and the rest, returning, related Four Masters, I. 130. 
in Ebmoria, the circumstances of his 

66 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. III. same chief became henceforth St Patrick's constant friend, 
^ ^ ^33 and the spot, where he obtained a site for his first church, 
was always a favourite resoi:t of the saint. 
/^Kr* ifxiS"*^ Leaving Saul, the missionary proceeded northward to 
'^'* Clanebois in Dalaradia, hoping to convert his old master 

Milcho. In this he was disappointed. Nothing would 
induce the old chief to receive the man who had been once 
his slave, or to forsake the paganism of his forefathers. 
His obstinate refusal has been exaggerated in the legends, 
and he is represented as having burnt himself, at the ap- 
proach of the missionary, on a funeral pile, together with 
his family and his goods. His journey thus ineffectual, 
St Patrick once more took ship, and, returning to the dis- 
trict where Dichu resided, preached with success for some 
time in that neighbourhood. Thence sailing southward, 
Prcachf»hrforethe\\(t determined to visit the famous hill of Tara, where 

chuft at lara. ^ ^ ... 

King Leogaire was about to hold a great religious festival, 
in tlie presence of all his tributary princes, his chieftains, 
and Druids. Accompanied by his favourite disciple, the boy 
Benignus, whom he had lately baptized, the saint went on 
his way thither, intending in this stronghold of Druidism 
to celebrate tlie approaching festival of Easter, and to 
preach the Gospel to tlie assembled chiefs. It was Easter- 
Eve when he reached the neighbourhood of Tara, and 
having erected a tent, he made preparations for spending 
the night with his companions, and kindled a fire, either, 
according to some legends, as a part of the Paschal solem- 
nities, or simply for the purpose of preparing food. As 
tlie smoke curled upwards in the evening air, it was 
observed by the Druids in the king's tents, and caused 
the greatest consternation. To kindle any fire, during the 
solemn assembly of the chiefs, before the king had lighted 
the sacred fire in the palace of Tara, was a sin of the 
greatest enormity ; and the Druids did not scruple to warn 
the king, ''if that fire be not extinguished this night, 

The Church of Ireland and the Mission of St Patrick. 67 

unto him, whose fire it shall be, shall belong the sove- chap. in. 
reignty of Ireland for ever*." ~ ^ 

It is possible that the Magi had heard of the strange onpofUian 0/ ths 
doctrines which were now gaining ground in the British 
islands, and they hoped thus to alienate the monarch's mind 
against any preachers of the same. However this may have 
been, messengers were sent to discover the authors of the 
sacrilege, and to order them to appear before the king. 
When they presented themselves, instead of being put to 
death, their fearlessness won for them the attention of the 
king and his nobles. On the following day St Patrick again 
addressed the chiefs, and proclaimed the doctrines of the 
faith. Leogaire himself, indeed, did not profess to be a 
convert, but he gave permission to the man of God to 
preach the word on condition that he did not disturb the 
peace of the kingdom*. During the ensuing week, there- 
fore, when the great public games were celebrated at Tail- 
ten, the missionary and his companions addressed them- 
selves to the brothers of the king, and by one at least were 
so favourably received, that he professed himself a believer, 
received baptism, and is said to have given up the site of 
his own castle for a church. 

The impression thus made upon the chiefs was soon Toursincon- 

*• ^ ^ * ^ ^ ^ nauoht. Mayo, 

shared by their subjects, and though it is utterly impossible <"»^ ^^'^' 
to arrange with accuracy the subsequent missionary tours 
of the saint, it is certain that in Westmeath, in Connaught, 
Mayo, and Ulster, whither he successively went, his labours 
were blessed with signal success. Once or twice', indeed, 

^ From thej^i/lf of St Patrick in the 
Leaihhar Breac. Todd*s Life, p. 184. 

* Lanigan, I. 233. Vita TriparC. 
IL 8. It was on this occasion, when 
brought before the king, that he is 
■aid to have composed the hynm 
called St Patricks Armour, See 
Petrie's Tara HUlj p. 67. 

' *• Whoever will read the TW- 
fvtiU Life of St Patrick," says O*- 

Donovan, "will find that the Pagan 
Irish made several attempts at mur- 
dering Patrick, and that he bad fre- 
quently but a narrow escape. He 
will be also convinced that our mo- 
dem popular writers have been 
guilty of great dishonesty in repre- 
senting the labours of Patrick as 
not attended with much difficulty." 
AnndU of the Four Masters, i. 131. 


68 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

A.D. 434. 


CHAP. HL he was nearl j being put to death through the opposition of 
the Druids, but the protection of the native princes stayed 
their intentions, and he was suffered to continue his work. 
Having destroyed the great idol Crom-Cruach*, on the plain 
of Magh Slecht, he set out for Connaught, the scene of his 
greatest triumphs. At Tir-Amhalgaidh, in Majo, he was 
met by the seven sons of the king, and in a fiill assembly 
before them and their people he proclaimed the message of 
the Gospel*. The young princes were on this occasion so 
affected by his earnestness and zeal, that they speedily 
submitted to baptism, and their example was followed 
by several thousands of their subjects'. 

So far as we can judge, it was not a merely nominal 
conversion of the people through their chiefs that he sought. 
He strove to plant deep the foundations of the Church. 
Instant in season and out of season, he repaired with his 
disciples and assistants wherever an opportunity of preach- 
ing the word presented itself, collected assemblies in the 
open air, read the Scriptures, and explained their contents. 
To the worshippers of the powers of nature, and especially 
the sun and other heavenly bodies, he proclaimed that the 
great luminary which "ruled the day" had no self-origi- 
nated existence, but was created by One whom he taught 
them to call " God the Father." " Beside Him," said the 
missionary, " there is no other God, nor ever was, nor will 
be. He was in the beginning, before all things, unbegot- 
ten, and from Him all things take their beginning, both 
visible and invisible*." He told them next " of His only- 

* O'Curry'a Z«<. jp. 103. 

* O'Donovan^s Tribes mid Cus- 
toms of Hy-Flachrach^ p. 310 ». and 
Addenda. Ussher's Primordia, p. 
864. Annals of ike Pour Masters, i. 
141 n. 

* "This conversion is mentioned 
in raost of the lives of St Patrick, 
with more or lesB circumstances, 
and has been recorded by Nennius 

and other writers." Lanigan, i. 
753. Dollingerp n. 23. *' Duode- 
eim millia hominum, in und r^one 
ConnatiA ad fidem Christi convertit, 
et baptizavit : et septcm reges ( = A - 
malgaidi filios) in uuo die baptizavit/^ 

* S. Patricii Confessio^ O'Connor, 
Script, Sibem, i. pp. cviii, cxvii. 

The Cliurcli of IrclanJ (ind ilti Mission of St Pal rid:. C)d 

begotten Son, Jesus Christ, who had become man, had chap. i'i. 

conquered death, and ascended into heaven, where He sat ^^ 433^ 
tax above all principalitj and power, and whence He would 
hereafter come to judge both the quick and the dead, and 
reward every man according to his deeds." "Those" he 
declared "who believed in Him would rise again in the 
glory of the true Sun, that is, in the glory of Jesus Christ, 
being by redemption sons of God and joint-heirs with 
Christ, of Whom, and by Whom, and to Whom are all 
things. Through Him shall we reign ; for the sun, which 
we see, rises at His bidding, for our sakes, day by day; but 
his splendour will never last or continue, and all his wor- 
shippers will suffer terrible punishment. We believe in and 
adore the true Sun^ Jesus Christ. He will never wane or 
set, nor will any perish who do His will, but they shall live 
for ever, even as He liveth for ever, with God the Father 
Almighty, and the Holy Spirit, world without end." 
Such we may believe, from his Confession, was the 
Gt)spel he preached, and his words, confirmed and illus- 
trated by his own intrepid zeal, ardent love, and sincere 
and devoted life, made a deep impression on the minds 
of the Celtic chiefs. With the religious enthusiasm deeply 
seated in the primitive Celtic character^ their hearts were 
touched, and they welcomed the missionary, as, many 
years before, the people of Galatia had welcomed the 
Apostle of the Gentiles, and believed the word that he 

In the year A.u. 439 the labours of St Patrick were a.d. 439. 
lightened by the arrival of the bishops Secundinus, Auxi- ^^Jfi^ 
lius, and Isseminus, whom he had sent either to Gaul or AwUi^^ 

1 See Goldwin Smith's Irish Hit- 
tory and Iriah Character ^ pp. 16, 27. 

• The AnnaU of Ulster record, at 
th« year 438, the ooinpofidtioD of the 
Chrtmieim Magnum^ or Seanchua 
Mor, a body of laws, of which it is 
highly probable that St Patrick, as- 

sisted by one of the bards converted 
to Christianity, may have laid the 
foundation, revising such of the Pa- 
gan laws and usages of the country 
as were inconsistent with the doc- 
trines of the Gospel." Petrie's Ai^ 
iiquUies of Tara HiU, pp. 47 — 54, 

70 The MiBswnary History of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. III. Britain to receive consecration. Their coming enabled him 
^^ to extend the sphere of his operations, and he now un- 
dertook missionary tours in Ulster, Leinster, and Cashel. 
These continued for several years, and were spent in preach- 
ing, baptizing new converts, and erecting churches. Know- 
ing well how much his own acquaintance with the native 
language^ had contributed to his success, he laboured dili- 
gently to establish a native ministry wherever he went. 
Cautiously selecting from the higher classes, those whose* 
piety and intelligence seemed to fit them for the work of 
the ministry, he established seminaries and monastic schools, 
where they were trained for this high employment. To 
these schools the young of both sexes flocked with extraor- 
dinary eagerness, and here they learnt the alphabet the 
missionary had invented for their instruction. 

It was probably while labouring somewhere in the 
south-eastern part of Munster, that the incident occurred 
which drew forth the letter, which has come down to us, 
wherein we see him endeavouring to check the nefarious 
system of piracy and slave-dealing from which he himself 
Letter to caro- had Suffered so bitterly*. A native prince, named Coroti- 

^'*'' cus, though apparently professing Christianity', had set 

out either from Wales or Cornwall, and descending on the 
Irish coast, with a band of armed followers, had mur- 
dered several of the natives, and carried off a considerable 
number with the intention of disposing of them as slaves. 
This outrage was perpetrated in one of the districts where 
St Patrick had been baptizing, and on the very day after* 
the neophytes arrayed in white baptismal robes had re- 

^ "EtsiLatinamlinguamdumGal- Villanueva, p. 214. 

liam et Italiam incoluit, didicit, as- ' O'Conor a Scrijpt.ffihem.i.cxvW, 

sidue tamen IberDis popuHs patri& ' Sir W. B^tham's ArUiquitUs, 

lingu& in concionibus et hortatibus p. 276. 

loquutus est, turn et Ibemiee ecrip- * ^* Postera die qua chrismati neo- 

sit Proverbionim librum, granae phyti in veste Candida, dum fides 

opus de IbemisB antiquitatibus, epis- flagrabat in fronte ipsonim, crude* 

tolas, et alia opuscula, qiue tempo- liter truoidati atque mactati sunt." 

rum ii\juria et cladee absunipsit.** Ep, ad CoroUcum, 0*Conor^i. cxviL 

The Church of Ireland and the Mission of St Patrick, 71 

»ved the chrism, and the rite of confirmation. Indignant chap. hi. 

at this cruelty, St Patrick wrote a letter*, which he sent a.d. 445-452. 
by one of his companions, requesting Coroticus to restore 
the baptized captives, and some portion of the booty. But 
his request being treated with contempt and scorn, he 
composed another circular epistle, in which, as ** a bishop 
established in Ireland," he inveighs in the strongest terms 
against the cruelty of the marauding tribe and its chief. 
He contrasts his conduct with that of the Roman and Gallic 
Christians, who were in the habit of sending priests with 
large sums of money to ransom Christian captives from the 
power of the Franks, and concludes by threatening him 
and his followers with excommunication unless he make 
restitution, and desist in future from his marauding habits. 
What indeed was the result of this circular epistle is not 
known, but it is to be feared that the efibrts of the Saint 
were not very successful. His lot was cast in troublous 
times, and it was easier to induce the various tribes to 
accept a nominal profession of Christianity, than to resist 
the temptation to trade in slaves ; at any rate this inhu- 
man traffic was in full activity in the tenth century, between 
England and the sister Isle, and the port of Bristol was 
one of its principal centres. 

Meanwhile, after a sojourn of two years in the district farther m it. 
of Louth, and parts of Ulster, St Patrick reached the dis- 
trict of Macha, a small territory, but containing the royal 
city of Emania, the residence of the kings of Ulster*. 
Here he was heartily welcomed by Daire, a wealthy chief, 
who made over to him a pleasant piece of ground on an 
eminence called Druim-sailech, or the " Hill of the Wil- 

* **Mi«i Epistolam cum sancto Coroticum, Lanigan, i. ^96. 
presbytero, quern ego ex infantia ' "The remains of its earthen 

docui cum clericis, ut nobis aliquid embankment exist under the name 

indolgeretur de pneda vel de captivis of the Navan, about two ^miles west* 

baptixatis quos ceperant ; sed ca- of Armagh." Vita & Columba; by 

chlnnos fecerunt de iUis/' £p. ad Adamnan, Ed. Beeves, p. 287 n. 

72 The Musionary History of the Middle Ages. 


A.D. 45C. 

Farhi Irlth 

A.D. 456. 

lows'/' The spot pleased St Patrick, and he determined 
to erect here a church, and a cloister for the clergy and 
the many ardent candidates for the monastic life who 
flocked to him from all sides, and of both sexes*. The 
foundations of the church were accordingly laid, and 
round it rose by degrees, the city of Armagh, the eccle- 
siastical metropolis of Ireland, and here its foimder spent 
the remainder of his life, only leaving it now and then to 
\'isit his favourite retreat at Saul, round which clustered 
the memories of his earliest labours, and of his first con- 
vert Dichu. 

Here, too, when the see was established, having called 
to his aid the bishops Auxilius and Isseminus, who next 
to himself were best qualified for the work by age and 
long experience, he proceeded to hold several synods, and 
to make regulations for the general government of the 
Irish churches. The canons of two of these have been 
preserved; one of which is called simply the Synod of 
St Patrick, and the other the Synod of Bishops, that is, 
Patrick, Auxilius, and Isseminus, "Under the head of 
the former," says Dr Lanigan', " are some canons, which 
seem to have been enacted at a later period, or perhaps in 
some other country; but among the canons of the latter, 
with one or two exceptions, we meet with nothing to make 
us doubt that it was really held in Ireland, and by those 
bishops." They give us the idea of a church which liad 
attained considerable maturity, they mention not only 
bishops, priests, and deacons, abbots, monks, and nuns, 
but inferior orders, such as the ostiarii and lectores. In 
reference to the discipline of the clergy they are very 

1 "The Annals of UUter refer the 
foundation of Armagh to 444.** O*- 
Donovan m Annals of Pour Masters, 
p. 143. The AnnaU of the Four 
Masters to 457. 

• "Accepit ergo ab eo (Daire) 
S. PatriciuB priedium optatum et 

placitnm sibi, et edificavit in eo mo- 
nasteria et habitationes reli^osoruTn 
vironim ; in quo loco jam civitaa est 
Ardmach nominata sedes et episcj- 

EatuB et regiminis Hibemise." Pro- 
us, III. 7. Lanigan, i. 314. 
* Ibid. I. 331. 

The Church qf Ireland and the Mission of St Patrick. 73 

strict*. A clerk must not wander about from place to chap. iir. 
place ; in a strange diocese he must not baptize, nor offer aj). 456-400. 
the Eucharist, nor discharge any spiritual function. A 
bishop, in like manner, must not presume to ordain in a 
diocese not his own, without the permission of its dio- 
cesan, but on the Lord's daj he may assist in the offering 
of the Eucharist ; a priest who has been excommunicated, 
may be again admitted to the communion, but can never 
recover his degree ; if he come from Britain, he cannot be 
allowed to officiate without a letter of recommendation ; if 
he receive another who has been excommunicated, both 
must suffer the same punishment. The sixth Canon 
directs the wife of a priest, when abroad, to appear veiled'; 
in the eighth we trace signs of the ancient combat of the 
" trial of truth ;*' " if a clerk," it enacts, " become surety 
for a heathen, and be deceived, he shall pay the debt ; if he 
enter into the lists with him, he shall be put out of the pale 
of the Church'." The sixteenth lays a penance on those, 
who fall into any heathen practice, or from a desire to 
search into future events, have recourse to soothsaying, 
or the inspection of the entrails of beasts. Another ex- 
pressly forbids any alms offered by pagans being received 
into the Church. 

These canons indicate a certain amount of progress in 
the Church for which they are designed, and shew that the 
work of the missionary had begun to take root. This work 
he still continued ; ev^n in his retirement at Armagh, and 
Saul, he was still content to spend and be spent in behalf 
of the Church he had founded and loved so well, and which, 
though solicited again and again, nothing, not even the 

^ Spelman*s Concilia Orbis Bri- tur, etab ecclesiaseparentur." Spel- 

tannieiy pp. 51, 53, Reeves* Eccle- man, p. 52, Todd's Irish Church, p. 

tiatticalArUiquitiet, p. 137, andn. 33. Ware, p. i^. 

* "Quicunque Clericus . . . si non * " Clericus si pro geutili homine . 

more Romano capilli ejus tonsi sint, fidei jussor armis compug- 

et ttxor gtu si non velato capite am- naverit cum illo, meiito extra eccle- 

bulaverit, pariter a laids contemnen- siam oomputetur." Spelman, p. 5a. 

74 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. ni. wish to see his relatives, could induce him to leave. In 
A.D. 460—465. ^^^ Confession, written when now advanced in years, and 
expecting " the time of his departure," he touchingly de- 
scribes how he had often been requested to revisit his kins- 
men according to the flesh, but how a sense of the spiritual 
bond to the flock he had begotten in Christ, ever retained 
him in Ireland. He wrote this treatise, he declares, for 
the sake of these his kinsfolk, that they, especially those 
who had opposed his advancement to the episcopate, might 
know how the Lord had prospered his work in the land of 
his captivity; he reviews his labours, and calls God to wit- 
ness how he had sought the spiritual advancement of his 
people. And, indeed, making all due allowance for the 
circumstances of the times, his work had been no trivial 
one. He and his associates had made for themselves by 
the labour of their own hands, civilized dwellings amid the 
tangled forests, and the dreary morass. At a time when 
clan-feuds and bloodshed were rife and common, and kings 
rose and fell suddenly from their thrones, and all else was 
stormy and changeful, they had covered the island with 
monasteries, where very soon the Scriptures began to be 
studied, ancient books collected and read, and missionaries 
were trained for their own country, and, as we shall see, for 
the rest of Europe. Every monastic establishment was an 
outpost of civilization amidst the surrounding heathenism ; 
and to reclaim the tribes from their superstitions, to revise 
their old laws and usages, was a work in which the Irish 
monks engaged, as the one object of their lives. 

Hit death. The Apostle of Ireland lived to a good old age, and 

the sunset of his life was calm and peaceful. It was while 
he was in retirement at Saul that he was seized with his 
last illness. Perceiving that his end drew nigh, and de- 
siring that Armagh should be the resting-place of his re- 
mains, he set out thither, but was unable to continue the 
journey. Increasing weakness, and, as it seemed to him, 

The Church of Ireland and the Mission of 8t Patrick. 75 

the voice of an angel, bade him return to the Church of his chap. hi. 
first convert, and there, after a short interval^, the patron- ^j^ 460-465^ 
saint of Ireland departed this life, leaving behind him 
the visible memorials of a noble work nobly done in a 
Church, which was for a long time the light of the West, 
being protected by native chiefs', ^d superintended by a 
numerous native clergy. 

^ On the vexed question of the date 
of St Patrick*s death, see the argu- 
ments in Lanigan, i. pp. 355 — 363. 
He decides for a.d. 465, the gene- 

rally received date is March 17, 493. 
' On the gradual spread of Chris- 
tianity among the native chiefs, seei 
Lanigan, i. 394. 



A.D. 480—^97. 

"Insula Pictorom qusBdam monstratnr in oris 
Fluctivago suBpensa salo, cognominis £o, 
Qua sanctus Domini requiescit carne Ck)lumba. 



cHAPj[v^ But " though dead," the Apostle of Ireland still continued 
465-490. iQ speak in the unremitting energy of his successors. Be- 
nignus, the next metropolitan of Armagh, who had been in 
early youth attracted by the winning influence of St Pa- 
trick, and had been his most constant companion during the 
entire period of his mission, preached the Gospel in those 
Rise of Irish parts of the country which liis predecessor had not visited^ 
With a view to the further consolidation of the Church he 
set the example, which his successors Jarlath, Cormac, 
and Dubtach studiously followed, of increasing the number 
of schools and monastic foundations throughout the coun- 
try*. Amongst these may be mentioned the schools of 
Armagh, of Fiech at Sletty, of Mel at Ardagh, of Moctha 
in Louth, of Olcan at Derkan, of Finnian at Clonard, of 
Comgall at Bangor, in the county of Down, all which were 
founded at various periods during the fifth and sixth cen- 
turies. Nor was provision wanting for such women as 
wished to give themselves up to a monastic life. Societies 
were formed, of which that of St Brigid at Kildare was the 

^ Lanigan, I. 374. ' Lanigan, i. 402, 403, and 464. 

8t Columba and the Conversion of the Picts. 77 

most celebrated*. Into these were admitted all who were chap. ir. 
approved, and they spent such time as was not devoted to ^.d. 490— 521' 
prayer and psalmody, in visiting the sick and relieving the 
poor. Their clothing was coarse, their food of the sim- 
plest kind, and each member was bonnd by vows of celibacy 
which could not be violated on pain of excommunication. 
The foundress, sprung of an illustrious family, had fixed 
her convent at Kildare, or the " Cell of the Oak," at the 
earnest request of the men of Leinster, and the extraordi- 
nary veneration in which she was held attracted such a 
crowd of pilgrims, penitents and beggars to her cell, that a 
town rapidly rose up, and became the seat of a bishop, 
who presided over all the churches and communities be- 
longing to her order, whichspread on every side throughout 
the land. 

Such establishments were in keeping with the spirit of inthm^Ho^ 
the age, and the strictness of the monastic rule had charms 
not to be resisted. The system which had found ardent 
votaries in the Boman capital, had peopled the desolate 
Thebaid, and filled Jerome's cells at Bethlehem with de- 
voted inmates, found equal favour with the enthusiastic 
Celts. Many even of the Irish bishops ordained, at this 
period, in unusual numbers', undertook the superintendence 
of a conventual house in addition to their own more peculiar 
duties. Thus the monastic organization was more extended 
than the parochial, and the abbot-bishop, who at first gather- 
ed around him a society, and erected his monastery amidst 
the woods and morasses, and cultivated the soil with his 
own hands, saw, before long, towns and cities spring up 
around his cell or church, and he was fain to undertake the 
spiritual government of the adjacent district'. And as they 

^ Cogitosi -Fi/a S. Brigid. cap. Antiqmiief^ ^. 115. 
XXXV, Colgan's Tr. Th, p. 5^3. » Todd's Hutoty of the IrUh 

* Ihxim' CivU and EccUticutieal Church, p. 34. "Most of the an- 

Hutcry of Scotland^ p. 84, and Ap- cient sees of Ireland appear to have 

pendix A in Beeves' EceUsiaaUctU had a monastic origin, the founders 

78 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages* 

CHAP. IV. were the heads of mlssionaiy outposts in their own country, 
^ P g2x' they soon originated other centres of civilization, and the 
charity which began at home reflected its influence all the 
more abroad. The piety of the Irish monasteries did not 
stagnate in an unworthy unselfishness, but with a surprising 
steadfastness they copied the noble example of Ireland's 
Apostle, and sent forth many an ardent labourer into dis- 
tant fields now " white unto the harvest." 
81 cohaia»a. Amongst those who thus went forth, few occupy a more 

prominent place in missionary annals than the founder 
of the far-famed monastery of Hy or lona. Columba, or 
according to his Irish name, Golum^ was bom at Gartan, 
among the wildest of the Donegal mountains, in the year 
A.D. 521. A.D. 521. His father Fedhlimidh was one of the clan, 
which occupied and gave name to the country round Gar- 
^ tan, and belonged to the royal families of Ireland and Dal- 

LcptndMofhu riada. His mother Eithne was sprung from a Leinster 
family, which also claimed acquaintance with a powerful 
provincial chief. Enthusiastic biographers have related, 
how before his birth, his mother saw in a vision, a beau- 
tiful robe placed in her hands by an angel adorned with 
pictures of flowers of every hue, which after a while lie 
took from her, and sufiered to float in mid air ; and as it 
floated, it grew more and more, till at length it covered all 
the mountains and country round, and there came a voice, 
saying, "Be not sorrowful, O woman, for thou shalt have 
a son who shall be as one of the prophets of God, and is 
foreordained by God to be the guide of innumerable souls 
to their heavenly home." 
tJii Bcfptism, At his baptism by the presbyter Cruithnechan, the boy 

received the name of " Colum,^^ to which was added after- 
being either bishops, or presbyters and hence it was that the term 
who associated bishops with them in Coioorhaj which was applied to a sue* 
the government of their houses. But censor in the government of the in- 
in such cases the memory of the stitution, had reference to his abba- 
founder was revered more as the tial, not episcopal office/* Beeves^ 
father or first abbot than as bishop^ Bed, AtUiq. p. 136. 

Si Columba and the Conversion of the Picts. 79 

wards ^^ctlle,^^ or "of the church," from his devotion to chap. iv. 
the " cell" where he first sojoumed\ From Doire-Eithne, a.©. 521—640 
or " the Oak-forest of Eithne," a hamlet in Donegal, he was 
removed at an early age to the famous school of St Finnian 
of Moville". Here his diligence won for him the approba- 
tion of his instructor, and he was promoted to the oflSce of 
deacon'. Leaving the monastery of Finnian, he repaired 
to Leinster, and placed himself under an eminent Christian 
bard named Gemman. We next find him at the famous J^'* instructors. 
monastic seminary of Clonard, over which another Finnian 
presided*. The early years of his new teacher had been 
spent in Britain, in the society of the Welch saints David, 
Gildas, and Cadoc''; shortly after his return he established 
his monastic school at Clonard, which soon acquired an 
extraordinary celebrity, and was the resort of numbers of 
ardent students. An old writer, quoted in Colgan's Acta 
Sanctorum, has described St Finnian "as a scribe most 
learned to teach the law of God's commandments. He was 
most merciful and compassionate, and sincerely sympa- 
thized with the infirmities of the sick, and the sorrows of 
the afflicted." " In every work of mercy," he continues, 
" he was most ready with his assistance, and healed with 
mildness the mental and bodily ills of all who came to him. 
He exercised towards himself the strictest discipline, to 
leave others a good exaipple, and abhorred all carnal and 
mental vices. His ordinary food was bread and helrbs, his 
drink water; but on the festivals of the Church, he ate 
bread made of com, and drank a cup of ale, or whey. His 
bed was not a soft and easy couch, but the bare ground, 
with a stone for his pillow. In a word, he was fiill of com- 

^ Dr Beeves^ edition of Adam- tirodnio, et sapieDtise studius, into* 

nan's Life of Columba, Pref . p. Ixx. n. gritatem corporis. . .custodieDS." Vit, 

* In Down. See Reeves' Eccle- Adam. p. 9. 
sioiUcalAntiquUiaoflhwn, Connor, * Vita S. Colwmh. n. 7$, and 
and J}romore, p. 151. Reeves' note. 

* " £t a puero Christiano deditus f Lanigan, I. 464. 

80 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. iv. passion towards all other men, but of strictness and severitj 

AD. 621-540. towards himself." 

nu ordination. With the concurrencc of several prelates, the pupil of 
Finnian was sent to Etchen, an anchorite bishop of Clonfad 
in Westmeath, to be iraised to the episcopal order". Ac- 
cording to an old legend, he was ploughing in the field 
when Columba came to his cell, and, on hearing the name 
of his visitor, gave him a hearty welcome, and a promise 
that the purpose of his errand should be granted. But bj 
a mistake, not easy to understand, Etchen fixed on the wrong 
office, and instead of consecrating him a bishop, admitted 
him only to the order of the priesthood. He offered, the 
legend continues, on discovering his mistake, to rectify it, 
but this Columba declined, believing that it was a provi- 
dential interposition. 

rovndMvariout Whether this was so, or whether the story is only a 


fiction of a later age, certain it is that Columba never rose 
higher than the order of the priesthood. After the period 
of study and contemplation was over, he was desirous him- 
self of emulating the example of his instructor, and laid the 
foundations of a monastery, on a hill covered with oaks near . 
Lough-Foyle. The site was given him by one of his rela- 
tives, a prince of the county, and here rose in process of 
time the city of Deny. This, however, was only the first 
of many cells and churches of which he was the founder. 
The most celebrated next to Derry was that of Dair-magh, 
or Durrow, in the diocese of Meath, of which Bede has 
made special mention'. In the foundation of this and his 

^ VUa S. Finnian^ Colgan's Act. 
SS. p. 397, quoted in Twld^s Hit- 
tory of the Iruh Churchy p. 31. 

* Colgan*8 Tr. Th. p. 397. Lani- 
S%n, II. n6. Todd's Obits of Christ. 
Church, p. liv. On consecration by 
a single bishop see Reeves' Adam- 
tiaUf p. 349. Johannes Major says 
of the consecration of Servanus 
by Palladius, *^£x isto patet quod 

episcopus in necessitate ab uno 
episcopo consecratur ; et non est de 
episcopi essentia, quod a tribus ordi- 
netur, quoted in Ussher, Works, vi. 
p. 2 1 a. Bingham, Book ii. ch. x. 6, 7. 
^ Bede, ill. 4. " Fecerat autem 
priusquam Britanniam veniret, mo- 
nasterium nobile in Hibemia, quod 
a copia roborum Dearmach lingua 
Scottorumi hoc est, Campus robo- 

& Columha and the Conversion of the Picts, 81 

other cells Columba was diligently employed till the year chap. iv. 
A.D. 561, when he left Ireland on his famous mission to ^^ ggj 
the highlands of Scotland. The precise occasion of his 
departure is involved in much obscurity. Later writers, 
whose single object was to extol the virtues of the saint, saw 
in it only the result of an ardent missionary spirit. But 
very early Irish traditions refuse to regard it in this light. 
They represent his withdrawal from his own country as a 
sort of penance imposed upon him, with his own consent, in 
consequence of a feud, which led to the battle of Cooldrevny, 
and which " is mentioned," remarks Dr Reeves*, " by Adam- 
nan in two instances, as a kind of Hegira in the saint's 
life." According to one tradition, this feud arose out of 
causes too quaint and characteristic of the times to be en- 
tirely passed by. 

It would seem that on one occasion' Columba paid a J>ffend or sf 

. TTi 1 "I ^i*^*cn'* Psalter. 

visit to St Finnian at Drom Finn m Ulster, and borrowed 
his copy of the Psalter*. Anxious to retain a copy of the 
book, and yet afraid that Finnian would not suflFer him if 
he made the request, he resorted to stratagem to effect his 
purpose. Every day he repaired to Finnian's church, and 
remained there till the people had all left, when he sat 
down and made a hurried transcription of the volume. The 
circumstance did not escape the notice of Finnian, but he 
resolved to say nothing about the matter till Columba had 
concluded his labours, when he sent to him and demanded 
the book, reminding him that as the original was his, so 
also was the copy which had been made without his per- 
mission*. Columba was very indignant, and reftised out- 

mm, cognominatur/' 'Reeyes' Adam- the Fonr MasterSf I. 194. 

nan, lib. in. 15. Lanigan, n. 118. ^ Iteeves' Adamnan, p. 149. 

1 Beeves' Adamnan, p. 248. Ap- * Colgan's TV. Th. p. 409. "Cau- 

pendix B. See also OriginaUa Pa- sa utrinque audita Bex, seu partium 

ronAiaUs ScotiaB, Vol. 11. p. 285. rationes male pensans, seu in alteram 

Timet* CivU and EccUsiattiad Bit- privato affectu magis propendens, 

torv of Scotland, p. 149. pro Finneno sententiam pronuntiat, 

3 O'Curry's Lectuna, p. 328. O'- et sententiam ipse Hilemico versu 

J)ouoYan*s Notet on the AnnaU of abinde in huno usque diem inter 


82 The Missionary History cf the Middle Ages, 


A.O. 561. 

Pecision of 

B tttle of 

right to comply. After some words, it was agreed to refer 
the dispute to DIarmaid, the king of Ireland. Accordingly 
the rivals repaired to Tara, and were admitted to an audi- 
ence with the king. After hearing the case, Diarmaid gave 
the remarkable judgment which to this day is a proverb in 
Iiieland ; '^ le gach hoin a hoinin^^ said he, that is, '' to 
every cow belongeth her little cow, or calf,'* and so to every 
book belongeth its son-book or copy; therefore the book 
you wrote, O Colum, belongs by right to Finnian. " That 
is an unjust decision, O Diarmaid," was C!olum's reply, 
" and I will avenge it on you\" 

At this very time it so happened that the son of the 
king's steward and the son of ihe king of Connaught, who 
was a hostage of Diarmaid, were playing a game of hurling 
on the green before the king's palace. A dispute arose 
between them, in the midst of which the royal hostage 
struck his antagonist with his hurley, and killed him. 
Thereupon the young prince fled for sanctuary to Colum, 
who was still in the king's presence. But the latter ordered 
him to be dragged away, and he was put to death for having 
desecrated the precincts of the palace against the ancient 
law and usage. At this insult Columba was still more in- 
dignant, and having with difficulty escaped from tlie court, 
made his way to the mountains of his native Donegal. 
Here he was in the midst of relatives and friends, who 
took up his quarrel, and with the men of Tyrone and the 
king of Connaught, marched to Cooldrevny, between Sligo 
and Dromcliff, where a battle was fought, and Diarmaid 
was discomfited. After a while, however, he succeeded in 

Hibemos famoso in huDC modum 
expressit : Lt gach hmn a hoiniriy 
acm le gach Itahhar a leabhran, id 
est, Buculus est matria, libri suus 
fsto HbelluB." O^Curry'B Lectures, 
p. 3^8. Four Maatert, 1. 193. 

* The MS. Psalter was returned 
to Columba, and was ever after 

known as the CaOiach, (= " the Book 
of Battle,") and ^-as preserved for 
ages in the family of 0*Donnell : it 
in now in the Museum of the Royal 
Irish Academy. Reeves* Adamnan, 
p. 249. Annals of the Four MasterB, 
I. 193. Sir W. Betham's AtUiqua" 
rian Researches, i. 109. 

Si Columba and the Conversion of the JPicts. 83 

making peace with Columba and his friends. But the chap.iv. 
saint's conscience would not forgive him for having been I^^TseL 
the cause of so much bloodshed, and he himself became the 
subject of ecclesiastical censure. A synod was summoned 
at Teltown, in Meath, and it was agreed that Columba, as 
" a man of blood," and the author of so great slaughter, 
ought to quit his country, and win over from the heathen 
to Christ as many souls as perished in the battle*. In this 
sentence, according to the legend, all present concurred ex- 
cept Brendan of Birr, who protested against it, and Finnian 
of Moville, the old instructor of Columba, who expressed 
his veneration for his former pupil^ 

Whether this account has any substratum of truth, or MarOaiifro' 

IT til • f» 1 pa»*Uiesof 

18 only to be regarded as the legendary creation of a later ^ caumba. 
age, it is difficult to determine. The monastic biographers 
of the saint have naturally said little about the matter. 
Dr Beeves, the learned editor of Adamnan, admits " the 
martial propensities " of the great missionary of lona, but 
he bids us remember the "complexion of the times in which 
he was bom, and the peculiar condition of society in his 
day, which required even women to enter battle, and justi- 
fied ecclesiastics in the occasional exercise of warfare." He 
admits also that " primitive Irish ecclesiastics, and especi- 
ally the superior class, commonly known as saints, were 
very impatient of contradiction, and very resentful of in- 
jury;" and he even thinks it possible that some current 
stories of the saint's warlike temperament may have sug- 
gested the somewhat guarded and qualified manner in 
which Bede speaks of him', and may have given a tinge 

* "Post h»c in Synodo sancto- 
rum Hibemis gravis querela contra 
Sanctum Ck>lumbam, tanquam au- 
thorem tam multi sanguinis effusi, 
instituta est. Unde communi de- 
creto censuerunt ipsum debere tot 
animas, agentilitate conversas, Chris- 
to lucrari, quot in isto prselio inter- 
icnmt." Colgan's Acta SS. 645. 

Reeves' Adumnan^ p. 251. For no- 
tice of other battles in which Co- 
lumba is said to have been engaged 
see If/id. p. 258. 

* Beeves' ^(iamnan, Pnef. Ixxvii. 
See also O'Donovan's Four MatterSy 
I. 193 n. 

• ^* Qualiseunque fuerit ipie, nos 
hoc de illo certum tenemus, quia 


i^D. 563. 

fft* out for 

84 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

cnAP. lY. to some of the legends concerning liia personal appearance. 
~ On whichever side the truth lies, certain it is that in the 
year 563 St Columba, now in his forty-second year, having 
collected twelve companions ^ took leave of his country^ 
and in a wicker boat covered with skins made for the 
western coast of Scotland. 

It is possible that the provincial king of Kintyre and 
Argyle may have invited him to his kingdom, for he was 
allied to him by blood, and it was not a strange country to 
which he now retired. About sixty years before, a portion 
of the family of Eire, chief of the Irish Dalriada, had passed 
over with a considerable body of followers to the nearest 
part of Argyleshire, where they had settled, and founded 
the kingdom of British Scotia, or Dalriada'. As yet the 
colony had not acquired much strength, or pushed its do- 
minions far beyond its original boundaries, and Bruide, 
the chief of the Picts, was a prince of considerable power, 
and could bring a formidable force to engage in the constant 
wars of which Scotland was at this time the theatre. These 
wars gave the people but little leisure for agricultural pur- 
suits, and their chief occupation consisted in pasturing their 
flocks and herds. Numbering, it has been thought', scarcely 
more than twenty thousand, or about half the present popu- 
lation of Glasgow, they were scattered at distant intervals 
over the country, the central district of which consisted 
of one vast forest, called the " Caledonian wood," abound- 
ing in enormous wild boars and formidable packs of wolves. 
The rest of the country was bare and mountainous, and 

reliquit successores magna continen- 
tia ac divino amore r^rularique insti- 
tutiooe inaignes." H. E, iii. 4. 

^ Their names are given in Dr 
Heeves' Adamnarit pp. 245 and 299, 
and the Orig, Paroch. Scotiof, Vol. U. 

^ See the Dean of Lismore's Book 
of Ancient Gadie Poetry , p. xxiv. 
luid Orig, Paroch. Scotia, VoL n. 

Part I. " The territory occupied by 
this settlement consisted of the dia- 
tricts of Cowal), Kintyre, Knapdale, 
Argyll-proper, Lorn, and probably 

fart of Morvern with the islands of 
sla, lona, Arran, and the smaU 
islands adjacent." 

• Cunningham's Scotland, I. 47. 
See Gibbon, ni. 266, 

St Columba and the Conversion of the Picts, 85 

covered to a great extent with impassable fens, through chap. it. 

which even the natives could with difficulty force their way. a.d. 663. 
For the coast, then, of Argyle St Columba shaped his Arrives at riy, 
course, and on Pentecost Eve cast anchor in one of the 
rocky bays of lona*, an island about three miles long, and 
a mile broad, and separated by a narrow strait from the 
Boss of Mull*. Situated on the confines of the Pictish and 
Scottish kingdoms, and subject in a measure to the chiefs 
of both, it seemed to afford a convenient basis of missionary 
operations among both people. The Scots, indeed, were 
Christians in name, but the Northern Picts were still sunk 
in paganism, and their conversion became the grand object 
of the missionary's ambition. 

His first care, therefore, was to obtain a grant of the Ereeu a tmmas- 
island, and when this was freely conceded by Conall', the ^^* 
chief of British Dalriada, he proceeded to erect a monastery 
on the model, doubtless, of that which had already been 
raised by his hands under the oaks of Deny. It was of 
the simplest character, consisting of a number of small 
wattle-built huts, surrounding a green court. It included, 
as we gather from incidental notices in Adamnan, a chapel, 
a dwelling-house for the abbot and his monks, another 
for the entertainment of strangers, a refectory, and kitchen, 
and outside the trench a rampart*, a byre for the cows, a 
bam and storehouse for the grain, and other outbuildings. 
All these were constructed of timber or wattles. 

Over this little establishment Columba presided. Ho 
was the abbot*, the " father*' of the society, and his autho- 
rity extended to all such similar societies as he either had 

* OriffinesParochuUesScoticej Vol. 
n. p. 185. 

* See the Topograpkia HyensU in 
Beeree* Adamnan, p. 413. 

' Innes* Civil cmd Ecclesiastical 
History, p. 151. Orig. Paroch. 11. 

* Bede, H. E, it. 48, describes 

the monastic vallum (called a ecuHuT) 
of St Cuthbort's little moDastery in 
Fame. See also Vita S. CtUhberti, 
cap. 17. f • j 

* Abbot, abbas, op paterj op sane 
tus pater, or sanctus senior, and in 
the founder's case pattvnus, Adarn^ 
nan passim. 

86 The 

Hision/ of tie Afiddle Agee. 


CHAP. IT. founded in Ireland, or might found in the coantrj of his 
663-674. adoption. In ecclesiastical rank he was a presbyter, he 
officiated at the altar in the little chapel, and pronounoed 
the benediction, bnt did not nsnrp the functions of a bishop^ 
The rest of the community were his " fiunily," his " chil- 
dren;" at first, as we have seen, they were twelve in num- 
ber, and his companions fix)m Ireland, but before long they 
received numerous accessions, and included Britons and 
Saxons. Living together under a conmion rule, they were 
to cultivate the virtues of obedience, humility, and chastity, 
to regard one another as fellow-soldiers of Jesus Christ, 
and their life as a continual warfare in Christ's cause*. 

Their Eule' required of them that morning and evening 
they should repair to the oratory, and join in the sacred 
services. Every Wednesday and Friday, except in the 
interval between Easter and Whitsunday was a fast-day, 
and no food was taken till the nona, except on the occa- 
sion of the arrival of a stranger, when the rule was relaxed 
that they might indulge their national hospitality. The 
intervals of devotion were employed in reading, writing, 
and labour. Diligence was inculcated by the exhortations 
and life of the founder, of whom his biographer says that 
he allowed no hour to pass during which he was not 
engaged in prayer, or reading, or writing, or some other 
employment. "Reading" included chiefly the study of 
Holy Scripture, especially the Psalter, which was diligently 


* "Qui non episcopns, Bed prea- 
hyter exstitit et monachuB.** Bede» 
JL E, III. 4. ''But there were at all 
timeH bishops connected with the so- 
ciety resident at Hy or some depend- 
ent church, who were subject to the 
abbot *B jurisdiction, and were assign- 
ed their stations, or called in to or- 
dain, very much as the bishops of 
the Unitut Fratrum of the present 
day, being looked upon as essential to 
the propoffcUian rather than the main- 

tenance of the Church.'* Keeyes* 
Adumnan, p. 341. 

* Beeves, p. 339. Conventual life 
was with them a ''militia Christi,** 
they themselves were Christi milUea; 
each one professed his willingness to 
enter the world only as an athUta 
Chritti in the propagation uf the Go- 
spel. Bede, ui. 3. 

' St Columba's rule is published 
by Dr Reeves in Colton's VisiUUiim 
qf Jkrry^ p. 109. 

committed to memory; and besides tliis, that of books in ciiAr. iv. 
the Grreek and Latin languages \ and the lives of some of 17563^^^^574. 
the saints. Writing was the subject of especial attention. 
St Columba was distinguished for his devotion to this occu- 
pation, and the Books of Kells and Durrow are wonderful 
specimens of the perfection which his followers acquired in 
the arts of transcribing and illuminating service-books and 
manuscripts. Active labour was also required of every 
member of the little community; he learnt to fill the 
ground, to sow the com, to store the grain, to milk the 
cows, to guide the skiff or coracle on the stormy sea. 

In each and all these employments the abbot set an Pframatap- 
eminent example to the society which he had formed on cwi^*"^ 
the sea-girt isle. He had many natural gifts which fitted 
him for his arduous work. Tall of stature, of a vigorous 
and athletic frame, of a ruddy and joyous countenance, 
which, as Adamnan has it, made all who saw him glad, 
he attracted the hearts of all. He was celebrated also for 
the powers of his voice, which could be heard, according 
to his biographer, at an amazing distance", and for a prac- 
tical turn, which enabled him to render aid when required 

^ ''Of Classical MSS. belonging 
to the Irish school, it will suffice," 
says Dr Reeves, " to mention two : 
the one of Horace, Codex BemensU 
^* 3^3» 4to, sasc. viii. exeuntis, vel 
ix. ineuntis, Soottici icriptus: anti- 
qnissimus omnium quotquot adhuc 
innotuerunt, et ordine carminum a 
reliquis mire discrepans.'* Orellius, 
Horatii 0pp. Prtef. The other is 
Prisdan : " Grammatica Prisciani 
ScoUici scripta. Codex eximius ordi- 
Dateque scriptus, qui ob notas inter- 
Hneares et marginales idiomate et 
oharacteribus S^otticis in £urop& 
cine dubio celebre nomen obtinebit.** 
Zeuss, Gram. Cdt. Praef. p. xix. 
"Adamnan^s two remaining Latin 
works give proofs of his classical at- 
tainments, and Cummian's Pcuchal 
EjpidU is a remarkable specimen of 

the ecclesiastical learning of the day/* 
Reeves' Adamnan, p. 353. As to 
writing, Giraldus Cambrensis says 
of the Book of Kells, "Haec eqoidem 
quanto frequentius et diligentius in- 
tueor, semper quasi novis obstupeo 
semperque magis ac magis admiranda 
ooDspido.** Topog. ffibemuE, ii.c. 38. 
' '^Aliquando per quatuor stactia, 
hoc est quingentos passus, aliquando 
vero per octo, hoc est, mille passus, 
incomparabili elevata modo audie- 
batur. Vita S. Columba;, i. 37. 
In this respect the abbot was not un- 
like the celebrated Edward Irving, 
of whom it is similarly said that ''his 
voice could be heard half a mile off, 
and his sentences could be followed 
at the distance of a quarter of a mile." 
See Mrs Oliphant's Life of Edward 

88 The Missionary History of the Middle Age$* 

SueeexM of the 

CRAP. IV. in any emergency. He coald bale the boat, grind the com 
A D 568—574. ^^ ^^^ quern or handmill, administer medicine to the sick, 
and superintend the labours of the farm. 

When we add to this, that he was of a princely family, 
we cease to wonder at the influence he rapidly gained over 
Conall and the other Dalriadic chiefs. Having laid the 
foundations of his monastic establishment, he set out for 
the mainland, and sought an interview with the Pictish 
chief. The latter lived at this time not far from the river 
Ness, at a spot now identified with Craig Phadrtck^ about 
two miles south-west of Inverness*. Like the pagan master 
of the Apostle of Ireland, Bruide was exceedingly loath to 
encounter the missionary, and closed his gates against him. 
But Columba and his companions Comgall and Cainnech 
made their way to the king's residence, a humble log-hut, 
in all probability, with a rampart of imccmcnted stones ; 
and the sign of the cross had no sooner been made by 
Columba than, according to his biographer', the gate flew 
open of its own accord, and admitted the missionary into 
the presence of the king. Alarmed at this unexpected oc- 
currence, the Pictish chief received his visitor with due 
reverence, and in spite of all the influence of the Druids to 
put down the new comer, he agreed to befriend him and 
aid him in his work, by uniting with Conall in consenting 
that the island of Hy should be made over to Columba 
and his companions as the site of a monastic institution, 
whence his missionary operations might be securely carried 

' Reeves' Adamnariy p. 151 n. 
"Venit (S. Columba) Britanniam 
regnante Pictis Bridio filio Meilo- 
chon, re^ potentissimo, nono anno 
reffDi bnjua." Bede, H, E. in. 4. 

■ Adamnan, ii. 35. "The Irish 
written language was brought over 
to Scotland in the sixth century by 
Ck)lumba and his clergy, who intro- 

duced it, with Christianity, among 
the Cruinthne ; where, however, the 
native dialect must have received 
some cultivation, as we find that he 
was opposed by Magi, which implies 
a literary class among the Pagan 
Cruinthne." Deanof Lumore*8Bw)k» 
p. xxvi. 

8t Columha and the Conversion of the Picts. 89 

Thus successful, Coluraba returned to the island, and chap. it. 
the monastic buildings rose in security, and continued to ^ ^ 563—574. 
be his head-quarters for a space of thirty-four years. No 
spot could be more suited than the island for his missionary 
tours; from it he could easily either make his way himself 
to the mainland, or direct the numerous bands of labourers 
^who left their wattled cells to preach the word amongst 
the fastnesses of Pictland\ 

It is to be wished that his biographer Adamnan had conver$im of 

, , the Pit' ts. 

described these tours with greater precision, and had been 
at more pains to describe the actual missionary work of the 
saint, than to record the numerous miracles which have 
been ascribed to him. From the hints, however, scattered 
up and down his work we gather that Columba frequently 
visited the institutions he had founded North of the Gram- 
pians*, that aided by devoted followers he preached the word 
wherever he could find an ear to listen, erected the humble 
church, left one or more of his own band to carry on the 
work, and so passed on sowing the seed'. But not content 
with penetrating Scotland from sea to sea, he and his com- 
panions courted new dangers and yet greater hardships. 
Committing themselves to their boats of skin, they braved 
the Northern Seas, and carried the Cross into the distant 
Hebrides and Orkney isles. A monastery was founded at 
Hymba*, over which Columba placed his maternal uncle 
Eman; another in Ethica'; a third arose at Elena, or Elach- 
nave, " the holy island;" at Skye also he spent some time, 

^ Thus Macharius or Mochonna 
sent by Columba with twelve 
companions to the Picts. ^'Plurima 
exinde monasteria per discipulos ejus 
(sc. Columbse) et in Britannia et in 
Bibernia propagata sunt." Bede, 
ff. E. ni. 4. 

* See Ofig. Paroeh. Scotia, 11. 186. 

' Sometimes we read of his preach- 
ing the word per interpreUUorem, as 
in Adamnan, L 33, n. 33, which 

points to a diversity of Graelic and 
Pictish : on other occasions, II. 14, 
33» 34* he needed no such assistance. 

* Hymba. See Reeves' notes on 
Adamnan, I. 45, ii. 24, in. 5, 17. 
One of his chief monasteries among 
the Picts was at Abemethy in Strath- 
erne. Innes* CivU and Eccl, HiS" 
tory, 189. 

^ Ethica, Lanigan, n. 168. Adami* 
nan, i. 19, n. 18. 

90 The MUaionary History of ihs MiddU Ages. 

CHAP. iv. and erected a monastery and a chnrch, and memorials of 
A.D. 683-574! ^^^ visits still remain in the bay of Loch Columkille, and 
the isle called Eilean ColumkiUe^. Wherever his disciples 
went, they carried the fame of their great teacher, and, 
like bees from a hive, spread forth far and wide, opening 
up everywhere a fresh centre of missionary enterprise and 
of civilization amidst the surrounding heathenism. Nor 
while labouring on the Scottish mainland and amongst 
the many Western Isles, the " Polynesia" of the missions 
of that day, did the abbot forget the communities he had 
established amongst the oaks of Deny and Durrough. His 
thoughtful anxieties were often occupied with the welfare 
of the sister churches, and visitors frequently crossed over 
to lona, and while there entertained with peculiar hospi- 
tality, discussed with the saint the affairs of the churches, 
and received from him advice and instruction. 

A proof of the ascendancy he had gained over the chiefs 
was aflforded on the death of Conall the Dalriadian king, in 
the year A.D. 574. He was succeeded by his cousin Aidan, 
and the new king selected Columba to perform the cere- 
mony of inauguration, which took place in the monastery 
of lona*. In the following year, he accompanied the newly- 
elected chief to the Council of Druimceatt in Ireland. 
Two important points were here to be discussed. The first 
concerned a dispute between Aidan and the sovereign of 
Ireland respecting the right of possession to the territory of 
Dal-aradia, or portions of the county of Antrim. Aidan 
claimed the territory as an hereditary right, on the ground 
of his descent fi-om Caibre Eiada. The Irish monarch as- 
serted his authority over the whole island, and resented the 

A.D. 574. 

CoftnHl of 

XD. 575. 

* See Beeves' Adamnan, p. 139. 
Orig. Pa/roch. Vol. n. 354. 

* Adamnanj m. 5. Martene 
treating "de solemni Regum bene- 
dictione/' haa the following obser- 
vation on this incident; '^Antiquis- 

sima omnium, qnu inter legendum 
mihi reperire licuit, ea est qu® a 
Columba abbate Hyensi facta est 
jussu angeli in Aidanum Scotorum 
regem." Dt AnUq, EccL RUib. u, 10. 

8t Colurnba and the Conversion of the Ftcts, 91 

idea that a foreign prince should enjoy sovereignty in any chap. it. 
part of his dominions. The second cause of discussion ^^ g^g 
arose from the overgrown power and degeneracy of the ' * 
bardic order. How influential this order was we have 
already seen. The people never tired of listening to their 
praises of the national valour, or the heroic deeds of some 

national hero. And the bardic order, strong in their own ^^'^^*^ 
numbers and the popular afiection, did not scruple to de-'^'^**^*''*''^- 
fame and lampoon all that gave them any cause of annoy- 
ance, or failed to seek their goodwill by costly presents. 
The consequence was, that many of the influential chiefs, 
stung by their satirical verses, clamoured for the suppres- 
sion of the order, and their banishment from the kingdom. 
Both these points were, therefore, referred for settlement 
to the Council of Druimceatt. And first the matter in dis- 
pute between the two kings was submitted for arbitration 
to Columba, who declined to give an opinion himself, and 
referred the assembled chiefs to Colman, an ecclesiastic 
famed for his legal knowledge. He gave his decision in 
favour of the Irish monarch, and asserted his right to exact 
tribute from the Dalriadic province. This, settled to the 
satisfaction of all, the question of suppressing the bardic 
order was submitted to the council. And here the great 
influence of Columba was used in mediating between the 
exasperated chiefs and the ofiending bards. Not only fond 
of poetry, but a poet himself, he ventured to intercede in 
their behalf, and pointed out the difficulty of exterminating 
an order so strongly supported by national feeling. He 
proposed instead that their number should be lessened, and 
that they should be placed under strict restraints, and so 
for the future controlled. After some dispute this pro- • 

posal was carried, and the bardic order was preserved. 

When the council had broken up, Columba repaired to 
the monasteries he had founded before his departure for 
Scotland. His stay appears to have extended over a con- 

later years. 

92 The Missionary History of the Middh Ages. 

CHAP. IV. siderable period, which he employed in inquiring into the 
^^ 5QQ welfare of the various religious houses, and arranging mat- 
« coiHmba'i ters of discipline and ritual. After the year 580, when the 
saint became involved in a dispute with St Oomgall of 
Bangor about jurisdiction, and which resulted in the battle 
of Coleraine between their respective kinsmen, the details 
of his life are involved in considerable obscurity. It seems 
probable that he returned to Hy, but revisited Ireland at 
some period subsequent to the year 585 ; this last voyage 
back to liis island-home was not unattended with danger* 
His boat was caught in the eddies of " Brecan*s Cauldron," 
off the coast of Antrim, and he was near meeting the fate 
of the grandson of Niall of the Nine Hostages, who gave 
his name to this "gulp of the sea," as the natives called 
it. Safe once more in Hy, he busied himself with super- 
intending the labours of his monastic brethren till the year 
593, when a sudden sickness, or, as his biographer states, 
a heavenly mission, warned him that his life was drawing 
to a close. Four years more, however, were allowed him, 
and were devoted to reading, study, and prayer. At length 
the day came when he must quit his little band of labourers 
for ever. For some time he had had presentiments of its 
approach, and had conversed on the subject with one of 
his most intimate friends amongst the brethren, and now 
he looked forward to his speedy release with the conscious- 
ness of one who felt that he had " finished his course," and 
" kept the faith," and might look humbly for his crown. 
One Saturday he had gone with one of the brethren to the 
bam where the corn had been stored, and thanked God 
that He had provided for the wants of the brotherhood, 
and that for this year at least there would be no lack of 
food, though he himself would not share it with them*. 
Then, perceiving the sorrow of his companion, he con- 
tinued, " This day is in the sacred Scriptures called Sab^ 

^ Adamnan, in. 43. 

8t Columba and the Conversion of the JPCcta, 93 

batumy or Best, And truly will it be a day of Rest to chap. iv. 
me, for this day I shall bid farewell to the toils of my life, ^„ 593^ 
and enter into the rest of heaven. For now my Lord Jesus 
Christ deigns to invite me, and to Him shall I at midnight 
depart/^ Together the two then ascended a little hilly His death, 
which stood above the monastery, and there lifting up both 
his hands to heaven, the saint bestowed upon it his last 
blessing. Descending, they entered the little wattled hut, 
and the saint began to transcribe the thirty-fourth Psalm*; 
but on coming to the words in the eleventh verse, " They 
who seek the Lord shall want no manner of thing that is 
goody ^ he remarked that he had come to the end of a page, 
and to a place where he might well stop. "The next 
words," said he, * Come, ye childreny hearken unto mey 
belong rather to my successor than to me." Then, rising, 
he went to vespers, and when they were ended, returned 
to his cell, and sent his last exhortation by his friend to 
his disciples, urging them to mutual love and good will, 
and expressing his hope of meeting them hereafter. The 
night wore on, and on the turn of midnight, as the bell 
rang for matins, he rose and went to the chapel, and knelt 
down before the altar in prayer. The lights had not as 
yet been brought in, but he was supported by his faithful 
disciple till the rest of the brethren entered, who no sooner 
saw what was rapidly drawing nigh, than they set up a 
bitter cry, and burst forth into lamentation. But Columba 
looked upon them with cheerfulness, and tried to raise his 
right hand, as if to bless them. His voice failing, he could 
only make the accustomed sign, and with his hand lifted 
up in blessing, he breathed his last, on the morning of 

^ The thirty- third in the Yulgate. s'^e Lanigan, E, H. Ii. 247, n. 135. 

Pa. xxxiii. 10, or xxxiv. 11. In Similarly, in the same chapter, A- 

■Adamnan, it ii cited thus, "Inaui- damnan cites Prov. xv. 13, thus, 

rentes aatem Dominum non d^jinent ** Corde loUante vuUutJloret" which in 

omni bono.** On Adamnan's use of the Yulfifate nins ** Cor gaudena ea> 

the Anti-Hieronymian Latin tezt^ hilanU faciem" 

94 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 
CHAP. IV. Sunday, June the 9th, 597, in the seventy-seventh year of 

D. 597. ^^8 »g®- 

It may be thought that we have lingered too long over 
the life of this eminent missionary. But the founder of the 
far-famed monastery of Hy deserved more than a passing 
notice. A worthy successor of the Apostle of Ireland, he 
stands forth as at once the type and the forerunner of that 
zealous, enthusiastic, missionary zeal which made the name 
of " Scotsmen" a household word on the European conti- 
nent during the sixth and three following centuries. Shut 
out from the influence of the great Church on the banks of 
the Tiber, by a barrier of Arianism, no less than by the 
physical barrier of the Alps^, and imaffected, at least for 
many years, by the Teutonic invasions which devastated the 
English shores, the Churches of St Patrick and Columba 
developed their peculiar institutions in peace and quietness. 
Safe in their seclusion, the Columbian monasteries rose on 
all sides with great rapidity, and were filled with inmates 
in extraordinary numbers. Thus the monasteries of St Fin- 
nian of Clonard, St Comgall of Bangor, could muster three 
thousand each, and Bede estimates the members of the 
Welsh Bangor at two thousand one hundred*, to say 
nothing of other smaller institutions. Their labours not 
only consolidated the efforts of previous missionaries in 
their own county, but attracted pupils to their schools from 
every part of Europe, and furnished hosts of missionaries, 
ready at a moment's warning to go forth, with a zeal which 
no difficulties could daunt, whithersoever an opening was 
presented for their labours. For the present we must leave 
them, and turn to another centre of missionary zeal. But 
in the course of our narrative we shall often encounter the 
disciples of Columba again. We shall find them restoring 

^ See an able article on "Scots 6row«r, April, i86a. 
on the Continent in the Early Mid- ^ Bedo^ If, £. ii. a. 

die Ages " in the ChrUtian hememr 

8t Columha and the Conversion of the Ptcts, 95 

•istianity in Saxon England and Boman Germany, chap. iv. 
^kenine the flame of Christian civilization in North- ^11 

° , , A.D. 597, 

France, and reproducing the monasteries of Hy and 
disfame at Luxeuil and Bobbio; we shall see them 
corned in the palace of Charlemagne, and we shall 
le upon their track even in the distant and ungenial 
[and. Thus when Boman civilization had sunk in an 
ss of decrepitude, and while as yet the great Teutonic 
/'ement was in its infancy, the Providence of Him who 
vith His Church " even unto the end of the world," 
ed up men to fill up the gap and to hand on the torch 



A.D. 596—607. 

CHAP. V., 680. 


" Pervenit ad dob Anglorum gentem ad fidem Chriatianam, Deo iniM- 
rante, desiderantea velle coDYerti, Bed sacerdotee e vicinio negligere, et dem- 
deria eonim cessare ana adhortatione aacoendere.'* — Gbeoobu Magni Epist, 

While the Celtic Church in Ireland and Scotland was 
thus consolidating her conquests at home, and preparing 
for her missionary labours on the continent, efforts were 
made in a very different quarter to reclaim to Christianity 
and civilization the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England. 
About twenty years before the death of the great abbot 
of lona, a well-known incident had taken place in the 
forum of Rome. We need not repeat a tale familiar to 
every child. Who has not heard of the fair-haked York- 
shire boys exposed there for sale by the Jewish slave-mer- 
chant, and of the large-hearted monk of the monastery of 
St Andrew on the Cselian Hill, who, as he passed by, 
asked their name and country? It was a casual meeting, 
indeed, but the sight of those children led to events fraught 
with important consequences to their remote and barbarous 
home. Barbarous, in truth, it was at this period. Thick 
darkness had again settled over the island which the arms 
of Caesar had revealed to his countrymen, and England 
seemed again to have become a savage nation, shut out 
from the rest of the world. The traces, indeed, of the 
Eoman conqueror still remained in the great works, the 

J//.s\9/c>n of S^ Augustine to K)i(jljind. 97 

roads, the bridges, the towns, the baths, the temples, which chap. v. 
ever marked the advance of the Iron kingdom ; and in the ^^ 53^ 
hill-countries of Wales and Cornwall, and the highlands 
of Scotland, still lingered the disciples of that early British 
Church whose origin has been variously ascribed to St 
Peter or St Paul, to St James or Simon Zelotes, to Aristo- 
bulus or Joseph of Arimathsea. 

Hither as to a last resting-place thej had fled from the TheSiaximin- 
Teutonic invader, who had come from the dark forests of 
Northern Germany and the shores of the Baltic, where the 
sound of the Grospel had never yet been heard. Slowly 
and surely he had made his way; and amidst the long 
years of implacable hostility between the conquering and 
the conquered races, it is not surprising that present suf- 
fering and perhaps the antipathies of race deterred the 
British Christian from enlightening the paganism of his 

This work was reserved for the monk of St Andrew, ortgoryou 
whom we have just now mentioned. He had conceived 
the idea of undertaking it in person, and had actually 
accomplished three days' journey towards this distant land, 
when he was overtaken by the messengers, whom a furious 
mob had compelled the Pontiff to send and recall him to 
their city. From that day he was not suffered to return 
to his monastery. His energy and knowledge of human 
nature had marked him out as no ordinary man. En- 
trusted with a political mission to Constantinople, he learnt 
to reconcile Emperors, and disputed with Eutychius, Bishop 
of Constantinople. Abbot, ambassador, controversialist, he 
returned to Bome to be raised by the voice of an enthusi- 
astic people, in a season of pestilence and famine, to the ^ 1*^ 
Pontifical chair*. 

But he had never forgotten that moving sight in the 
Boman slave-market, or the coxmtry of those fair-haired 

1 Miliuan'i Lotin ChriiUanUy, i. 438. Ed. i. 


98 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 


A.O. 595. 

Tatarriagt of 
KlMBberi imd 

boys; and five years after his elevation to the Pope* 
dom he found an opportonitj of carrying out his de« 


In the year 568 Ethelbert, a prince of the house of the 
(Esciugs, succeeded to the kingdom of Kent, and before 
long took up a high position among the princes of the 
island. The proximity of Kent to the continent had heen 
favourable to the maintenance of the old connection be- 
tween Britain and Graul; and about the year 570 Ethelbert 
married a Christian princess. Bertha, daughter of Chari- 
bert, king of Paris. It had been agreed, as a condition of 
the marriage, that the queen should be allowed to enjoy 
the free exercise of her religion, and she had been attended 
to the Kentish court by a French bishop, named Luidhard» 
It is a proof of Ethelbert's tolerant spirit that he allowed 
her chaplain to celebrate the worship of the Christian's 
God in the little church of St Martin, a relic of Roman- 
British times, outside the walls of Canterbury; and it is 
only probable that Bertha, who must often have heard 
what a Clotilda had been able to effect with a Remigius 
by her side, should have endeavoured, during a union of 
twenty years, to influence her husband even more strongly 
in favour of the Gospel. When such were the feelings of 
the court, it is not surprising that many of the people of 
Kent, whose own heathen hierarchy had sunk into insigni- 
ficance, would be anxious to receive some instruction in 
the religion of their queen. That they made application 
to the Frankish bishops for missionaries, is a fact we learn 
from Gregory's letters *, and it was, probably, intelligence 
of this, which determined him in the year 596 to make 
another attempt to carry out the work which he had been 
prevented executing in person. 

1 See Greg. Epp, vi. 58. " Per- 
▼enit ad nos Ang^lorum gentexn ad 
fidem Cbiistianam Deo miserante 
(ksideranter vdU eonvtrti, sed sacer- 

dotes e yicinio negligerc, et desideria 
eorum cessare sua adhortatioDo saC' 
cendere." Lappenberg, 1. 131. Kern- 
ble*a Scuamt m Bnt/land, u. 356. 

Mission of 8t Augustine to England. 9d 

Accordingly he wrote to the presbyter Candidas \ ad- chap. v. 
ministrator of the patrimony of St Peter in Gaul, directing 77^96 
him to buy up English youths of seventeen or twenty years Letter ta can- 
of age, that they might be trained in different monasteries 
and become missionaries in their native land ; and in the 
following year he sent forth a band of forty monks from 
his own monastery on the CaBlian hill, headed by their 
Prior Augustine, to commence a direct mission in Eng- 

In the summer, therefore, of 596, Augustine and hi& MUHamtfAw 
companions set out, and crossing the Gallic Alps, reached 
the neighbourhood of Aix in Provence. Here, like John 
Mark, when confronted with the " perils of robbers " and 
" perils of rivers" in the interior of Asia Minor, the little 
band began to repent of their enterprise, and to sigh for 
the security of their cells on the Cselian hill. The accounts 
they received of the savage character of the Saxons filled 
them with alarm, and they prevailed on Augustine, who 
had been already marked out as the bishop of the future 
English Church, to return to Kome, and obtain for himself 
and his companions a release from their arduous task'. 

But Augustine had to deal with a man who lived up 
to the stem rule of the Benedictine order, who had learnt 
to crush all human weakness, and to recognise no call but 
that of duty. He was forthwith sent back with the often- 
quoted letter to " the timid servants of the Lord," wherein 
they were urged to accomplish what by God's help they 
liad undertaken, to suflFer neither the toils of the journey 
nor the tongues of evil-speaking men to deter them, but 
to remember that the more arduous the labour, the greater 
would be the eternal reward. 

Thus urged by an authority they could not resist, landiwionhe 

1 See Greg. Epp. Yi. 7. Lin* goBtinum, qnem eia episcopam ordi- 
gnrd'a Anglo-Saxon Churchy i. ai. nandum si ab Anglii susciperentur 

* Bode, I. 43. "Neomor% An- diBpomierat, domum remittunt.'* 


100 The Missionary History cf the Middle Ages. 


iuD. 597. 

Conduct (if 

0»\ference with 

after the lapse of a year^ the missionaries slowlj bent their 
steps from Aix to Aries, from Aries to Vienne, thence to 
Tours, and so through Anjou to the sea-coast Then, 
haying provided themselves with interpreters from amongst 
the Franks, they set sail and landed at Ebbe's Fleet, in 
tlie Isle of Thanet, Once safe on what was then a real 
island, thej sent messengers to Ethelbert to announce that 
they had come from Home, that they were the bearers of 
joyful tidings, and could promise him glory in heaven, and 
a never-ending kingdom with the living and true Grod. 

The king, as we have seen, must often have heard of 
the doctrines of Christianity from his queen and her chap- 
lain \ and his predisposition towards the new religion had, 
in some measure, induced Gregory to send the missionaries 
who had just landed. But he still hesitated; and with 
characteristic caution, while he announced his readiness to 
receive them, he begged they would for the present remain 
on the other side of the Stour, and would abstain from 
entering Canterbury, and stipulated further that their first 
interview should not take place under a roof, but in the 
open air, for fear of the magical arts, tlie charms and spells 
he fancied they might exercise upon him. 

Accordingly the Saxon king repaired to the island, and 
there under an ancient oak awaited the coming of the 
strange preacher from the famous city of the West. To 
make a deeper impression on the monarch's mind, Augus- 
tine, following probably the example of his master, Gregory, 
advanced in solemn procession, preceded by a verger carry- 
ing a silver cross; then followed one bearing aloft on a 
board, painted and gilded, a representation of the Saviour. 
Then came the rest of the brethren, and the choir headed 
by Laurence and the deacon Peter, who chanted a solemn 
Litany for their own, as also for the eternal welfare of the 
people amongst whom they had come. Arrived in the 

^ From Pagi, in Baron, z. 619, we gather tliat Luidbard was now dead. 

Jfission of S( Affrjustinr to Knglnnch 101 

king's presence, the latter bade tliem seat themselves on chap. v. 
the ground^; he himself could not understand Latin, and ^^ gg^^ 
Augustine could not speak Anglo-Saxon ; so the Frankish 
priests interpreted, while the missionary explained the 
meaning of the picture which was borne aloft, and told the 
king how the merciful One there depicted had left His 
throne in heaven, died for the sins of a guilty world, and 
opened the kingdom of heaven to all believers. 

Ethelbert listened attentively, and then, in a manner at nurtjap. 
once politic and courteous, replied that the promises of 
the strangers were fair, but the tidings they announced 
new and full of a meaning he did not understand. He 
promised them kindness and hospitality, and liberty to 
celebrate their services, and undertook that none of his 
subjects, who might be so disposed, should be prohibited 
from espousing their religion. Thus successful beyond 
their most sanguine expectations, Augustine and his com- 
panions again formed a procession, and crossing the ferry 
to Richborough, advanced to the rude wooden city of Can- 
terbury, then " embosomed in thickets," chanting as they 
went along one of the solemn Litanies which they had 
learnt from Gregory, and took up their abode in the 
" Stable-gate"," till the king should finally make up his 

It is a natural wish that further details haA come down PnaeMnffqf 
to US of this memorable interview, and of the way in which ^ 
the missionary preached " the word of Life" to the royal 
worshipper of Odin and Thor*. If we may believe a 
tradition recorded by -^Ifric, and expanded by Gocelin, 
Augustine, taking his text from the picture that was borne 
aloft, proclaimed " The One true God by whom are all 

^ " Rendentibiis ek juMa regis, Smith*snoteinBede, 1.15. St«n1ey*t 

Aagnstinus primus ore intonat ev«n- MemoriaU of Canterbury, p. 29. 

gt&o.'" Gocelin. MigDe, Patr. Lai, ' " Yerbuxn ei Yito praAiicarent*' 

VII. 61. is the very general expression of 

* " In ea nrbis ^urte qus Stable- Bede. Bede, L af. 
gaU dicU est» nt W. Thorn tradit/' 

102 The Mtssionary Htatory of ihe Middle Agt9. 

▲.D. 597. 

Baptffm of 

Baptism of 
the people. 

things, and the Almightj Son of the Father, who so loved 
his creatores that, without ceasing to be 'Grod, He stooped 
to become man, and hy his death had given to men the 
power to become the sons of God." He told them next 
of such events in His wondrous life on earth as were likelj 
to impress his hearers, how at His birth a star appeared 
in the East, how He walked upon the sea, how at His 
death the sun withdrew his shining, how at Hia Resur- 
rection the earth trembled and the rocks were rent. How 
having been looked for as the Great Deliverer from the 
beginning of the world, and having sealed His mission as 
Divine, Ue ascended up on high, and was now worshipped 
by all the world as the One Saviour of mankind^ 

Whatever was the precise form in which the message 
of the Gospel was proclaimed to the king, it was not 
belied by the lives of the missionaries. They gave 
themselves up, Bedc tells us, to prayer and fasting ; re- 
commended the word by their own self-devotion and 
pure and chaste living. This won for them greater ac- 
ceptance, and they were now allowed to worship with the 
queen in the chinch of St Martin, and devoted them- 
selves to the work with renewed zeal. At last the king 
avowed himself a Christian, and to the great joy, we 
cannot doubt, of Bertha, was Baptized, in all probability 
at St Martin's church'*, on the 2nd of June, being the 
Feast of Whitsunday, in the year A.D. 597. 

The conversion of a king was, as we have already, 
and as we shall see again and again, in these days the 
signal for the baptism of the nation also. Accordingly, at 
the next assembly of the Witan' the matter was formally 
referred to the authorities of the kingdom, and they de- 
cided in favour of the missionaries. In a letter of Gregorj'* 

^ Vita S, AwruMiniy Migne, Pa- 
trologia, Saec. vii. 6i. 

* iStanley, p. ii, and note. 

* Kemble's Scaont in £ngland, 

II. Q05. 

* lipp. Lib. vrir. 30. Ed. Ben, 
Jaffig'd JUffett. Pont, Rom, p. laf. 

Mis.'iion of St jliirjiistuiP to ]vn(jlan<l. 



to the distant patriarch of Alexandria, we are told that on 
the 25th of December upwards of ten thousand of the "I^Tsiw. 
people followed the example of their king, and in the 
waters of the Swale, as we learn from other sources, sealed 
their acceptance of the new faith*. 

Meanwhile Augustine had repaired to Gaul, and, ac- 
cording to the plans of Gregory, received consecration to 
the episcopal office at the hands of the Archbishop of Aries. 
On his return he took up his abode in the wooden palace 
of the king, who retired to Keculver, and this, with an old 
British" or Roman church hard by, became the nucleus of 
his Cathedral. Now also Laurence and Peter were entrusted 
with the task of returning to Gregory with an account of 
the success of their mission. They were to recount to him 
how the country of the fair-haired slaves he had pitied in 
the Forum had received the faith, how Augustine himself 
had been raised to the episcopate, and they were to beg 
for answers to certain important questions respecting the 
conduct of the mission, which caused the new bishop no 
little anxiety*. They were principally concerned with the ^^^ '** 
establishment of the revenues of the Church of Canterbury, 
the provision for the married clergy, and the introduction 
of rites and ceremonies ; advice was also requested as to 
the punishment which ought to be meted out to robbers 
of churches, within what degrees marriage might be con- 
tracted; whether in case of distance a bishop might be 
consecrated by a single one of the same order ; and other 

* Stanley's MemoriaU of CcmttT" 
hufy, p. 22 n. "The leofend repre- 
Bentfl the crowd as miraculously de- 
Hvered from drowning, and the bap- 
tism as performed by two and two 
upon each other, at the command, 
j^ though not by the act, of Augustine.'* 
If the Anglo-Saxons in the Kentish 
kingdom had iotermarried with their 
British subjects the suddenness of the 
change of religion would be partially 

accounted for. Pearson's Earl^ and 
MiddU Ages of EngUmd, p. 62 n? 

' Shrouded in a grove of oaks, 
Ethelbert had converted it into a 
temple in which to worship his Saxon 
gods. This Augustine did not de* 
stroy, but dedicated it to St Pancras, 
thufl recalling the monastery on the 
Caelian hilL Stanley, p. 22. Pauli's 
Pictures of Old England, p. ii. 

• Bede, I. 27. 

104 The Miasumary History cf the Middle Agee. 

CRAP. V. points respecting ceremonial pollution which it iB not 

LTeoL necessary to specify. 

tirtgcr^t reptp. The messcHgers went their way, and execated their 
commission. After the lapse of four years, Gregory replied 
at length to the questions which Augustine had submitted 
to him\ As to the revenues of the Church, he directed 
that, according to the Roman custom, they should be di- 
vided into four portions, one of which was to be assigned 
to the bishop and his household for the purpose of hospi- 
tality; another to the clergy; another to the poor; the 
remainder to the maintenance of the church fabric. Bat 
Augustine having been trained in the monastic rule, must 
live in the society of his clergy, and imitate the custom of 
the members of the early Church, who called nothing their 
own, and had everything in common. Clerks not in orders 
might many if they were so disposed, and could claim to be 
maintained. As to the crime of sacrilege, the motive ought 
to be made the subject of diligent inquiry; if poverty dic- 
tated the crime, the culprit might be let off with a light 
punishment, if it was done from a worse motive, a heavier 
penalty must be awarded, but care should be taken that in 
no case the Church made a profit by the fines imposed. As 
to the differences between the Roman and Gallic liturgies, 
Augustine was directed, with a moderation beyond that of 
' the age, to select from either, whatever appeared to him 
"pious, religious, and right," to collect it into a volume, 
and establish it as the liturgy of the Anglo-Saxon Church, 
ever remembering as a guiding principle ** that things are 
not to be loved on account of places, but places on account 
of good things'." Marriage with a step-mother could not 
possibly be allowed, it was distinctly forbidden in Holy 
Writ, and experience shewed the inexpediency of marriages 
with first and second cousins. As to the line of conduct * 

^ Bede, I. 97. sed pro bonis rebus loca amanda 

' Ibid. "NoQ enim pro lodi res, sunt." Maakell^B Anc Liturg, lilL 

Mission cf 8t Augustine to England. 105 

the mlflsionarj should assume towards the Gallic and Bri- chap. y. 
tish bishops, he was told that it was no part of his duty to I^iTeOL 
interfere with the former, or to rebuke and judge, but, " as 
a man passing through his neighbour's cornfield, though 
he might not put in the sickle, yet might pluck and eat 
a few ears," so if occasion required, Augustine might ven- 
ture to use the language of gentle admonition. As to the 
British bishops, they were all entrusted to his brotherly 
care, '' that the unlearned might be instructed, the weak 
strengthened by persuasion, the perverse corrected by au- 

With the bearer of these directions there came over 'A^««^<!7>'»* 
fresh labourers as a reinforcement to the mission, amongst 
these were Mellitus, Justus, and Paulinus. They brought 
ecclesiastical vestments, sacred vessels, some relics of 
apostles and martyrs, a present of books, including a Bible 
in two volumes, two Psalters, two copies of the Gospels, 
expositions of certain Epistles, and some apocryphal lives 
of apostles and martyrs. They also brought with them 
the pall of a metropolitan for Augustine himself, which 
made him independent of the bishops of France, and with 
it a letter explaining the course which the archbishop 
was to take in developing his work. London was to be 
his metropolitan see, and he was to consecrate twelve 
bishops under him, and whenever Christianity had ex- 
tended to York, he was to place there also a metropolitan 
with a like number of suffragans. These instructions for 
the spiritual conquest of the country were further supple- 
mented by directions respecting the way in which he was 
to deal with the monuments of heathenism. Gregory had 
written to Ethelbert, requesting him to destroy the heathen 
temples in his dominions. But he was not satisfied as 
to the expediency of such a course, and now, after much 
consideration, wrote to Augustine, directing him not 
to destroy the temples, but only the idols that were 

l06 Hie Mt88umartf History of the Middle Ages. 
CHAP. V. therein; as to the stractures themselyes, if well bnilt, they* 

^p eQX. were to be purified with holj water and converted into 
Christian churches, and hallowed bj the presence of re- 
lics. The heathen festivals might in a similar way, instead 
of being rudely abolished, be devoted to Christianity and 
the celebration of the birthdays of the Saints \ 
ST^ISSa"^ The course he was to pursue being thus defined, Au- 
A^^'eos! gustine was enabled to take further steps for the consolida- 
tion of the mission. His first step was to invite the British 
clergy to a conference at a spot called after him, " Angus* 
tine's oak*." Prepared to make considerable concessions^ 
he yet felt that three points did not admit of being sacri- 
ficed ; he proposed that the British Church should conform 
to the Roman usage in the celebration of Easter, and the 
rite of baptism", and that they should aid him in evange- 
lizing the Saxons. To settle the point, he proposed that 
the divine judgment should be appealed to; a blind Saxon 
was introduced, whom the British Christians were unable 
to cure; Augustine supplicated the divine aid, which was, 
we are told, vouchsafed. Convinced, but unwilling to 
give up their old customs, the vanquished party proposed 
another meeting. Seven bishops assembled on this occa- 
sion, together with Dinoth, abbot of the monastery of Ban- 
gor Is-y-Coed, in Flintshire. Before the synod met, they 
proposed to ask the advice of an aged hermit, whether they 
ought to concede the traditions of their fathers, ** If he be 
a man of God, follow him," was the oracular reply. "How 
are we to ascertain this ?" they asked. *' The Lord saith," 
was the old man's answer, "*Take my yoke upon you, and 
learn of me, for I am meek and lowly:' now if Augustine 

^ Bede, I. 29. The subject ia re- • Either (i) completing it by ad- 

viewcfl at greater length in a aubBe- ministering the rite of confirmation 

qiient chapter. (Lingard, A. S.C. I. 69), or {%) bap- 

• ** Augustincn a<?, confinio tizing with trine immersion, Arch- 

Huicciorum et Occidentalium Saxo- deacon Churton's Early. Engluk 

num." Bede, n. a. Churchy p. 44. 

Miasian of 8t Augustine to England. Idi 

is meek and lowly, be assured that he beareth the yoke of chap. v. 
Christ." "And how are we to know this?" they asked ^ ^ ^^3 
again. " If he rises to meet yon when ye approach, hear 
and follow him ; but if he despise you, and fails to rise from 
his place, let him also be despised by you." The synod 
met, and Augustine remained seated. It was a sign that 
he had not the spirit of Christ, and no efforts of the arch- 
bishop could induce the independent bishops to yield one 
of his demands. *' If he will not so much as rise up to 
greet us," said his opposers, " how much more will he con- 
temn us if we submit ourselves to him." Thereupon 
Augustine broke up the conference with an angry threat, 
that if the British Christians would not accept peace with sHtuhchrit- 
their brethren, they must look for war with their foes, 
and if they would hot proclaim the way of life to the 
Anglo-Saxons, they would suffer deadly vengeance at their 

Thus unsuccessful in winning, over the British clergy 
to that obedience which Gregory had told him he had a 
right to demand, Augustine returned to Canterbury. And 
now, as all Kent had espoused the faith, Justus was conse- a.d. 804. 
secrated to the see of Rochester, and, at the same time, 
through the connexion of Ethelbert with the king of 
Essex, that kingdom was opened to ecclesiastical super- 
vision, and Mellitus was advanced to the bishopric of Lon- 
don*. This was the limit of the archbishop's success. It Death qf Augus- 
fell, indeed, far short of Gregory's design, but that design 
had been formed on a very imperfect acquaintance with the 
true condition of the island, and the relations which sub- 
sisted between the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. In the follow- a.d. 605. 
ing year Augustine died, having already consecrated Lau- 
rence as his successor, and was buried in the Abbey, as yet 
unfinished, of St Peter and St Paul, outside the city-walls. 

^ Bede, n. 1. Where abo he tells the story of the fulfilment of this prediction. 

* Bede, u. 3. Stagey, p. aS n. 

108 The Missumarjf Eistarjf of the Middle Ages* 


J^D- 606. 



The new primate not only laboured to spread the fiuth 
among the heathen 'Saxons, but tried, like his predecessor, 
to will' over the Britons and Scots to a conformity as regards 
the observance of Easter. Bat he was equally nnsuooess- 
ful ; and in the refusal of Dagan^, an Irish bishop, even to 
eat with the Boman missionaries, he learnt how far a dis- 
pute about things indifferent could embitter the professed 
disciples of a common Lord. But worse things were in 
store for the infant Church over which he himself presided. 
On the death of Ethelbert in 616, ^'it appeared,'* saja 
Fuller', " as though much of the Kentish Christianity was 
buried in his grave.'* His son Eadbald not only refused 
to walk in the way of his father, and to adopt the Christian 
faith, but even espoused his father's wife ; and, at the same 
time, the three sons of Sebert, king of Essex, made their 
father's death the signal for an open denial of the faith he 
had adopted. The occasion of this outbreak is illustrative 
of the precarious tenure which the new religion had as yet 
gained over the Anglo-Saxon mind. One day the three 
princes saw Mellitus celebrating mass with the wonted 
solemnities: "Give us," said they, "of that white bread, 
even as thou wast wont to do to our father, and as thou 
dost now to the people." " If ye are minded to be baptized 
with the baptism wherewith your father was baptized,** 
replied the bishop, " ye may also partake of the holy bread 
whereof he partook ; but if ye despise the Laver of Life, ye 
cannot partake of the Bread of Life." Enraged at his re- 
fusal, and protesting that they had no need of such bap- 
tism, " if thou hast no mind," said they, " to yield to us 
in so trifling a matter, thou canst no longer stay in our 
kingdom," and they drove him forth*. 

^ Bede, n. 4. Dagan was abbot 
of Inverdaoile in the county of 
Wexfordf and was promoted to the 
episcopacy about ▲.D. 600. Lani- 

gan, n. 365, and notes. 

• Fuller's Church Hittory^ L 175. 

• Bede, li. 5. 

Mission of St Aiigiistiiie to TliKjhuol. IdO 

Thus expelled, Mellitus with Justus repaired to Can- chap. v. 
terbury, and consulted with Laurence on the aspect of ^^^ g^g 
affairs. It was agreed that they should retire to France, 
and await the course of events ; and Laurence was on the 
point of following them, when, in the church of St Peter 
and St Paul, where he had ordered his bed to be placed^ 
he was solemnly warned in a dream by the prince of the 
Apostles, not to leave the flock over which he had been 
appointed overseer; and as a proof of this divine inter- 
ference, he displayed to Eadbald in the morning his back 
scarred and lacerated with the stripes which the indig- 
nant Apostle had inflicted upon him for his cowardice'. 
Whether superstition or artifice suggested the story, it had 
the effect of thoroughly affrighting the superstitious son of 
Bertha. Filled with alarm, he put away his unlawful 
wife, and his newly adopted gods, recalled Mellitus and 
Justus, reinstated the latter in his see of Rochester, and 
would have used all his influence to restore the former to 
his see of London, but the East Saxons were resolute in 
their adherence to their native faith, and would not have 
the bishop to rule over them^ 

While the infant Church was thus struggling even for 
existence, all hope of its extension was cut off, and it is 
not till after an interval of eight years, when Justus had a j. 624. 
succeeded to the Archbishopric of Canterbury, that the 
Kentish mission was able to advance the faith in the 
powerful kingdom of Northumbria. 

Again the same story meets us. A Christian queen Krf«>ui^ of Ae 
and an energetic bishop are once more the chief instru- ifonhumbria. 
ments in bringing about the change of faith. The daughter 

^ Bede, n. 6. etiam nolejUibus ao contr<idicentibu8 

' See Lappenberg, I. 143 n. paganis antifltitem susb poflset eocle- 

' "Mellitum vero LuDdonienses sue reddere." Bede, 11. 6. "Lon- 

epiacopum recipere noluerunt, idolo' don then, was even London then, as 

iris moffit pontificibua tervire gau- weak in the infancy, as now way- 

dente«. Nou enim tanta erat ei, ward in the old age thereof." Ful- 

quanta patri ipsiua regni potestas, ut ler, I. 1 78. 

110 The Missionary History qf the Middle Ayes. 

A.o. 625. 

Edwin't early 

of Ethelbert married Edwin the king of Northnmbria, and 
in her case, as in that of her mother, the same stipulation 
was made for the free exercise of her religion^ Accom- 
panied hj Paolinus, who was ordained a missionary bishop 
bj Justus, Ethelburga travelled to her husband's kingdom, 
and zealously seconded the efforts of the bishop to win 
over the pagan Northumbrians^ and most of all her hua* 
band, to the Christian faith\ 

Edwin's life had been chequered by strange vicissitudes. 
When only three years old, his inheritance had been seized 
by his brother-in-law Ethelfrith, and he had been com- 
mitted to the care of Cadvan, king of Gwynedd, and had 
been educated by the British clergy till he reached man's 
estate'. Unsuccessful in a battle with Ethelfrith, where- 
in he had been aided by his guardian, he fled to Mercia, 
and finding no safety there, had at last taken refuge with 
lledwald in East Anglia. Twice his unrelenting perse- 
cutor demanded that he should be given up to him, or put 
to death, and twice Redwald refused. A third time the 
emissaries of Ethelfrith made their demand, and the large 
sum which accompanied it tempted the Bretwalda to 
comply, and he promised to surrender his ward. 

The next night a faithful friend informed Edwin of the 
king's design, and ofiered him a secure retreat. This was 
declined ; and while he was sitting on a stone before the 
palace, sad and disconsolate, not knowing whither to bend 
his steps, he was suddenly accosted by a stranger, who not 
only promised to plead his cause with Ecdwald, but hinted 
darkly at his future elevation to the throne, and asked, " If 
he who has promised such benefits, should impart to you 
doctrines of life and salvation, better and more efficacious 
than any of your relatives has ever heard, would you obey 

> '^Neque abnegavit se etiam 
eandem iubiturum esse reliffionem; 
si tamen examinata a prudeniibus 
sanctior ao Deo dignior posaet inve- 


Bcde, II. 9. 
• Bede, 11. 9. 
' Lappenbei^, I. 145, 

Mission of St Augustine to England. Ill 

him, and listen to his admonitions?" Edwin promised, chap. y. 
The stranger therefore laid his hand on his head, saying, "nTeas 
" When this sign shall be repeated, remember this hour, 
this discom-se, and your promise;" and with these words 
vanished from his sights 

Followed as this strange occurrence was by a battle on Retfondtohu 
the banks of the Idle, in which Bedwald conquered his 
enemy Ethelfrith, and restored him to his paternal king- 
dom, it could not fail to make a deep impression on his 
mind, and was no doubt the theme now of frequent con- 
versations with his young queen. By her we may be sure 
it was communicated to Paulinus, who did not fail to make 
use of it when an opportunity offered. 

The year after his marriage, the life of the king was a.d. 628. 
unsuccessfully attempted by an assassin sent by Cwichelm, 
king of Wessex. A faithful thane received the blow in- 
tended for his master, and died in the struggle. It was 
the first day of Easter. The same night the queen was 
safely delivered of a daughter, and when Edwin returned 
thanks for this blessing to his gods in the presence of the 
bishop, the latter told him that he ought rather to return 
thanks to the Lord Christ, to whom was due his own pre- 
servation as well as the blessing of ^ child. ** If your God," 
replied Edwin, overjoyed, " will give me victory over this 
king of Wessex, I will renounce my idols and worship 
him;" and as a pledge of his sincerity, he entrusted his 
daughter to Paulinus, by whom she was baptized on the 
Whitsunday following, with eleven others of the king's 

Before long, Edwin's wound was healed, and collecting 
an army he marched against the king of Wessex, and 
gained the day, all those who had conspired against him 
being either slain or taken prisoners. Though he had 
thus been successful, he did not immediately fulfil his pro- 

1 See Bede, n. za. Xappenbex^g^, L 148 n. * Bede, n. 9. 

112 The Minumary History of the Middle Ages. 

cnAP. y. mise. He ceased, indeed, to worship idols, bat hung back 
▲.D. 628. from an open acceptance of Christianity: He held frequent 
conversations with the bishop respecting the nature of the 
new faith, and with his chiefs respecting the coarse he 
ought to pursued While he was thus hesitating, "there 
came letters and presents for himself and his queen firom 
Borne, where Boniface the Fifth took a deep interest in the 
progress of the Anglo-Saxon mission. But still Edwin did 
not make up his mind, and deferred a positive decision. 
At this juncture Paulinus, who had been long watching 
him, determined to take advantage of the romantic adven- 
ture of his youth, which he had no doubt learnt from the 
queen. Approaching him one day, he laid his right hand 
upon his head, and asked him if he did not remember that 
sign. Edwin trembled*, and in reply to the bishop's ex- 
hortations promised to submit the question of the new faith 
to the decision of his council. The Witan was accordingly 
assembled, and each thane was asked his opinion. The first 
to reply to the solemn question which religion ought to 
coijctiptfch, be adopted, was Coifi, the chief priest. No one, he de- 
clared, had applied to the worship of the gods of their 
fathers with greater zeal and fidelity than liimself, but in 
no respect had he been the gainer; his religion had won 
for him neither temporal prosperity, nor the sunshine of 
royal favour^. He was ready, therefore, for his part, to 
give up such ungrateful gods, and to try whether the God 
whom Paulinus preached could not reward him better. 

Among the nobles, however, there was one, less bent 
on measuring the value of a religion by its temporal ad- 
vantages. He struck a deeper chord, and suggested a truer 

^ In Bede's graphic worda, "et • Bede, rr. ii. 

ipse cum esset vir natura fiagaciasi- ' Bede, ii. 13. "£t nihilominns 

mus, 8»pe diu solus resideiiB, ac multi sunt qui ampliora a te beneficia 

quidem tacito, Bed in intimis cordis quam ego, et m^jores acdpiiint dig* 

multa secum conloquens, quid sibi nitates, magiuque proaperantur in 

esset faciendum, qu8e religio servanda omnibus quae agenda vel adquirenda 

tractabat." Bede, n. 9. disponunt" 

Mission of 8l Augustine to England. 113 

reason why the advocates of the Dew doctrine should be ohap. v. 
consulted. " The present life of man, O King," said he, ^„. 527. 
"may be likened to what often happens when thou ^^^T^^^' 
sitting at supper with thy thanes and nobles in winter- 
time; a fire blazes on the hearth, and warms the chamber; 
.outside rages a storm of wind and snow ; a sparrow flies 
in at one door of thy hall, and quickly pass3S out at the 
other. For a moment, while it is within, it is unharmed 
by the wintry blast, but this brief period of happiness over, 
to the wintry blast whence it came it returns, and vanishes 
from thy sight. Such is the brief life of man ; we know 
not what went before it, and we are utterly ignorant as to 
what shall follow it. If, therefore, this new doctrine con- 
tain anything more certain, it justly deserves to be fol- 

The speaker expressed the feelings of many in the 
council, and, at the suggestion of the high-priest, Paulinus 
was introduced, that he might explain more fully the faith 
he sought to establish. His address has not been pre- 
served, but when it was ended, the high-priest broke out 
again, " Long since had I known that what we have been 
wont to worship is nothing, and the more diligently I 
sought after truth therein, the less I found it. Now, 
however, I openly confess that in the doctrines we have 
listened to, such truth is clear and manifest as can confer 
on us life, salvation, and eternal happiness. I advise, 
therefore, O king, that we instantly abjure, and set on fire 
those temples where we have so long worshipped in vain, 
and without reaping any advantage.'' 

The zeal of the new convert powerfully afiected thez«i/tfyr(t>/A 
king, and he professed his readiness to adopt the new faith. 
But who would dare to profane the idol temples and altars 
still standing, and still regarded with superstitious awe? 
The high-priest declared his readiness to undertake this 
dangerous duty, and thus prove his sincerity in the most 


114 The Munonary Hiatory of the Middh Ag€9m 

A.u. 627* 

CHAP. V. Signal manner. The chief temple of the Northumbrian 
kingdom was in the town of Godmundingham, near Mar* 
ket Weighton, in the East Biding of Yorkshire. Here, 
if any where^ Odin and Thor ought to vindicate their 
insulted majesty, and prove their power and might Hither 
then the high-priest declared he was ready to proceed, re* 
marking that it became none more than himself to destroy 
what, now, through the wisdom given him by the true 
God, he knew he had worshipped foolishly. He there- 
fore requested the king to lend him his armour and war- 
horse, that thus accoutred he might proceed to the de- 
struction of the idol. The multitude thought that Coifi, 
who, as chief-priest, was forbidden by the laws to cany 
arms, or to ride anything but a mare, was mad. But he, 
undeterred, with the king's sword girded on his thigh, 
mounted the charger, and led the way. Arrived on the 
spot, he flung a javelin at the temple, and fixed it fast in 
the wall, and then, with much joy at this proof of the im- 
potency of the old deities, he bade his retinue destroy the 
heathen structure, and bum it with all its sacred precincts. 
When the high-priest of the old faith thus polluted 
and destroyed the very altars he had liiraself dedicated, 
the king could no longer "halt between two opinions." 
While he was instructed* and prepared for the holy rite, 
a wooden church was quickly built, and there he himself, 
with many of his family and nobles, was baptized on the 
12th of April, 627. 

^ "In ecclesia sancti Petri Apos- dum baptisma imbueretur, citato 
toll, quam ibidem ipse de ligno cum opere constnudt.'* Bcdo, II. 14. 
catechizarotur atque ad percipieu- 

Jiapf mm^ 



A.D. 627—689, 

" Per bos sanctuiaimoB viros Episcopos Aidanum, Finanum, ColmaDDam, sivd 
per se, sive per alios quos ipsi conaecratos Anglis dederant Episcopos et 
sacerdotes, r^^na quatnor, duo North umbronim, Merciorum, Midilang- 
lonim, et media pars regni SaxoDum Orientalium uiique Thamesis pene 
ripam ad Cbii:itl convena sunt" — Forduk, ScoU-Cknm, 

Thus, at last, the Kentish missionaries reaped the fruit of chap. vi. 
their labours. Accompanied by the zealous Paulinus, the ^j,, 627. 
newly-baptized king travelled from town to town through- ^<«-^w«»^<«» 
out his dominions, and aided by all the weight of his in- 
fluence the propagation of the faith. Arrived at any con- 
venient spot, it was the custom of the bishop to set up a 
cross ; by his side would stand the king, and the deacon 
Jacob; one of the chants that Gregory had taught his 
monks on the Ca^lian Hill was then begun, and by its 
8weet and novel tones attracted a crowd prepared to hear 
the bishop when he began to speak. The labours ofsnctmi^fPau- 
Paulinus were crowned with ample success; at Yeverin 
in Glendale, at Catterick on the Swale, at Donafield near 
Doncaster, he baptized many converts. At the first of the 
above-mentioned places he was incessantly occupied for 
six-and-thirty consecutive days, from early mom until 
night-fall, in instructing the people, and when they were 
duly prepared, in baptizing them by immersion in the little 
river Glen. Crossing the Humber he accompanied the 
king and queen as far as Southwell in Nottrnghamshire^/ 


116 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. vr. and baptized great numbers of converts in the river Trent; 

^ ,, 527. ^^^ there were those in Bede's time who had seen and 
conversed with some that had received baptism firom this 
energetic bishop, and who remembered how he was a man 
tall oif stature, a little stooping, with dark hair, meagre 
visage, aquiline nose, and a venerable and majestic aspect^ 
Not satisfied with the care of his own subjects, £d\7in 
next extended his religious zeal to the kingdom of the 
East Angles, where he had spent so many unhappy years. 
Eedwald the father of the reigning king £orpwald had 
declared himself a convert to Christianity, during a visit 
to the court of Ethelbcrt, king of Kent. But on his re- 
turn, importuned by his wife and friends, he had, to satbfy 
both parties, erected an altar to Christ and to his heathen 

2lir!5«3te"^ gods, in one and the same temple. But Edwin succeeded 
in thorouglily converting Eorpwald, who, however, was 
before long mui'dered by a pagan assassin. East Anglia 
was now plunged into strife and discord, but the good 
king of Northumbria lived long enough to hear of the 
restoration of Christianity, after a lapse of three years. 

A.D. 830. In the year 630 Sigebert, who had been baptized while 
an exile in Gaul, took possession of the throne conjointly 
with his brother Ecgric, and he was powerfully assisted 
in his efforts to evangelize his subjects by Felix, a Bur- 
gundian bishop, whom Honorius, the archbishop of Can- 
terbury, sent to labour in East Anglia. lie went about the 
province preaching, baptizing, and erecting schools on 
the plan of those existing in Gaul, and on the foundation 
of the see of Dunwich, was appointed the first bishop*. 
To this same kingdom came also Fursa^us, a monk from 

* Bede, IT. i6. bente." Bede, ii. 1 5 ; in. i8. "Scho- 

* ** Instituit Bcholam in qua pueri las opportunis locis instituena, barKi- 
literifl erudirentur ; juvante se epis- riem gentis sensim comitate Lat:na 
oopo Felice quern de Cantia accu- informabat." Malnies. de OestitPotU. 
perat, eiJique paedagogos ac magiii* II. Lappeuberg, i. 154 n. 

trod juxta morem Gi^tuariorum prse- 

Progress of Missionary Work in England. 117 
reland, who was heartily welcomed by Sigebert, and by chap. vi. 

is lite and doctrine contributed much to the spread of the j^„. ^^ 
Jospel*. His missionary tours, which extended over a 
>eriod of fifteen years, were productive of immense benefits, 
like to the heathen and the Christians of East Anglia, 
nd Bede has drawn a glowing picture of his sanctity 
nd zeal. 

In the kingdom, however, of Northumbria, a sad d^um of t/ui 
hange was at hand. Before Edwin could receive the^<«<«»»- 
etters addressed to him by the Pope Honorius I., inform- 
ng him that he had sent palls to the Archbishops of 
Canterbury and York, he had perished in the battle of 
latfield fighting against the savage Penda, who, at the 
lead of a formidable British confederacy, invaded North- 
mibria, spreading everywhere ruin and desolation, and 
paring neither age nor sex. Paulinus, who must have 
)erceived that the times were ripe neither for such a 
jovemment as that of Edwin, or such a religion as he had 
ntroduced, fled with the widowed queen and her children 
nto Kent, and received from the Archbishop of Canterbury 
he vacant see of Rochester. 

The only member of the mission left in York was 
Facob the deacon, who must have grieved sorely for the 
lark and troublous times which had now set in for North- 
imbria. Both Eanfrith prince of Bemicia and Osric prince 
»f Deira relapsed into heathenism, and the land groaned 
uider the savage rule of Caidwalla*. At length, in 635, a.d. 635. 
)swald a younger son of iEthelfrith, raising a small force, tt^Mu"^ 
md . erecting a cross, round which he commanded his 
ollowers to kneel and pray for aid to the God of battles, 

^ On the Milesian Scot, Furssus, from whose combination the Divina 

rho in his ceU at Burgh Castle Comm^dt a iM8e/' see Palgrave^s Aor- 

kindlt^ the spark which, trans- mandy and Enyland, i. 164. Laui- 

litted to the inharmonious Dante gan, 11. 448—460. 

f a barbarous age, occasioned the ' Bede, III. x. Lappenberg, L 

I8t of the metrical compositions 157. 

118 The Missionary History <yf ike Middle Ages. 

CHAP. vr. 


from Joita. 


burst upon the armies of Cffidwalla at Hefenfeld near 
' Hexham, and utterly routed the last hero of the old 
British race. Uniting in himself the sovereignty of Ber- 
nicia and Deira he was saluted as the sixth Bretwalda, 
and under him the land had rest many days ^ 

Like Edwin he had in his earlier years been an exile> 
and had received instruction from the Scottish missionaries ; 
and now that he had obtained the throne he was deter- 
mined to do all in his power to carry on the good work 
which Paulinus had begun, but which had been inter- 
rupted by the invasion of Penda. Instead, however, of 
sending to Canterbury for labourers in the mission-field, 
he sent messengers to Segienus, Abbot of Hy, requesting 
aid in the instruction of his subjects. In compliance witli 
his wish, the Abbot sent him a monk named Corman', 
who, after preaching the word some time with little suc- 
cess, returned in disgust to his seagirt home. He could 
effect nothing, he declared, to the assembled brethren, 
owing to the ungovernable and barbarous temper of the 
Saxons. These tidings were received witli sorrow, and the 
assembly was in anxious discussion as to the best course 
to be taken, when a voice was heard saying, " It seems to 
me, brother, thou hast been harsher than was fitting 
towards thy ignorant hearers, and thou liast not, in accord- 
ance with Apostolic usage, first offered thera the milk of 
simple teaching, till by degrees being nourished with the 
divine word, they might be enabled to receive the more 
perfect and to keep the higher precepts of God.'' 

Thereupon the eyes of all were fixed upon the speaker, 
and it was unanimously agreed that no other was more 
fit to undertake the duty of evangelizing these wild North- 
umbrians. This was Aidan', a monk of lona, of whom. 

^ Lappenberg, I. 157. 
' Bede, m. 5. Hect. Boothiua, 
Lib. IX. 

' Bede, in. 5. In the Chnmiron 
Hyr,naef drawn up by Dr Keeve:}, 
principally from, the Irish Anuals, 

. Bhogresa of Missionary Work in England. 119 
though a disciple of the Irish school, even Bede speaks In chap. ti. 

the highest terms, as a man eminent for meekness, piety, ^ o. ess. 
and good works. Having been consecrated bishop, he 
immediately set oat for Northumbria, and fixed his see 
at Lindisfarne, or Holy Island, which the king willingly 
granted him, to be an English lona. Hence he went forth 
on his missionary tours, wherein he was always assisted 
by Oswald, who, while as yet the bishop was not master 
of the English language, himself acted as interpreter, and 
made his instruction intelligible to his chiefs and courtiers. 
Nor did Aidan fail to justify the confidence that had been 
reposed in him. Active in the propagation of the faith, ^^^^^^ 
he was at once severe towards himself and humble and 
, beneficent towards the poor and lowly. " He neither 
sought the things of this life nor cared for them. What- 
ever presents he received from the king or wealthy persons, 
he rejoiced to distribute forthwith among the poor that fell 
in his way. In his journeys through his diocese, he was 
wont to travel not on horseback, but on foot, except in case 
of great necessity, in order that, as he went along, he might 
address those whom he happened to meet, whether rich or 
poor, and exhort them, if not already Christians, to em- 
brace the faith, and if Christians, to shew forth their faith 
by almsgiving and good works^" Like the founder of 
Icolmkill, he was devoted to reading, and the study of the 
Scriptures ; and of all that accompanied him, he exacted 
the same diligence, requiring that they must learn the 
Psalms, or read the Bible, wherever they might be, and 
as a daily duty. If, as very rarely occurred, he was in- 
vited to the king's table, one or two only of his clergy ac- 
companied him, and after a slight refreshment, he hurried 

we find sub ann. 635, *^ Ab insula ond of the saine lineage as St Brigid 

Hil ad provinciam Anglonun inati- and other difltinguish^ saints. See 

tnandam in Christo missus est iEdan, Beeves* ilc/amnan, p. 374. Lani- 

acoepto gradu episcopatus." He gan, 11. 417. 

the won of Lugair, sou of £min, ^ Bede, iii. $, 

120 The Miasionary History of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. VI. back with all speed to study and devotion. He set the ez- 
^.D^ess] atnple adopted by religious persons of both sexes, of fasting 
until three in the afternoon every Wednesday and Friday in 
the year, except between Easter and Whitsunday* Towards 
the poor he bore himself with humility, towards the rich 
with faithfulness, neither cringing nor flattering. Whatever 
money he received from them, he expended either in works 
of charity or in redeeming slaves, many of whom he 
trained and educated, and even raised to the priesthood. 
Fowdatim cf To Liudisfame, where, according; to the Irish custom, 

ihr Monastery » » o » 

Mf LiMii^fame. Aldan had founded a monastery, and united* the monastic 
duties with those of the bishop, flocked numbers of auxi- 
liaries, chiefly monks from lona, who with great seal 
preached the word throughout Northumbria. Churches 
were built in divers places, and monasteries were endowed 
with grants of land, where the Saxon youth were instructed 
by their Celtic teachers*. 

Nor was it only in Northumbria that the effect of this 
mission from lona was felt. In the same year that Aidan 
came to Lindisfame, Oswald repaired to the court of 
Cynegils, king of Wessex, to ask the hand of his daugh- 
ter in marriage. A year before, Cynegils had been visited 
by Birinus, who is said to have been bred up as a monk 
in the monastery of Gregory at Rome, and who had un- 
dertaken by the advice of Pope Honorius' to penetrate 
into the innermost parts of the country for the purpose of 
propagating the Christian faith. Raised to the episcopate 

Cfmieerticn of 

^ Bede, Vita S. Cuthberti, c. i6. 
"Aidan quippe, qui primus ejuRdem 
loci episcopus fuit, xnonachus erat et 
monachicam cum suis omnibus vU 
tam semper agere solebat.'* Cf. also 
Btide, III. 3. 

* ** Exin coBpere plurea per dies 
de Scottorum regione venire Britan- 
niarn atque iliis Anglorum provin- 
ciis quibus regnavit Oswald, magna 
devotiono verbum fidei prsedicare, et 

cre<lentibus gratiam baptiami qm* 
cunque sacerdotali erant gradu pns- 
diti, minifitrare...Con8truebantur eo- 
cle8ife...donabantur muncre regie 
possessiones, et territoria ad insti- 
tuenda monastcria." Bede, in. 3, 

' *' Promittens quidem se (Hono- 
rio) prteiiente in intimis ultra Anglo- 
rum partibus quo nullus doctor prse^ 
cessisAet, sanctte fidei semina esse 
sparsurum." Bcde, ill. 7. . 

Progress of Mtssi'onar?/ IWn-k i/i Kti^jhirtd, 121 

Ijy Asterius, bishop of Genoji, at the command of llonorlus chap. vi. 
he had come to the island, and finding himself on his ^^ ggg 
landing surrounded by the darkest paganism, he had de- 
termined to remain where he was rather than advance 
further. His preaching had now so far influenced the 
king, that he had consented to submit to baptism, and, on 
stepping forth from the font, was received by Oswald, who 
gladly became at once his godfather and son-in-law. 

By the two kin&:s Dorchester was assi&nied to Birinus Birtnut, huhop 
as an episcopal see, and here he contmued for some time 
preaching the word, building churches, and gathering 
many into the Christian fold. On the death of Cynegils, in a.d. eiS. 
643, his son Cenwealh refused baptism, put away his wife, 
who was the sister of Penda, and contracted another alliance. 
War ensued, and he was driven from his kingdom. For 
three years he lived in exile at the court of Anna the 
pious king of East Anglia, and there learnt to adopt the 
Christian faith. On his restoration to his kingdom, he 
was visited by a certain priest named Agilbert, who was 
of French extraction, but had been spending some time 
in Ireland for the sake of studying the Scriptures. He was 
invited by the king to stay and accept the bishopric, and 
complied with his request. But at last Cenwealh, who 
knew nothing but Saxon*, growing weary of the bishop's 
foreign dialect, secretly introduced into the new see of Win- 
chester an Anglo-Saxon, who could speak his own language, 
named Wini, who also had been ordained in France. This, 
and the division of his diocese, grievously offended Agil- 
bert, and straightway leaving the country, he accepted the a.d. 649. 
bishopric of Paris, where he lived to a good old age. 

Meanwhile the good Oswald, whose amiable character Death nf 
had won for him even among his foes, the Britons, the 

^ "Tandem rex, qui Saxonmn provindam alimn tua lingtue epis- 
taatmn linguam noverat, pertoetua copum vocabulo Vini, et ipsum in 
barbarcB loqucke, subintroduxit in Gallia ordioatum." Bede, lU. 7. 

▲J>. 653. 

122 The MtMionary History of tJ^ Middle Ages. 

CHAP. vr. surname of " Lamngwin," " the fair or free of hand^* had 
perished in battle against his restless foe the sayage 
Penda, who, with pagan ferocity, ordered his head and arms 
to be severed from the trunk and fixed upon poles. On his 
death a division of the kingdom took place. Oswiu be- 
came king of Bemicia, and, after a lapse of two years, 
Oswin, son of Osric, of Deira. But the reign of the latter 
was brief, and he was murdered by the command of Oswiu. 
The new king strove to live on peaceable terms with the 
champion of paganism, the terrible Penda, and thinking 
thereby to strengthen his cause, accepted for his son the 
hand of Penda's daughter, and gave his own daughter to 
Pcada, the son of the great chief, and ealdorman of the Middle 
Angles. This prince did not refuse to comply with the 
conditions which his father-in-law annexed to their union, 
and togetlier with all his thanes and followers was baptized 
by Finan, the successor of Aidan in the see of Lindisfame. 
uutionnrp After rcceivinff the rite, Peada returned into Mercia with 
Mcrcu. fQ^J. missionaries to evangelize the Mercian people. These 

were Cedd, Adda, Betti, and Diuma*; they preached the 
word with much success, and many both high and low re- 
nounced their idolatry, and were received into the Church. 
Even Penda did not oppose their work. He had no objec- 
tion, he said, to their preaching, he only hated and despised 
those who professed the faith of Christ without his works, 
and thought they were miserable creatures who were 
above obeying the God in whom they professed to be- 
lieve ^ 

His own devotion to the "God of Battles " was at least 
sincere. Though his son liad married the daughter of 
Oswiu, he still continued his inroads into the Northum- 
brian territory, till at last the king gave him one of his 

^ An Irishman, see Lanigan,Ti. 41 8. hendit, dicens oontemnendos esse 

' ^* Quin potiuB odio hahebat, et eos et miseros qui Deo rug in qaeni 

despiciebateofl, quos fide Christi im- crederent obedire contemnervnt.** 

butos, opera fidei non habere dcpre- Bede, lU. 31. 

Progress of Missionary Work in England. 123 

sons as a hostage, and promised Innumerable royal oma- chap. tt. 
ments and other presents, if he would only withdraw his ^ p. 665o 
deyastating bands. But all was in yain. The old pagan 
king summoned his allies, the king of East Anglia, the king 
of Deira, and the king of Gwynedd, and marched against 
him, determined to gain the sovereignty of the whole island. 
Oswiu on his side prepared for the battle, and bade his 
little band put their trust in Christ. " Since the heathen," D^eat cf Pmdft 
he cried, " refuses to receive our presents, let us offer them 
to Him who will, the Lord our GodV' and he vowed, if 
victorious, to give twelve estates for the erection of mo- 
nasteries, and to devote his daughter to perpetual virginity 
juid a cloister life. The battle began, and terminated in 
the complete rout of the pagans. The king of East Anglia, 
Penda himself, and nearly all his thirty auxiliary chiefs, 
were slain. The king of Gwynedd escaped under the veil 
of night, and the swollen stream of the Aire* swept away 
multitudes of the rest. Oswiu fulfilled his vows. His 
daughter was devoted to perpetual celibacy, twelve estates 
were given up to the foundation of monasteries, and the 
new faith was firmly established in Mercia. Diuma, one 
of the missionaries who had accompanied Peada from 
Oswiu's court,was consecrated by Finan, the first bishop of 
the Middle Angles and the Mercians, the paucity of eccle- 
siastics making it necessary to place the two people under 
a single bishop. Diuma laboured with success, but dying 
before long at Reppington was succeeded by CeoUach, 
who also was an Irish-Scot*. He likewise held the sec 
for but a brief period, and retired to the monastery of 
lona, leaving in his place an Anglo-Saxon named* Trum- 

^ **8i paganiu neseit accipere nos- from Hy. Bede, in. 2 1, 14. Lanigan, 

ink donaria ofiPeramus ei qui Dovit, II. 428, Reeves' Chronicon Hyeme, 

Domino Deo ooetro." Bede, in. 34. p. 375.A 
* At Wmw6d field near Leeds. * He had been instructed and or- 

' Or Cellach, a Soot or Irishman dained by the Irish, Bede, lu. 31. 

A.i>. 656. 

('tn.vtnion qf 

124 The M%89umary Btatofy fif the Middle Agee. 

cnAP. Ti. here, who was a monk, but ordained bishop bj the Irish- 

Essex also felt the inflnence of Oswia's snpremacjr. 
Its king Sigebert was a friend of the king of Northombria, 
and* made frequent visits to his kingdom. During these 
the subject of the new faith was often discussed between 
them, and at length, moved bj the earnest remonstrances 
of his friend, Sigebert abjured idolatry, was baptized bj 
Finan, together with a number of his courtiers, and re- 
turned to Essex with Cedd, who was, after proof of suc- 
cessful labour, consecrated by Finan, bishop of the East 
Saxons'. Not many years before, on the death of Pau- 
linus, Ithamar, an Anglo-Saxon of the province of Can* 
terbury, was consecrated by Honorius bishop of Rochester, 
the first example of an Anglo-Saxon being raised to the 
episcopate; the same archbishop also nominated Thomas, 
from the province of the Gyrwas, to the bishopric of Dun- 
wicli, on the death of Felix, and on his own death, in 653, 
he was, after an interval of a year and six months, succeeded 
by an Anglo-Saxon, Deusdedit, of Wessex, who received 
his consecration at the hands of the Kentish bishop Itha- 
mar, and lived to consecrate Damianus, a south Saxon, to 
the see of Rochester*. 

This rapid growth of a native episcopate was a sign 
that the first stage in the missionary work was reached, 
and that a national English Church would be formed 
before long. As yet, however, there was one considerable 
obstacle to complete union between the different dio- 
ceses. Two rival bands had hitherto been employed in the 
evangelization of England ; the Roman, assisted by their 

AD. 664. 

1 "XJbi cum omnia perambulan- 
tea multam Domino ecclesiam con- 
gregaflsety ... contigit red ire domum 
ac per venire ad ecclesiam iLindis- 
faronensem, propter colloquium Fi- 
nani episcopi ; qui ubi protpirtUum 

ei opui evanf/elii comperit, fecit eum 
epiHcopum in gentem orientalium 
ISaxoiium, vocatis ad se in ministe- 
rium ordination is alibi duobus epis* 
copis.'* Bede, ill. 22, 
> Bede, m. 20. 

Progress of Missiowiry ]] orl: la llixftiml. 12."> 

converts and some teacliers from France, and the Irish, cuap. vi 
who were plainly the larger body. Between the two a.©. 684. 
there were the old dififerences respecting the time of keep- SS'^JSa^IS"* 
uig Easter, on which point, we have seen how an Irish 5SS5«»!'^ 
bishop felt so keenly, as to refuse all communion with his 
brethren, who followed the Roman custom^ Thcr3 was also 
a difference respecting the form of the clerical tonsure ; the 
missionaries from lona shaved the fore part of the head in 
the shape of a crescent*, those from Rome shaved the crown 
of the head, which was surrounded by a circle of hair, 
supposed to represent the Saviour's crown of thorns. It 
is true that these differences affected externals only ; but 
amongst a people only just weaned from idolatry, and as 
yet acquainted with little more than the externals of Chris- 
tianity, such differences were fraught with much danger- 
They penetrated the palaces of the different kings, and 
produced no doubt considerable misunderstanding. Thus, 
while Oswiu was celebrating Easter, according to the cus- 
tom he had learnt at lona, his queen Eanfleda, a daughter 
of Edwin, who had spent her youth at the Kentish court, 
was still practicing the austerities of Lent. Again, his 
son and co-rcgent Ealhfrith, being influenced by Wilfrid, 
a priest of Northumbrian birth, strongly favoured the 
Roman party, and even expelled some Scotch monks from 
the monastery of Ripon, to make way for others of the 
party of his friend. It was plain that the scandal could not 
be allowed to continue, and it was arranged that an ami- 
cable conference oi) the points in dispute should be held at 
Whitby, in a monastery presided over by the abbess Hilda. 

Accordingly, Oswiu and his son repaired to the ap- ^imAio/^/ne- 
pointed place, and met the representatives of both parties, if *«%. 

1 Bp. Dngan. 8ee above p. io8. This usage existed in St Patrick*8 

* "The tonsure of the steundut time, who may have fuuDd it in the 

ordo was ab awt ad aurem, the an- countiy ; it was adopted by St Co- ^ 

tenor half of the head being made lumba, and continued in his order 

htre, but the occiput left untouched. until 718." Reeves' Adamnan, 350. 

126 The MUswnary History of ihe Middle Ages. 

CHAP. Ti. On the side of the missionaries from lona appealed Col-^ 
AD. 66ii m9Ln, who had succeeded Finan in the bishopric of 
Lindisfame, Cedd bishop of Wessex, and the sbbcflB 
Hilda herself. On the other side were Agilbert, who, as 
we have seen, had been promoted to the see of Dorchester, 
accompanied bj a priest Agatho, Jacob, the deacon of 
Paulinas, Eomanus, a Kentish priest belonging to the 
w^/H*. queen's household, and last, not least, Wilfrid, the friend of 
the king's son and co-regent The future bishop of York* 
was a Northumbrian, of noble birth ; In his thirteenth year 
he had resolved to renounce the world, and through the 
influence of Oswiu's queen had been received into the 
monastery of Lindisfame. There he had distinguished 
himself by his humility, devotion, and mental endowments, 
and above all by an earnest longing to behold and pray in 
the Church of the Apostle Peter at Kome. The first of 
the many converted Anglo-Saxons over whom at this 
period the mystic city on the Tiber exercised a strange 
fascination, he found an eager promoter of liis wishes in 
the queen Eanfleda, wlio sent him to her brother the king 
of Kent. At liis court the ardent Nortimmbrian became 
acquainted with the doctrines of the Koman Church, and 
hence in company with the eminent Benedict Biscop he 
embarked for the Continent. Arrived at Lyons, he so 
won the favour of the archbisliop Delphinus that lie might 
Iiave married his brother's daughter, and occupied a high 
])osition in France, But he was bound for Rome, and 
notliing could turn him from his pur|)0sc. In the holy 
city, wliither lie was to be followed by many of his fellow- 
countrymen, he employed himself diligently in mastering 
the rules of ecclesiastical discipline, the lloman compu- 
tation of Easter, and other points proper to be known by a 
priest of that Church, Returning thence a devoted ad- 
herent of the Roman see, he stayed three years at Lyons, 
and received the Roman tonsure from the archbishop. 

Progrem of MiBsionary Work in England. 127 

Thence, having with difficultj escaped death ^ in die perse- chap, tl 
cation which broke out against his episcopal friend, he hast- ^^ 004. 
ened back to his own country, and, as we have seen, had 
acquired great inflaence over Oswiu's son, now the co-regent, 
who had made him abbot of his new monastery at Ripon. 

The conference at Whitby began with an exhortation 
from Oswin to peace and concord, and a determination 
to discover and follow the true tradition on the Pascal 
question. Colman having been requested to deliver his 
opinion, appealed to the tradition handed down from 
St John as the authority for the custom the king had 
learnt at lona. Agilbert followed, and requested that 
Wilfrid, who .could speak the Anglo-Saxon language, ^wjiwti/»<»r. 
might be allowed to deliver their common sentiments, omncu. 
The latter then detailed how he had seen the festival of 
Easter celebrated at Eome, "where the blessed Apostles 
Peter and Paul lived, taught, suffered, and were buried," 
and throughout Gaul and Italy where he had himself 
travelled. The same custom he declared obtained through- 
out Africa, Asia, Egypt, Greece, indeed the whole world, 
save and except only that obscure comer where dwelt the 
Picts and Scots, The controversy now waxed warm, and 
was carried on on both sides with skill and acuteness. 
How it would have ended it is impossible to say, had not 
Wilfrid adduced in support of the Roman customs the often 
quoted words of the Lord, " Thou art Peter, and on this 
rock I will build my Church, and the gates of hell shall 
not prevail against it; and to thee will I give the keys of 
the kingdom of heaven." Thereupon the king turned to 
Colman', and inquired whether these words were really 

^ "Atverocumsanctus Wilfridufl ' TransroanDus de Anglorum gente 

spoluituB, ei pariter ad palmam mar- ex Britannia.' Itenimque dixerunt : 

tyrii intrepidus etaret ; Duces inter- ' Parcite illi, et nolite tangere earn.*" 

rogavenint dicentes : ' Quia est iste Eddius, c. 7. 

juveniB formosus, qui se pneparat ' Bede, m. i$, 
ad mortem r Dictumque est illis: 

A.D. 664. 

128 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

onAP. VL addressed to the Apostle Peter? "They were, without 
doubt," was the reply. And can you bring forward any- 
thing like such high authority for your Oolumba? con- 
tinued the king. "None," said the bishop. "And are 
ye both, without controversy," rejoined Oswiu, " agreed on 
this, that it was especially to Peter that these words were 
spoken, and that to him the keys of the kingdom of heaven 
were given by the Lord?" "We are," said they. "Then," said 
the king, "I too declare to you, since he is the doorkeeper, 
I will not oppose him ; but as far as I can, I will follow 
his commands and precepts, lest perchance, when I come 
to the gates of heaven, there be no one to open to me, 
if he turn his back upon me, who is proved to hold the 
keys." The king's jest was received with applause by 
those present. Whatever their motives were, superstitious 
fear, or a wish to side with the king, they concurred in 
his decision, and the council closed. Colman in disgust 
retired to Scotland; Cedd returned to his diocese, and 
complied with the Roman custom ; Tuda, the last of the 
Scottish succession, succeeded to Colman's see, and like- 
wise observed tlie Roman practice. Thus through tlie 
political predominance of Wessex, the influence of Wilfrid, 
and doubtless the prestige which the Roman see had bor- 
rowed from the Roman empire, the Roman party gained a 
victory in England over their Irish rivals. 
cof^vrrsion qf Quc kingdom only now remained where the work of the 

missionary was needed. This was Sussex, which though in 
their own neighbourhood had been strangely neglected by 
the Kentish clergy. It is true that Dicul, one of the com- 
panions of Fursasus, whom we have seen labouring with 
success in East Anglia, had visited the district, and erected 
an insignificant cell at Bosham, where, surrounded by 
woods and the sea, he had with five or six brethren, "served 
the Lord in humility and poverty," But his efforts had 
been of little avail amongst the pagan population. The 

Profjrcss of Missioiiaru Wurlc in J^iKjhutiL 12D 

king, indeed, Iiad received Laptlsm in tlie Mercian kingdom chap. vi. 

together with his queen, but they had done little for the ^ d. 681. 

evangelization of their subjects*. The work was reserved 

for the coadjutor of Agilbert at the council of Whitby. On 

hia return from France^ where he received consecration as 

bishop of York, Wilfrid had been thrown on the Sussex coast, 

and had narrowly escaped death from the heathen wreckers'. 

Since then he had experienced strange vicissitudes. Driven 

from his diocese, hated by the new king of Northumbria, 

and finding no security in Wessex or Mercia, he had after 

his escape from prison, sought refuge amongst the heatlien 

tribes in the wilds of Sussex, and was enabled to complete wufridiahowrt 

what the small Irish mission had begun and the Kentish 

mission had left undone. Ethelwalch the king received him 

with pleasure, and Wilfrid, who liad already had experience 

in missionary work on the barbarous shores of Friesland', 

midertook their conversion with alacrity. His visit was 

moat opportune. Separated from the rest of England by 

forests and jungles, the wretched people had for three years 

suffered from drought, followed by a famine so severe, that 

in the depth of their despair they linked themselves hand 

in hand by forties and fifties, leaped from the rocks, and 

were dashed in pieces or drowned*. Moreover, though 

occupying a long line of sea-coast, they were but little 

acquainted with the art of fishing, and thus had the greatest 

diflBculty in getting a livelihood*. Wilfrid, therefore, and 

those who were with him, saw that their mission was to 

civilize and feed the people of Sussex as well as preach 

the gospel to them. They therefore began by teaching 

them the art of fishing. Collecting all the nets they could 

find, he and his followers went out to sea, shared with the 

* Wulfhere, the Mercian king, had IV. 13. 
rewarded him for his change of faith ' See Eddius, c. 95, 76. 

with the grant of the lole of Wight. ' Bede, iv. 13, and below chap. 

Bede, rv. 13. His queen had been viii. 
baptized in her own countiy. Bede, * Bede, iv. 13. 


130 The Miastanary History of the Middh Ages. 


Jfine of n Na- 
tional Oiurch. 

CHAP. Yi. poor creatures the proceeds of their success, and showed 
681-^6. ^^^^^ ^^^ ^^ provide for themselves. This, and the mis- 
sionary's acquaintance with their own tongue, speedily won 
the hearts of his famine-stricken flock. Wilfrid himself 
baptized the chiefs and their warlike retinue, while the 
four priests who accompanied him administered the rite to 
the people. And on the very day of the baptism, as Bede 
tells the tale, the windows of heaven were opened, the 
refreshing shower descended, the parched land grew green, 
and the bodies as well as the souls of the people felt the 
blessing of the bishop's presence\ The king presented 
him with lands at Selsey, on which to build a monastery, 
and for five years Wilfrid performed the work of a missio- 
nary bishop among the people of Sussex, and reclaimed 
them from their heathenism. 

Already, before this last remnant of a heathen people 
had been gathered into the fold of Christ, the various 
efibrts of the difierent missions throughout the island had 
been in a great measure consolidated, and the cluster of 
missionary stations had begun to be converted into an 
established Church. The man suited for this important 
work had come, not from Rome, or Gaul, or the Celtic 
monasteries of the North, but from Tarsus, "a city of Ci- 
A.D. 66S--889. Hcia." Nominated by Pope Vitalian in place of Wighard, 
and accompanied by the African Hadrian, the new arch- 
bishop brought to this island the Roman love of order and 
organization. As soon as he arrived he visited the several 
Anglo-Saxon kingdoms, and succeeded in obliterating all 
traces of the peculiar customs of the missionaries from lona. 
Summoning a synod at Hertford", he introduced canons 
for reguljiting the power of the bishops, defined the rites 
of monasteries, enacted laws respecting divorce, unlawful 
marriages, and other points, which have always been a 
source of diflBculty to missionaries and infant churches, and 


^ Bede, iv. 13, 

■ Spclman's Concilia, p. 15a. 

Progress of Missionary Work in England. 131 

further, with Hadrian's aid, he converted many of the mo- chap, vl 
nasteries into seminaries of useful learning, where from the ^^ 658-389. 
lips of teachers familiar with Greek and Latin, the Anglo- 
^xon youth could learn prosody, astronomy, and ecclesi- 
astical arithmetic^ 

Thus within a space of less than ninety years, tlieoowo/o^ 
work of evangelization in this island had been accom-g]^^'» 
plished. The Anglo-Saxons, once notorious for their 
fierceness and barbarity, had so far been softened by 
Christian influences that in no country was the new 
faith more manifestly the parent of civilization. Inter- 
course with the metropolis of the West rapidly introduced 
various arts and sciences, replaced the wooden straw- 
thatched church of the Celtic missionary by structures 
fashioned after the model of the basilicas of the West, 
roofed them with lead, and filled them with glass, and im- 
proved the music by bringing into universal use the Gre- 
gorian chant*. The same influences before long affected 
also the laws; they regulated the time for bringing the 
Saxon child to the font, denounced a penalty if it died 
unbaptized, declared the spiritual relationship there con- 
tracted to be on a par with natural aflBnity, forbade servile 
work on Sundays, regulated the treatment of the slave, 
forbade all heathen practices, such as sorcery, necromancy, 
and divining*. Thus at last the vision of Gregory was 
realized, and the laud of the fair-haired Saxon boys took 
its place among the Christian kingdoms, destined, in its 
turn, by the hands of devoted men, to transmit the light 
it had itself received to kindred Teutonic tribes in the 
Germanic forests. 

* Bede, rv. 7, Lingard'g A. S. C. I. 78. 

' Lappenberg, I. 172. Bede, IT. 1, 

' Spelman'H Concilia, p. 155. Kemble, n. 490 — 493. 




A,D. 590—630. 

" On becoming Christumfl one would inppoM that tKe Cdtio nationt would 
have been loftened into anion and fellow-feeling. 31iia waa not tiie 
case. The Celtio Church partook of the nature of the dan. At fint 
fecund and ardent, it aeemed to take the West by storm." — ^MiOHXLsr. 


And now having watched the rise of the Celtic and Anglo- 
Saxon Churches, we shall see how they poured back with 
interest the gifts of civilization and of the Gospel upon the 
Roman Empire, how froln this "ultima Thule" of remote 
barbarism, as it was once regarded, there rolled back a 
tide of missionary enterprize to restore vitality to the 
Frankish Churches, and to lead the way in converting the 
masses of continental heathendom. It is not meant to 
assert that, during the wild scenes of confusion which at- 
tended the consolidation of the Frankish kingdom none 
were found on the continent itself to devote themselves to 
the missionary work, and to tread in the steps of men like 
Scverinus. The names of Goar^ and Wulflaich arc per- 
haps the representatives of many who have passed away 

necklace round the neck of the pass- 
ing stranger, with the inquiry, 'whe- 
ther he would be baptized viith via- 
ter or with wine ?' If with water, he 
was well beaprinkled ; if with wine, 
he wa8 offered a full golden goblet, 
which he cuipticd to the health of 
the emperor, and in return placed 
his ahns in the poor's box." Menzcrs 
Germany, i. 2 19. 

^ Goar, towards the close of the 
sixth century, built a hut beneath 
the frightful rock^ of the Lurlei, in 
the narrowest part of the Rhine, in 
order to save the shipwrecked, and 
to feed the starving wanderer. "The 
little town of St Goar retained," 
says Mcnzei, **in memory of the 
hospitality of this saint, even to our 
times, the custom of placing a brass 

CMc Missiofuxriea tn Southern Oermany. l33 

anhononred and unknown, but whose labours in contrast chap, vil 
with the general degeneracy were equally earnest and self- ZTsea 
denying. The story of Wulflaich is characteristic of the wu^ftaun. 
times. He was a native of Lombardy \ and in early youth 
having heard of the fame of St Martin, he undertook a pil- 
grimage to his Church, and, after due preparation in a mo- 
nastic establishment, settled down in the district of Triers, 
in the valley of the Moselle. Here he found a statue of 
Diana' to which the people offered worship, and which 
they regarded with the utmost veneration. Eager to turn 
them away from their idolatry, he erected a column at no 
great distance from the idol, on which he stood from morn- 
ing till night, in imitation of the famous Simeon Stylites, 
partaking only of a little bread, oil, and a small quantity 
of water. The singularity of his mode of life attracted 
crowds to witness his austerities, and he embraced the op- 
portunity of proclaiming to them that the deity they wor- 
shipped was a vain thing, and their sacred rites useless. 
The impression thus made was not lost. A portion of the 
people were persuaded of the impotency of their goddess, 
ropes were fastened to her image, and it was dragged to 
the ground, and broken to pieces. But his pillar austeri- 
ties found little favour with the neighbouring prelates. 
"Thy mode of life," said they, "is not fair; it is useless 
for thee, unknown and ignoble, to vie with the holy Simeon 
of Antioch. Our climate does not admit of such austerities 
as these, descend from thy pillar, and mingle freely with 
the brethren thou hast gathered unto thee." Moved by 
their representations he one day consented to descend, and 
one of the bishops, availing himself of the opportunity, 
decoyed him some distance from his favourite spot, and in 

^ See Acta SS. July 7. Greg. dlsofLateran (401), Aries (453) pro- 
Tor, vm. 15. Kurtz's Hittory of hibit the worship of stones, troos, 
the Chrittian Church, p. 304. and other idols. 

' Oreg. Tut. vm. 15. The Coon- 

134 The Mt89umary ExsUrry of the MddU Ag^. 





Bir h and Edu- 

his absence, put an end to his ansterities bj catting down 
his pillar. From this time he lived in communion with 
his brethren, and laboured no less effectuallj and certainly 
more sensibly, for the spiritual welfare of the heathen tribes 


But whatever such anchorites were enabled to accom- 
plish, their labours were speedily eclipsed by those of 
ardent enthusiastic missionaries from Ireland, at this time, 
in the glowing language of contemporary writers, a *^ Gkur^ 
den of Eden" and an "Island of Saints.*' We have 
already observed the fervid zeal which characterized the 
followers of St Patrick and Columba, and in the monas- 
tery of lona, have seen one of the many spiritual fortresses 
they erected in the midst of barbarian hordes, whence the 
monastic colony went forth on its labour of love. Blending 
the ardour of Christian zeal with a love of travelling and 
adventure, they now began to leave their quiet homes in 
search of more rugged fields of labour, amongst the nume- 
rous barbarian tribes of the continent*. 

One of the earliest and most eminent of these was Co- 
lumbanus. Bom in Leinster of noble parents, he left his 
home at a very early age to place himself under the vene- 
rable Senile, abbot of Cluain-inis in Lough-Erne. Under 
this able master, his studies embraced, besides the Holy 
Scriptures, grammar, rhetoric and geometry, and his 
rapid progress was attested by a commentary on the 

^ The outward appearance of these 
Irish anciiorites was very striking. 
Their outfit was (i) a cambutaf or 
short pastoral staff (Jonee Vita S, 
ColumhanI, c. 30. Reeves' Adam- 
nan, p. 324^ (1) a leathern water- 
bottle, (we have a utrem lacturium, 
Vita S. ColumbcBf 11. 38), (3) a 
wallet (Ris^y *i3' A damnan, p. 116), 
(4) a K>atherii case for the service- 
books ('Mibros in }>elIioeo reconditos 
Mcculo habebat," Adanm. Vita S. 

ColnmhiTf IT. 8, where see in note 
Reeves' account of the leather cover 
of the Book of Armagh), (5) a case 
containing relics, in the Uuter 
Journal of Archaeology ^ VoL Vii. 
P« 303, it is said that *'the Irish an- 
chorites were in the habit of painting 
their eyelids," which reminds us of 
the painted Britons. "Stigmata, 
signa, pictura in corpore, qiialcs 
iScoti pingunt in palpebris." Hat- 
tener's Dmkmaler, L izy, 237. 

CeUic MtaBianariea in Southern Oermany. iZ6 

Psalms, which he composed at an earlj age, and other ohap.vii. 
religious works. Resolved on embracing the monastic ^ „. 550. 
state, he left Clnain-inis for the monastery of Banchor, on 
the coast of Ulster, and submitted to the discipline of the 
eminent abbot St Comgall\ But he was before long 
seized with the craving for foreign travel which distin- 
guished so many of his countrymen', and a desire to preach 
the Grospel to the pagan tribes on the continent. In vain 
his abbot endeavoured to dissuade him from his intention, 
and to quench the fire of zeal which had been kindled 
within his breast. He had no sooner reached the age oiimdMinFrmcu 
thirty, than selecting twelve companions he bade farewell a.d. 589. 
to his brethren', and after barely touching on the shores of 
pagan Britain, landed in Gaul. 

In Burgundy he was welcomed by Guntram, the least 
blameworthy of the grandsons of Clovis, and he might 
there have found a secure retreat, and a sphere of useftil 
labour. But his ascetic spirit longed for a sterner mission- 
field. The words of Christ, " Whosoever will be my dis- 
ciple, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and 
follow me," constantly sounded in his ears, and he resolved 
to seek a country where he could practise such self-denial, 
and be His disciple indeed. On the confines of the king- 
dom of Austrasia and Burgundy rose the wild and desolate 
range of the Vosges, and tribes of pagan Suevians roamed 
over districts once colonized by the Eoman legionaries. 
Hither he determined to retire, and with his twelve follow- 
ers first settled amidst the ruins of the small town of Ane- 

' ^ Bom in 517, died in 6o3. His 
great monasteiy of Beannchar in 
AUaudine Ultorum, ** Bangor in the 
Ards of Ulster," was founded in 558. 
It dwindled away after the inyasion 
of tbe Danes. See Beeyea* Adam- 
nan, p. If 3 fi. Eecl, ArUiq, 334 — 


' ''Natio Sootomm, qnibns oon- 

tiietndo pefegrinandi jam peone in 

natnram conyersa est." Vita S, 
Oalli, Pertz, Mon, Otrm, n. 47. 

' Their names, though there is 
considerable yariation in the ac- 
counts, were Gallus, Deicola, Sigis- 
bertus, Columbanus the younger, 
Cummin, Bunco, Ecoonan (=Ac- 
quon), Domitialis, Kilian, Neemias, 
Loa, Florentius. Lanigan, n. ^64 n. 

136 The Mmumary Histcry of the MiddU Aget. 

oHAP. viL gray. Here, and at Luxeiiil, were charms for the aeverest 
ascetic Over a range of sixty leagues, and abreadth of ten 

A.D. 590- 

SS^S^lS^ or fifteen, nothing was to be seen but parallel chains of in- 
SS&!^SS«. accessible defiles, divided bj endless forests*, "whose hnstr 
ling pinewoods descended fix>m the peaks of the highest 
mountains to the banks of the rapid streams of the Doubs, 
Dessoubre, and Loue.'* War and devastation had wellnigh 
effaced the traces of Boman colonization ; what Boman in* 
du9tr7 had cultivated, the sword of the barbarous invader, 
and especially of Attila, had restored to solitude, and made 
once more the haunts of the bear and the wolf*. No spot 
could have been found more suited to the spirit of ColunoH 
banus: nowhere could he and his companions better 
learn self-denial and mortification, or inure themselves to 
severer labours. Strange stories have come down to us of 
the hardships which &om time to time these colonizers of 
the desert were fain to endure, how they supported them- 
selves on the bark of trees and wild herbs, and in seasons 
of extreme need, experienced unforeseen, and, as they 
deemed, miraculous aid. At length a monastery arose 
amidst the waste, formed on the model of those which C!o- 
lumba raised under the oaks of Deny or in sea-girt Hy'. 
At Ancgray and Luxeuil the boundaries of the monastic 
colony were duly marked out, and the forest cleared. 
Within these rose the humble cells of thatch and wattles, 
and, conspicuously, the church, beside which was often 
the round tower or steeple, which served as a place of 
refuge in times of need*. In fields reclaimed firom desola- 

^ Montalembert^s MonJa of the 
Westf II. 404. ** Luxovium ibi ima- 
ginum lapidearum deiusitas vicini 
Boltus densabat, quas cultu miserabili 
* rituque profano vetuBta pagaDorum 
tempora hoDorabant." Acta SS. 
Bentd. n. 12. 

' " At nunc solue illic fersB belluse, 
ursiy bubali, lupi frequenter vise- 
bantur." Jonse Yita ColumJb, c. 17. 

' On the Bimilarity of the orato- 
ries erected abroad by the Irish ec- 
clesiastics to those in their native 
country, see Petrie*s Round Totoers, 

PP- 347> 418. 

* See an interesting account of 
the Irish monasteries in Germany 
by Dr Wattenbach {Die KonjfregO' 
tion dcr Schotten Kl^ster in DeuitcK- 
land), transhited in the Ulster Jour^ 

Celtic Missinnarics iji Sutdlfcni Gcrmn]))j. Vol 

tion the seed was sown, and before long tlie brethren chap, vr 
reaped the waving com. Nor did their mysterious life fail TTsooT" 
to move the hearts of men around. Hundreds flocked to 
listen to their religious instructions, hundreds more, en-<^ 
cooraged by their labours in clearing and tilling the land, 
took to copying their example ; at Anegray, at Luxeuil, 
at Fontaines, they beheld forests cleared, trees felled, and 
the land ploughed or reaped by the same assiduous hands, 
all obedient to one head, who sometimes mingled in, and 
always enoouraged their useful labours. 

A Bule, probably derived from the Irish Bangor, and ^S^til 
severer than that of Benedict, bound every member of *^ 
these fraternities. Incessant labour either in the field, or 
in copying * manuscripts, the punctilious observance of 
repeated devotional services, three by day and three by 
\ night, the severest discipline extending to every motion of 
the body,' regulating even the tone of the voice, these and 
other methods were employed by the ardent abbot to 
mould to implicit obedience those who courted admission 
I into his cloisters. " Obedience " is the heading of the first 
I canon in his rule, and the question, *' What are the limits 
of obedience?" is answered, ^^ Even unto death; for unto 
dectih Christ submitted Himself to the Father for m«\" The 
perfection of the monk is thus described : " Let the monk 
live under the discipline of one father, and in the society 
of many, that from the one he may learn humility, from 
the other patience, from the one silence, from the other 

md of ArcKaologyy Jvlj, AvLg. iB$g, On the Bound Tower, lee Pefcrie, 

As at lona, so here we read of the p. 374, where there is a curious quo- 

eomobiwn, the eccltsia, the rrfecto- tation from Mabillon^s Iter Oermani' 

riwm, the horreum, the vallum, the cunif respecting a beacon-tower at 

cellarium, of platutra, 2Lndjumenta, the monastery of Luzeuil, as also 

The brethren ''sarculis terram ex- some remarks, p. 391, on a Round 

Golunty et jaciendo semini arva pro?- Tower belfry at Bobbie. 

panuit^** (tfooas, cap. 17) ; or "sege- ' 8. Columbani Beg. Cfomob. cap. I. 

turn copia in horrea conditur* ~ Migne, Scrijpt, Ecd, Minorei, Sec 

while the abbot himself " cum reliquis vn. p. 110. 
madini pnecidit segetes,'* (cap. 13.) 


A.D. 600. 



138 l%e MiBsioMory BSOon/ pf Ike WdMt Agei. 

gentleness ; let him never gratif|r Ms own wishes ; let him 
eat what he is bidden; let him possess onlj what he 
receiyes; let him perfonn his allotted task; only when 
wearied let him retire to bed ; let him learn to sleep as he 
walks, and be compelled to rise before he has slept suffi- 
ciently; when he is injured let him hold his peace; the 
head of the monastery let him fear as a master, and love as 
a father ; let him belioTe that whatever he orders is for his 
good, nor question the opinion of his elders, seeing that it 
is his duty to obey, and to fulfil all that is right. Let his 
fare be homely and sparing^, sufficient to support life 
without weighing down the spirit, a little bread, v^e- 
tables, pulse, or flour mixed with water ; let this be his 
diet, as becometh one who professes to seek an eternal 



Such was to be the daily life. Meanwhile all offences 
of the hand, the eye, the foot, the voice, were punished 
sometimes with penance, or long periods of silence, or lowly 
postures, and sometimes with blows. The tenth chapter of 
the Bule regulates the number of the latter with the utmost 
minuteness according to the nature of the offence. Six 
blows were awarded to the brother who failed to say grace 
before a meal, or to join in the "Amen " after the abbot's 
blessing, or said anything was his own, or neglected to 
sign his cup with the cross, or talked too loud, or coughed 
during the psalmody, or stared about him during the service. 
Acts of insubordination, answering when reprimanded, 
indulging unchaste thoughts, called down heavier punish- 
ments, even, in some cases, upwards of two hundred blows, 
though more than twenty-five might not be inflicted at one 
time. Puerile as many of these regulations may appear, 

^ Reg, CcBnob, cap. 9. Montalem- 
bert, II. 405. 

* The monasUo duties are thus 
summed up: "quotidie jejunandum 

est, sicut quotidie onmdum est, quo- 
tidie laborandum, quotidie est legen- 
dum." R«ff. Ccen. cap. 3. 

. CeUtG Mmionariea in Southern Oermany. 139 
Columbantis was yet far from teaching his brethren that chap, til 

the essence of piety consisted in externals. Again and a.d. 590. 
again he reminds them that true religion consists not in 
humility of the body, but of the heart, and bids them con- 
sider these punctilious observances not as ends but as 
means. He himself ever set them a worthy example. He 
united practical energy with a disposition for contempla- 
tion. It was his delight to penetrate into the deepest 
recesses of the forest, and there to read and meditate on 
the Scriptures, which he always carried with him. On 
Sundays and high festivals he abstracted himself yet more 
from outward things. Seeking a cave or some other se- 
cluded spot, he would devote himself entirely to prayer 
and meditation, and so prepare for celebrating the services 
of the day without distraction. If he demanded incessant 
self-denial of his followers, he himself fell not short of his 
own requirements. "Whosoever overcomes himself,*' he 
was wont to say, "treads the world underfoot; no one, 
who spares himself, can truly hate the world. If Christ 
be in us we cannot live to ourselves, if we have conquered 
ourselves we have conquered all things ; if the Creator of 
ail things died for us while yet in our sins, ought not we 
to die to sin ? Let us die unto ourselves. Let us live in 
Christ, that Christ may live in us." 

These quotations, and others to the same effect might Jeaiwityor 
be multiplied, express the innermost feelings of his heart, ^^^^nn^ 
and the principles however exaggerated which he sought 
to instil into the order he had founded, in superintending 
which and directing the civilizing efforts of his monastic 
colony, he found constant occupation for twelve years. 
But he was not without his anxieties. The severity of his 
life, and his zeal for monastic discipline, excited the preju- 
dices of the Frankish clergy, whose own lethargy and 
worldliness were strangely out of harmony with his life- 
long self-denial. The pertinacity with which he clung to 

140 ne Missionary History of ike Middle Ages. 
cHAP.yn. the customs he had learnt from his teachers in Ireland, and 

A.O. ttoa. especially the time for the observance of Easter, did not 
mend matters. Already, as early as the year 599, this 

SCl'SiS?^**^ latter subject is the burden of a letter he addressed to Ore* 
goiy I., in which while ezpreasing all due respect for his 
exalted position he asserts his independence, and refuses to 
correct what he deemed to be right. After alluding to two 
reformers of the paschal cycles, Anatolius, bishop of Lao* 
dicea, and Yictorius, presbyter of Limoges, and declaring 
that he rejected the calculations of the latter, as novel and 
unauthorised, though supported by the Boman see, he thus 
addresses the Pope; ''Either, then, excuse or condemn 
your Yictorius ; but know that should you approve him, 
the matter of the faith will lie between you and Jerome, 
who without doubt commended Anatolius though disagree- 
ing with Victorius, so that whoever follows the one cannot 
receive the other. Take care, therefore, that in approving 
the faith of the two aforesaid authors, thus disagreeing 
with one another, there be no discordance between you and 
Jerome in the decision you give, lest we be perplexed on 
every side, and compelled to take part either with you or 
him. In this matter spare the weak, lest you lay bare the 
scandal of a disagreement. For I plainly acknowledge to 
you, that any one who ventures to dissent from the authority 
of Jerome will be regarded as a heretic, and one to be re- 
jected in the Churches of the West, for to him they ac- 
commodate their faith in the divine Scriptures in all things 
without hesitation^." 

Before long, his adherence to his Irish customs induced 
several Frankish bishops to convene a synod and deliberate 
how they should act towards the intrepid abbot. Accord- 

^ Epitt. I. Migne, p. 963. "Legi opus ease fateor; mihl idcirco tua 

librum tuum/* he continueR, " Pas- aitienti largire, precor, opuscula quas 

torale regimen continentem stylo in Ezeohielemmiro, utaudivi, elaoo- 

brevem, doctrina prolixum, myst»- rasti ingemo.** Todd*8 Irinh Church , 

riis refertum, melle duloius egeptl p. 57. 

Cehic Munonaries in Southern Oetmany. 141 

ingljy he addressed th^m a letter, wherein after expressing ohap. rn. 
his thankfulness that thej had met on his account, and his ^^ qqj 
wish that they met oftener, as the canons require, and re- S'/filSaJ 
ferring them on the Easter question to his correspondence ^tn^- . 
with Gregory*, he assures them with pathetic dignity that 
he was not the author of this difference : '^ I came as a 
stranger amongst you in behalf of our common Lord and 
Master Jesus Christ. In His name, I beseech you, let 
me live in peace and quiet, as I have lived for twelve 
years in these woods beside the bones of my seventeen 
departed brethren. Let Gaul receive into her bosom all 
whOy if they deserve it, will meet in one heaven. For 
we have one kingdom promised us, and one hope of our 
calling in Christ, with whom we shall reign together, if 
first we suffer with Him here on earth. Choose ye which 
rule respecting Easter ye prefer to follow, remernbering 
the words of the Apostle, Prove all things^ hold fast that 
v)hich is good. But let us not quarrel one with another, 
lest our enemies, the Jews, the heretics, and pagan 
Gentiles, rejoice in our contention." And he concludes, 
" Pray for us, my fathers, even as we, humble as we are, 
pray for you. Kegard us not as strangers, for we are 
members together of one body, whether we be Gauls, or 
Britons, or Iberians, or to whatever nation we belong. 
Therefore let us all rejoice in the knowledge of the faith, 
and the revelation of the Son of God, and let us strive 
earnestly to attain together unto the perfect man, to the 
measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ', in com- 
munion with whom let us learn to love one another, and 
praise one another, and correct one another, and pray for 
one another, that with Him we may together reign for 

'^ EpiH. 7, "Quid quidem illi fratri vestro Arigio brevi libello lioc 
sentiunt de Fas^ha sive papse per idem scribere pnesumpBi." 
tres tomoe innotai, et adhuc sancto * £ph. ir. 13. 


A.D, 610. 


142 The Miinatmy SSHor^ of ike MUUOe Age$. 

Thus with mingled firmness and pathos does the abbot 
' plead with the Frankish bishops. But he was soon called 
to engage in a nobler strife, and to protest against the vices 
of the Borgnndian court, at this time mled bj the noto- 
rious Bnmehaat, who fleeing firom the palace of Theo- 
debert of Austrasia, had taken ap her abode with her 
younger son Tbierri. The king, who had forgotten the 
old Teutonic virtues of his sires, had given himself up to 
the unbridled indulgence of his lusts, and the unscrupu* 
lous Brunehaut, conniving at his licentiousness, sought to 
gain a complete ascendancj in his kingdom, and to rule 
him through his vices. The feme of the abbot of Luzeuil 
attracted Thierri, and he often visited his retreat. The 
abbot did not neglect the opportunity thus afforded him. 
''His life was lightning, he could make his words thunder." 
Sternly he rebuked the king for his incontinence, and bade 
him leave his countless mistresses for the society of a 
queen, who might bring him a legitimate heir. The volup- 
tuous Thierri quailed before the saint, and promised amend- 
ment. But this was easier said than done. Brunehaut 
saw in a legitimate queen a death-blow to her influence, 
and her rage against the abbot knew no bounds. His 
saintly character and the reverence with which he was 
regarded saved him from the fate of Didier, bishop of 
Vienne, who had paid with his life for bold rebuke of 
Tliierri-s incontinence. Whether at her solicitation, or of 
his own accord, the abbot one day visited the palace, and 
the queen-mother implored his blessing on the king's two 
illegitimate sons. '' These bastards bom in sin," was the 
uncompromising reply, '* shall never wield the royal scep- 
tre." Brunehaut, furious, bade the children retire, and 
from that day forward commenced a series of petty perse- 
cutions. She cut off supplies from his monasteries, stirred 
up jealousy between them and neighbouring convents. 
Thereupon the abbot determined once more to repair to the 

' Cdiie Misdonaries in Southern Germany. 143 

court, and to remonstrate with the queen. It was sunset chap. yii. 
when he appeared hefore the palace^ and on his arrival j^„, ^iq. 
being announced the king ordered a sumptuous supper to 
be prepared and sent out to him. '' It is written," said the 
sainti ** that the Most High abhors the offerings of the 
wicked : the mouth of the servants of God must not be 
poUnted with food given bj one who persecutes them 
and wickedlj excludes them not onlj from their own, 
bat firom the habitation of others.'* Thereupon, according 
to his biographer, the dishes miraculously brake in pieces, 
and the wine and other viands were spilt upon the earth. 
The king, alarmed at this intelligence, promised amend- 
ment, and the abbot withdrew to Luxeuil, whence he in- 
dited a letter full of the severest rebukes, and threatening 
the king with excommunication if he did not repent of his 
adulteries. It was Brunehaut's turn now. She inflamed 
the mind of the king against the stern monitor, she roused 
the nobles and courtiers, and appealing to the bishops 
strove to rouse their jealousy against the stranger monk 
and his strange rule. At last Thierri, stung to the quick, 
repaired to Luxeuil, and demanded a free entrance for his 
courtiers to the monastery. Columbanus replied with awful 
denunciations. The king attempted to enter the refectory, 
but dared not go further, so terrible was the language of 
the abbot. " Thou thinkest," he said with a sneer, " I 
shall confer on thee a martyr's crown ; I am not so utterly 
foolish as to gratify thy pride, but thou shalt go hence by 
the way by which thou earnest." The abbot refused to stir 
from his cell *. At length force was used, and the uncom- toiunAamu 
promising monk was carried away to Besancjon. But he *«*"'P'*- 
managed to elude his guards, and made his way back to 
Luxeuil. Again he was taken, and with two or three of 
his disciples hurried off to Auxcrre, and thence to Nevers, 
where he was placed in a boat and conveyed to Orleans. 

1 Jone VUa S, ColumbanI, capp. 19, 20. 

lU Tie Mi$$umaty Huiof^ qf 00 Miih Jg9$. 

CHAP. th. Here he was forbidden to enter anj of the churches, and 
^,,^10, was remoyed to Tonrs, and so to Nantes^ where he was put 
on board a yessel bonnd for Ireland^ But the miracles^ 
which had attended him at eyeiy stage of his joumqr bj 
land, did not fail him now. A stonn arosci and the Tessel 
was cast back and left high and diy on the coast of Neu- 
stria ; nor till the abbot and all belonging to him had been 
put on shore did the waters return and float the ship to sea. 
He was now in the kingdom of Clothaire II. who besought 
him to remain with him, and hallow his realm with his 
presence. Golumbanus could onlj be persuaded to stay a 
few days at the court, and after giving the king advice in 
some political matters, requested a safe conduct to the court 
of the Austrasian Theodebert His request was granted, 
and he reached his destination in safety. Theodebert 
received him with delight, but could not prevail upon him 
to remain more than a brief space in his dominions. 
BeptOnioZvg. Many of the brethren from Luxeuil had now flocked 
aroimd the abbot, and he pined for the solitude which had 
been so long denied him*. With a few followers therefore 
he repaired to Mentz, whence they embarked on the Rhine, 
and making their way to the mouth of the Limmat, reached 
the shores of the lake of Zurich, halting finally at Tugium, 
the modem Zug, where Columban resolved to stay awhile 
and preach to the pagan Buevians. His labours might 
have been attended with success, had the means he em- 
ployed been more calculated to win the afieetions of the 
people. But the abbot of Luxeuil and his companions 
preferred wielding the weapons of a Boanerges to trying 

1 "Reperta ergo navi, qua Sea- 
torum cummercia vexaxU, omnem 
Bupellectilem coinitesc^ue suscepit.*' 
Jonas, Vita Columbani, c. 12. 

' " IgituropUo ei a rcge dabatur, 
ri alicubi aptum locum experiretur ; 
in qua inquiuiione venerunt ad flu- 

Tium Lindimacnm (hodie Limmat), 
quern iiequeiido adierunt casteilum 
Turegum vocatum, {Ziirich), Indc 
etenim adierunt villain vulgovocatam 
Tucconia, (Tttggen) qua* in capite 
ipnius Turegineuns est sita.** Vita 
JH. OaUi, Perts, Mon, Germ. ii. p. 6. 

Cdtie MUsionaries in Southern Germany. 145 

the gentler efforts of the Apostle of Love. The Suevians chap. vii. 
are described as cruel and impious, offering sacrifice to ~ " 
idols, and addicted to augury and divination \ Gallus, 
one of his companions, set fire to their wooden temples, 
and flung their idols into the lake. Columbanus himself, 
on one occasion, according to his biographer, came upon a 
number of the people as they were about to offer sacrifice, 
and make libations to Woden from a huge vat of beer. 
Discovering their purpose, the abbot breathed over the 
vat, which forthwith burst, and scattered its contents in all 
directions. The heathen Suevians arose in wrath, and re- 
solved to drive the interfering missionaries* from their 
country. Thereupon the latter were obliged to fly, and the 
Abbot of Luxeuil, after shaking off the dust from his feet, 
left them with awful maledictions, devoting them and 
their children to misery in this world, and perdition in the 
world to come. 

Leaving Zug, Columbanus and his companions shaped a.d. eii 
their course to x\rbon, on the lake of Constance, where they 
found a priest named Willimar, and were received with 
great cordiality. Seven days were spent in harmonious 
intercourse, and in reply to the inquiries of his visitors, 
Willimar pointed out Bresrenz, on the south-eastern side F<mvd*a m*^ 
of the lake, as well adapted for the site of a monastery, 
and for being the centre of missionary activity. A boat 
was manned by the friendly priest, and Columbanus and 
his companions made for the spot, and found it well suited 

^ " Homines ibidem cominanentes 
crudelefl erant et impii, simulacra 
colentes, idola sacrificiis venerantt s, 
obserTantes auguria et divinatinnes, 
et multa qua contraiia sunt cultui 
divino, nuperstitios'i sectantes." Wa- 
lafrid Strabo, Vila S. Columhanif 
cap. 4. 

* "Sanctai aatcm Colmnbanus 
hsec audiens orabat : Deus rector po!i, 
in cajuB arbitrio totus mundus de- 
currit, fac generationem iatam in im- 

properinm, ut, qus improbe excogi- 
tant servis tuis, sentiant in capitibus 
suis. Fiant nati eorum in interitum ; 
ergo cum ad mediam statem perve- 
niant, stupor ac dementia eos appre- 
hendant, ita ut alieno sre opprerai 
ignominiani suam agnoscant con- 
versi ; impleaturque in eis propbetia 
psalmograpbi dicentis^ convertatur 
dolor eju$ tn caput eju8, a in verdcem 
ipsiits iniquitai ejtu deteendat,** Vita 
S, Galli, Pertz, ii. 7. 


146 Tke Miatumary HiOorji iff 0$ Middb Affei. 

CHAP. TIL for their purpose. On landing they diaooyeied a chnrch, 
^ ^ eu. originallj dedicated to St Aureliai and in the immediate 
neighboorhood they built a monastery. A closer examinar 
tion revealed the fBct that in this church were three 
images of brass^ ^Ided, fixed to the wall, which the 
people were wont to worship as the presiding deities of the 
place, and to invoke as their protectora These ^* strange 
gfl-'TMrMMnr gods" Columbanus determined to remove, and availing 
himself of a festival when great numbers flocked to the 
spot, he directed Grallus, who was acquainted with the 
native language, to address the people on the foolishness 
of their idolatry, and to persuade them to embrace the true 
faith V Oallus complied with the request of his superior, 
and in the presence of a vast multitude who had* flocked 
together to celebrate the festival and to catch a sight of the 
strangers, reasoned with them on the absurdities of their 
heathen errors, and proclaimed the One Living and True 
God and His Son Jesus Christ. Then taking the idols, he 
broke them in pieces and flung them into the lake, while 
Columbanus sprinkled the church with holy water, and re- 
stored it to its former honour. The people were divided. 
Some approved the boldness of the abbot, and were con- 
verted to the faith, others went away filled with anger and 
bent on revenge. Here, however, he remained for three 
years. A monastery* was erected, a portion of the forest 

^ "Repererunt aiitem in templo 
tres imaji^ineB sereas deaurataa, pari- 
eti affixas, quae populiM, dimisio al- 
tari§ sacri cultu, adorabat, et oblatiB 
sacriHciift, dicere oonnueYit, lati sunt 
dii vetereB, et antiqui hi]guB loci tu- 
tores, quorum solatio et nos et nos- 
tra perdurant in prsMens.** Wal. 
Sirubo, cap. 6. Pertz, ii. 7. 

* *'yir Dei jossit Gallo ad popu- 
lum recitare sermonem, quia lUe 
inter alios eminebat lepore latinita- 
tis, necnoD et idiomate illins gen- 
tis.'* Perts,u.7. Oalhis, or Calleoh 

(now Goileach), was another Irish 
disciple, he was of Leinster extrac- 
tion, being of the same race as St 
Brigid. The practice of Latinizing the 
Irish names of these anchorites was 
very common, thus /Vr^oi was culled 
Virgilius, Siadhml Sedulius, Cathac 
CatalduSy Jhnnehadh Donatus, Com- 
ffoU Faustus, Ac See note in UliUer 
ArchcBol. Journal^ vn. p. 242. 

* Where, according to the life of 
GalluB preserved in Pertz, the bre- 
thren *'m morem parvissimse matris 
ap?s ingenlum ezeroebant in artibus 

Celtic Mtsawnaries in Southern Germany. 147 
was cleared, the land cultivated, and while some of the chap. vn. 

brethren laid out gardens and planted fruit-trees, Gallus ^„ 0x1. 
busied himself with making nets and fishing on the lake, 
and thus supplied the wants of his brethren. The success 
of the missionaries at Bregenz may be accounted for by 
the fact that the country had formerly been Christian, and 
many of the inhabitants had been baptized, though in con- 
sequence of the incursions of the Alemanni they had sub- 
sequently, as in the instance above, lapsed into idolatry. 
That the native deities did not regard the exertions of the 
missionaries with complacency, is attested by the following 
story, which the biographer of Gallus records with undoubt- 
ing faith. The holy man was one night engaged in fishing 
on the quiet waters of the lake, when he overheard -the 
Spirit of the Mountain call to the Spirit of the Waters, 
** Arise and come to my assistance ! Behold, strangers have 
come and driven me from my temple ! Haste to the rescue, 
and help me to expel them from the land !" To whom re- 
plied the Spirit of the Waters, " Lo ! one of them is even 
now busied on my surface, but injure him I cannot. Often 
have I wished to break his nets, but as often have I been 
bafiled, for the invocation of an all-prevailing Name never 
fails to cross his lips ; thus defended and ever vigilant he 
always despises my snares*.'* Gallus shuddered at this 
unearthly dialogue, but quickly crossing himself addressed 
the spirits, " I adjure you in the name of the Lord Jesus 
Christ, that ye depart from this place, and never dare to 
injure any one any more." He then hastily made for the 
shore, and recounted to the abbot what he had heard, who 
rejoiced at this manifest proof that " the spirits were sub- 
ject" imto the brethren. Human hostility, however, they 

direnis.'* This Walafrid Strabo ex- quam fratribuR defuissent." The lake 

plains thus : '* Alii hortum laborave- abouuds in fish at the present day, 

runt, alii arbores pomiferas excolue- and more than 25 species haye been 

milt: beatuBvero Gallus texebatretiay enumerated. 

et misericordia Dei cooperante, tan- * Vita S, GaUiy Pertz, n. 8. Oxa* 

tam piscium copiam cepit, ut nun- nam, p. 13 a. 


A.i>. 613. 


148 The MManary History of tie Middle Ages. 

CHAP. YTi. could not 80 easily overcomoy and the machinatioxis of tlie 
heathen party, who prejudiced against them one of the 
native chiefbdnSi as also the fact that his firieiid Theodo- 
bert had been defeated by Theodoric, induced Golumbanus 

mimtoBob- to leave the neighbourhood. His first intention was to 
labour amongst the Slavonians, but changing his mind he 
crossed the Alps with several of the brethren, and repaired 
to the court of Agilulf king of the Lombards, who with his 
queen Theodelinda welcomed him with the utmost cordi- 
ality. Here he settled, and founded the monastery of 
Bobbio^ Declining the invitation of Clotaire IL who 
sent Eustasius, one of the brethren, to request his return 
to Luxeuil, he spent the few remaining years of his life 
in literary labours' in his new monastery, and died at the 
ripe age of seventy-two, a. d. 615. 

Meanwhile his companion Gallus, prevented by a 
severe attack of fever from accompanying his master across 
the Alps, remained beliind at Bregenz. On his recovery 
he sought out his old friend Willimar at Arbon, and in his 
society, and that of two of the Luxeuil bretliren, Magnoald 
and Theodore, found ample employment for his boat and 
nets on the waters of the lake. 

But soon yearning, like his master, for profounder soli- 
tudes, he determined to seek a retreat in the midst of the 
surrounding forests. On communicating his design to 
Hildebald, a deacon under Willimar, who was intimately 

A.D. 615. 

Laheurt of St 

▲.D. 612. 

^ The same abbatial presidency 
prevailed at Bobbio as at Hy and 
Lindisfame. "Episcopus, quem pa- 
ter monasterii, vel tola congregatio 
invitaverit ad missarum soiemnia 
celebranda, aut consecrationes Pres* 
byterorum seu Diaconorum...ip8e 
liabeat facultatem in idem monaAte- 
rium ingrrediendi, tantum ad pii opus 
monasterii peragendum. Nullam 
potestatem habere permittat Episco- 
IXM in eodem monasterio, neque in 
rebus, neque in ordinandis personis, 

nisi eum, quem cuncta Congregatio 
regulariter elcgerit'* Messingham, 
FloriUg. 348 b. Beeves* Adamnan^ 

p. 34' *^- 

' The monastery of Bobbio existed 
Rs late even as the year 1803. Its 
valuable libraiy preserved not only 
Cioero^s dt R^nmica, but an IriHh 
Antiphonarinm of the eighth cen- 
tury, and an Irish Missal. The name 
of its founder still survives in bt 
Ck>lumbano, near Lodi. 

GeUic Miasionaries in Southern Oermany. 149 

aoqnainted with the woods, the latter tried to dissuade him, chap. vii. 
by describing the perils of the forest and the multitude ^ ^ gj^^ 
of wild beasts \ "If God be with us," replied Gallus, 
** who can be against us? all things work together for good 
to them that love God." Thus overruled the deacon per- 
suaded him at least to take some bread and a fishing net, 
and after prayer the two set out on their journey. They 
had travelled till nearly three in the afternoon, when the 
deacon proposed that they should stop an^ refresh them- 
selves before proceeding further. But Gallus, true to the 
rale of his master, bade the deacon do as he pleased, but 
declared that for himself he was resolved to taste nothing Hrteftu another 
till God should point out the site of their retreat. Evening 
was closing on a long summer-day as they reached a stream 
falling down from a rock, where they succeeded in taking 
a few fish, which the deacon proceeded to broil over a fire, 
while the other in the meantime retired to seek a quiet spot, 
where he might engage in prayer. He had not gone far 
when his foot caught in some bushes, and he fell down. 
The deacon hastened to raise him up, but Gallus declined 
his aid, saying, " Let me alone, this is my resting-place 
for life, here will I dwell." Then rising up he made a 
cross of hazel boughs and planted it in the ground, and 
suspending from it his casket of relics, continued for some 
time engaged in prayer that God would enable him to 
erect a monastery on this spot. Their devotions ended, 
the two partook of supper, and while the deacon pretended 
to be asleep, Gallus engaged in conflict with a bear, which, 
however, his biographer tells us, in obedience to the words 
of so holy a man, condescended to lay aside his usual 
ferocity, and to leave them unharmed. In the morning the 

^ " O Pater, solitudo aquis est in- et innocuorum greges animaliuin, 

fusa frequentibuB, asperitate terrU uraoa gignit plurimos, apros innume- 

bills, moiitibiis plena percelais, ao- rabiles, lupod nuinerum excedentes, 

gustis vallibus flexuoHa, bestiia pos- rabie singulares.*' Vita S. GaUi, cap. 

sella ssvisaimis. Nam propter cervoa, 9, Pertz, ii. 8. 

150 The Mistianary Htstary of tie Middle Jge». 

A.D. 61S-14. 


OHAP. YiL deacon repaired to the stream of the Steinach, and while 
fishing beheld two dasmons in the form of women, who 
pelted him with stones, and imprecated curses on the head 
of his ma8ter^ He returned to Gkllus, and the demons 
were found as obedient to his word as the bear had been 
on the preceding night, and forsook the stream. With a 
present of fish they now made their way back to Willimar, 
and recounted all that had befallen them. Shortlj after* 
wards, according to a storj which rests on somewhat doubt-* 
ful authority, a message from Gunzo the pagan chieftain 
who had been instrumental in expelling Golumbanus from 
the country, summoned Gallus to cure his daughter, who 
was possessed with a dsemon. The spirit recognised the 
voice of him who had spoken words of power on the lake, 
the maiden recovered, and on her arrival at the court of 
the king of Austrasia', to whom she was espoused, re- 
counted all that had befallen her, and secretly took the 
veil, a step which had been suggested by the missionary, 
and was not resented by the king. The valuable presents, 
which were bestowed upon him in acknowledgment of the 
benefit he had conferred, Gallus distributed among the poor 
of Arbon. Among them was a silver cup, which one of his 
disciples begged him to keep for the service of the altar : 
" Silver and gold have I none," replied the other; "vessels 
of brass sufficed my master for the celebration of the Sacred 
Feast, and they shall be sufficient for me. Let it be given 
to the poor'." 

He then retired permanently to his retreat in the forest, 
where he was joined by a deacon named John and twelve 
other monks, with whose assistance he cleared the waste, 

1 Vita S. GaUi, Perte, n. 9. 

' From whom St Gall received the 
grant of the land on which he found- 
ed bis monastery. *' Rex vero jussit 
soribere epistoUm firmitatis, ut per 
regiam auctoritatem deinoeps otiti- 
nuiaset vir Dei oellwlam soam, quia 

vero Deo transmittebatur cum dua- 
bu8 iibriB auri, et binis talentis ar- 
ge;itL'* Pert^ U. 11. 

> See YUa S. Magni, cap. 9. Vita 
S. GalU, Perti, 11. 12. Lanigan, 11. 


Cdiie lltsatananea in Southern Qermany. 151 

and erected the famous monastery which now bears his chap. yii. 
Darned The see of Constance falling vacant, he repaired ^^ ^^^ 
thither with the deacons John and Masnoald on the invi- Fwndi ou ^ 
tation of the duke Gunzo, and there met the bishops of ^ ^<^'*'' 
Autun, Spires and Verdun, and a large body of clergy and 
laity assembled to elect a successor. After some delibera- 
tion Gunzo addressed them, and exhorted them to choose 
a proper bishop according to the Canons, and one who 
would rule his see with diligence. The eyes of all were 
fixed upon Gallus, and all agreed that no dther was so 
fitted for the high office. But the missionary declined the 
profiered honour, remarking that the Canons, except in the 
most urgent cases, did not permit strangers to be ordained 
bishops of districts of which they were not natives'. ** But," ^'^JJ,^^ 
he added, " I have a deacon of your own people who is well 
fitted to fill the office, and I propose him for your accept- 
ance." Thereupon the deacon John, who during tlieir de- 
liberations had retired to the church of St Stephen, was 
brought forth with acclamations by the people, presented 
to the bishops, and forthwith consecrated. Mass was then nu sermon. 
celebrated, and after reading the Gospel, Gallus was re- 
quested to preach to the assembled multitude. Accordingly 
he commenced his sermon, which the newly elected bishop 
interpreted. The discourse' was little more than an abridged 
hLstory of religion, and of the chief events from the Crea- 
tion to the preaching of the Apostles. The Origin of the 
world, the Fall of our first parents, the Flood, the Call of 
Abraham, the miracles of Moses, the kingly period of 

> Vila 8, GcUli, apud Pertz, cap. 3. 
Wal. StrabOy capp. 12 — 15. 

* See Vita S. Galli, Pertz, n. 9. 
In the 2nd EpiBtle of Pope Celestine 
to the bishopd of Vienna and Narbon 
we find it laid down: '*Nec emeritis 
in auis ecciesiis clericia peregriui 
et extranei, et qui ante ignorati sunt, 
ad exdiuionem eorum, qui bene d^ 

Buorum civium merentur, testimonio 
pre{>onantur : ne novum quoddam 
de quo episcopi fiaut, institutum vi- 
deatur collegium.*' 

' It is given in full in CanisiuA, 
Antiq. Led. I. 7S4, and Mie Acta S8. 
Oct. 16. In an abridged form iu 
Pertz, VUa S. Oalli, li. 14. 

152 TU Missumary History &f d# Middle Agm. 

CHAP. YiL Isracrs history, the calling and fimctionB of the Propheti, 

A.D. 615T ^^^ miracle of the Incarnation, the SufieringSy Death, and 
Besarrection of man's Bedeemer, the mission of the Apoatles, 
each of these points was treated in torn, and made the text 
of some moral ohaervations. 

^S^SiidllHry. Seven days were spent at Cons^ce, and then Gallns 
returned to his cell in the forest, where he spent the rest of 
his life, superintending for twelve years the labours of his 
monastic brethren. Receiving information of the death of 
liis great master, Columbanus, he sent one of his disciples 
to make inquiries as to the day and hour of his demise, 
and received in reply a letter from the brethren at BobUo, 
and the pastoral staff of the great abbot which the latter 
liad bequeathed to him. Once, and only oiioe more, did he 
consent to leave his retreat. At. the urgent request of 
Willimar he paid a visit to him at Arbon, and on the occa- 
sion of a solemnity preached to a large congregation. Set- 
ting out on his return he was attacked with fever, and 
before he could regain his favourite retreat, he died on the 

A.©. 627- 16th of October*, 627. His had been a life eminent for 
self-denial and iisefulness: he had revived the faith in 
the ancient see of Constance, he had reclaimed from bar- 
barism the district bordering on the Black Forest, he had 
taught the people the arts of agriculture as well as the 
duties of religion ; and the humble cell of the Apostle of 
Switzerland became after his death the resort of thousands 
of pilgrims, and was replaced by a more magnificent edi- 
fice, erected under the auspices of Philip THeristal, which 
during the ninth and tenth centuries was the asylum of 
learning, and one of the most celebrated schools of Europe. 
After the death of this eminent missionary, many, 
whom the intelligence- of his labours stirred up to a godly 

^ See the diflcoflsion of the date in mine where the mortal remains of 
the ActaSS, October i6. "It wa« St GaU shonld lest." See Pcrta» 
left to the decision of hones to deter- IL 1 7. 

Cdiic Miaawnartea in Southern Germany. 153 

jealonsj, left the xnonasteries of Ireland to penetrate the chap. yii. 
(Germanic forests. Without attempting to enumerate all, ~ 
we maj mention, among others, Fridolin\ who, like Gal- Ftidaiin. 
his, sought the neighbourhood of Switzerland, Suabia, and 
Alsace, and founded a monastery near Seckingen on the 
Rhine. Magnoald* also, or Magnus, the pupil of Gallus, Magnontd. 
founded a monastery at FUssen in Suabia ; and Trudpert, Trudpert. 
an Irish anchorite, penetrated as far as Breisgau, in the 
Black Forest, where he was murdered. Somewhat later, a.d. 648. 
Kilian, a bishop of the order of Hy, into whose breast KUiMi. 
had deeply sunk the admonition of the Saviour to leave 
all and follow Him, sailed from Ireland, with two com- 
panions, and selected WUrzburg in Franconia as the scene 
of his operations'. A somewhat untrustworthy biographer a d. 650—889. 
represents him as going to Eome, and seeking the ap- 
probation and direction of the Pope Conon before enter- 
ing on his mission. Encouraged by that pontiff to carry 
on the work, he returned to Wiirzburg*, and being able 
to preach in the language of the people, was not long 
before he made a considerable impression. One of the 
native chiefs, Gozbert, sent for him, and after hearing 
an explanation of the doctrines of the Christian faith, 
was received into the Church by baptism, and his in- 
fluence with the people was, as usual, sufficient to induce 
numbers of them to profess at least an outward allegiance 
to the new faith. One point, however, caused the mission- 
ary considerable anxiety. Geilana the wife of Gozbert had 
been married to his brother*, and though at first the fear 

1 See Ada SS. March 6; but the 
Ufo is oonsidered too legendary to 
be relied upon. Lanigan, ii. 477. 

' See il eta iSiS*. April 36. Neander, 
▼. 50. Similarly uncertain are the 
accounts of Pirminius the founder 
oi Reichenau. 

' See Vita S. Kilianif in Messing- 
hani*s Collection, p. 321, and Ada 
S6\ Oct. 8. Lanig»o» m. 115. 

* ** The Wurzburg Gonpels, a MS. 
of the anti-Hieronymian Latin ver- 
sion dating in tbe viith century, 

f)re8erve8 tbe memory and Irinh 
earning of S. Kilian." See Christiofn 
JUmembrancerf No. cxvr. 

* " Erat illi conjux secvndum gen- 
UlUatU rUum qu» quondam fi^atris 
ipdius conjugio fuerat copulata." 

154 I%e Misaumary SuUny of the MUUU Age9. 

CHAP. vn. of alienating him entirety fiom'tlie fidth liad induced Eilian 
A.]». 66C-^89. ^ P^^^ over this iiregnlaritjry he now broke silence, and 
openly told him, that if he would be a Christian indeed, 
he must put awaj his wife« ^* He who keepeth the whole 
law," said he to Gozbert, *' and ofiSsndeth in one point, is 
guiltj of all. In baptism a man is made a new creature, 
not partially, but entirely: if therefore, he would be wholly 
renewed, he must retain no portion of his old errors." 

^^trimd The chief was stupefied at this demand upon his devotion ; 
" heaving a deep sigh," says the biographer, " for he dearly 
loved his wife, he replied to the bishop, * Father, I have 
often heard thee tell how the Lord Jesus Christ said, 
^ Whosoever loveth father, or mother, or wife, or children, 
more than Me, is not worthy of He.' Great, therefore, as 
is my affection for my wife, I feel I must give her up, if I 
would retain His love.' " Being, however, on the point of 
setting out on a warlike expedition, he could not promise 
instant compliance, but declared his readiness, on his 
return, to bring about a separation. Meanwhile, Geilana, 
gaining a knowledge of what was intended, determined to 
frustrate his design. Hiring two assassins, she caused the 
bishop to be murdered while engaged in his devotions, and 
his body to be buried on the spot^ A stable was built 
over the place, but the murder was before long discovered, 
and terrible vengeance followed in the speedy extinction 
of Geilana and the chieftain's family. 

Leaving, however, this portion of the mission-field, 
which was afterwards visited by other and more successful 
evangelists, we may observe here that the self-denying 
labours of Columbanus and his disciples were not wholly 
lost even upon those Frankish Churches, whose criminal 
neglect of missionary work was so severely and so justly 

^ "Yeitiioentaquoqiie, cam qui- indiciiim naou eorum deprehendi 
bu8 ofAxoMk ptfim^baiit, norique libri poaaet." See Metungham, p. 328. 
■imal cum eb defoaea aunt, ue quod 

CeiUic Mimonaries in Southern Germany. 155 

oensiured by Ghregoiy the Great. Thej assembled in Synod, chap. vtt. 
in the year 613, and, acknowledging the claims of the 7^^"^6o! 
heathen on their sympathy, appointed Eustasius, the succes- Eutuuius, 
aor of Columbanus, in the monastery of Luxeuil, director 
of their mission, and sent him, with a monk named Agil\ jguorst.uie. 
to labour in the district of Bavaria, which we have seen 
hallowed by the saintly Severinus, About the middle of a.©. 660. 
thiB century their labours were followed up by Emmeran, Emmeran. 
a native of Poictiers, and a bishop of Aquitania. Roused 
by the reports of the heathenism prevailing in Pannonia, 
he resigned his see, and set out thither to preach the 
gospel, accompanied by an interpreter well skilled in the 
Teutonic dialects. On his way he halted at Ratisbon in 
Bavaria, where he was forcibly detained by the duke 
Theodo, who prevailed upon him, in consequence of the 
disturbed state of Pannonia, to take up his abode there, 
and more fully instruct his people, who as yet were scarcely 
more than half reclaimed from heathenism. His stay 
lasted a space of three years, and his labours are said to 
have been blessed with considerable success ; but they were 
suddenly arrested by his death in 652, which took place a.d. 652. 
during his journey to Rome, and was the result of a con- 
spiracy on the part of the son of Theodo, to revenge the 
violation of his sister, which was falsely ascribed to the 
bishop'. His fleeting mission was succeeded, before the 
close of the century, by that of Rupert, descended from a Rupert qf 
royal family among the Franks, and bishop of Worms, a.©. 696* 
At the invitation of another Theodo, he too took up his 
abode in Bavaria, and entered upon the work of reclaiming 
the inhabitants', multitudes of whom, since the death of 

1 For Agil, see Mabillon, ^ctoiS9. first the wild mountaineers would 

O. B. sec. II. f. 319, and for £usta- not listen to him, and said that the 

cim, Ibid. s»c. 11. 116 — 123. God of the Christians was poor, or 

' See the carious and improbable he would not let his worshippers 

story in Canisius, Led, ArUiq. Vol. suffer so much from want, and jea- 

ni. Neander, v. 53. lous, as he would not tolerate any 

' See Ada 88. March 37. "At other god betides himself; but they 

156 The 

Hiilay ef Oe Middle Agu. 


CHAP. TIL Emmeran, had relapsed into idolatry. With his com- 
690-718. Pinions whom he had brought with him, he went about 
from place to pkce, preaching, baptizing, and assailing the 
various strongholds of idolatry. The see of Batisbon 
having been destroyed, he obtained from the duke the site 
of the city of Juvaviom, still strewed with the remains of 
Soman temples and baths. He chose it because it was 
situated in an extensive and fertile valley on the slope of 
a high mountain-range, and far removed from the bustle of 
human life. Here he built a church, the foundation of 
what was afterwards the cathedral of Salzburg, and on a 
neighbouring eminence erected a convent, of which his 
niece Erentrndis, whom he had brought with twelve^ fresh 
labourers from his former diocese, was the first abbess*. 
The Church of Salzburg soon became the parent of many 
others in Bavaria and Carinthia, and a missionary centre 
from which the light of Christian civilization was diffused 
over the neighbouring region. 

•peedily altered their opinion when 
they flaw the mines and saltworks 
progresfiinjif under the direction of 
the taint." Menzel's Germany, I. 

^ Their names are given in Ma- 
billon, Acta SS. Btned. pwc. hi. i. 
319. "Giselarius, Dominuus, Ma- 
iernuSy Digiiulos, Chunaldus, Ise- 
nardus, Gerardus, Ariofridus^ Vita- 

lis, Ratharins, Erchanofridus, Eitm- 
f rid us, et virgo Erentrada/* 

* In the same district laboured 
from A.D. 717—730, a Frankish 
hermit named Oorbinian, who set- 
tled down in the district where after- 
wards sprung up the bishopric of 
Freisingen. See Mabillon, 0. B. 
m. p. 471. 



A.D. 628—719. 

*" Proporaii [Ecgberct] verbum Dei aliquibus coram qtue nondnm andiorant 
gentibna evangelizando coiumittere : quarum in Germania plurimas 
oorerat erne i)ationefl....8unt autem Freeoncs, Rugini, Danai, Hunni, 
Antiqui Saxones, Boructuarii/* — Bede, v. 9. 

While the work was thus proceeding with more or less chap. viii. 
success in southern and central Germany, the more Northern i^^/cn*^* 
regions were not entirely overlooked. Bordering on the^^'"'*' 
kingdom of the Franks was the powerful tribe of the Fries- 
landers. Their authority extended not only over the strip 
of territory which still recalls their name, but a considerable 
portion also of the Netherlands and the adjacent districts. 
Between the Frankiah kingdom and these outlying tribes, 
fierce and barbarous, and clinging to their native super- 
stitions with fanatical tenacity, a series of border- wars were 
constantly maintained. Difficult and perilous as the task 
appeared, men were yet found to go forth and attempt their 
conversion, as often as the sword of the Frankish king 
seemed to open a way. Thus Aquitania sent into the field 
Amandus', who was consecrated a missionary bishop about 
the year 628. He selected the country near the Scheldt as 

^ See MabOlon, Acta Bened, sseo. euil, preached from the neiprhbotir- 
II. Contemporaneously with Aman- bood of Boulogne aa far as the Scheldt, 
dua, Audomar (St Omer) from Lux- DoUmger, I. 85. Hardwiok, p. 19 n. 

158 The Mt89tonmy Suiarjf qf ike Middle Ages. 


cnAP. vui. the centre of his operations, and at Ghent commenced his 
^B.ea8. exhortations to the Frisian tribes to forsake their worship 
of trees and groyes, and to adopt the Christian fidth. His 
weapons, however, were not simply those of exhortation. 
He bore a commission from Dagobert, anthorizing him, if 
Miaumvrv it appeared necessary, to baptiie the pagans by force, and 
sLSuaidmt, to Call in the aid of the Frankish soldiers in carrying on his 
work. The consequence, as might be expected, was violent 
hostilities, and a determination on the part of the Frisians 
to thwart his efforts. At length, in a wiser spiirit, he 
endeavonred to win the affections of the rade warriors by 
redeeming captives, and educating them, and the impres- 
sion thus made was still further strengthened by an incident 
which procured for him the reputation of a miracle-worker. 
He had vainly tried on one occasion to prevent the execu- 
tion of a thief, and when the sentence was carried out he 
had the body taken down from the gibbet, and conveyed to 
his cell^ The restoration of the man to life through the 
efficacy, as it was believed, of the missionary's prayers, ac- 
complished what the injunctions of Dagobert had proved 
unequal to effect. A considerable number of the Frisians 
came forward, submitted to baptism, and destroyed their 
temples, which Amandus was enabled to convert into 
Tiinkoiwt churches and monasteries. But before long he was forced 
to suspend his labours in consequence of the displeasure of 
his patron, whom he had ventured to reprove for his poly- 
gamy and unbridled licentiousness. The latter, who had 
three wives at one time and innumerable concubines', could 
not brook the interference of the bishop, and bade him 
depart from his kingdom. But before long the cloud 
passed aw^y. The recall of Amandus to baptize the 
infant Sigebert was a sign of his restoration to favour, 
and he was enabled to carry on his work once more at 
Ghent. Though exposed to much hardship, and forced 

* Bobertion*s Ch. HUtory, VoL n. p. 74. • Perry's Frank$f p. 103. 

Missionary Efforts %n Friesland and parts adjacent. 159 

to snpport himself bj manual labour, his preaching was bj chap tiii. 
DO means inefTectual. Had he remained in the place where 'IZ, 
he had made a successful beginning he might have ex- 
tended his sphere of action : but he was seized with an un- 
eontrollable desire to attempt a useless mission among the 
savage Slavons of the Danube. The fruitless expedition of 
bis patron against these tribes may have turned his thoughts • 
in this direction ^ But he was doomed to disappointment, 
and what* was worse, to an indifference and ridicule, which 
defeated entirely the object of his ambition, — a martyr's 
crown. Returning to the region of the Scheldt, he was 
appointed, in the year 646, successor to a bishop of Mas- a.p. 646. 
tricht, and thus acquired a permanent field of labour. 
Devoting himself with much diligence to the new sphere of 
usefulness thus opened to him, he visited all parts of his 
diocese, and exhorted his clergy to a faithful discharge of 
their duties. But his efforts to introduce disciplinary 
reforms brought upon him so much opposition, that he 
requested permission of the Pope, Martin I., to vacate his 
see, and though the latter bade him remain by his people, 
he withdrew from the scene of his labours, and spent the 
rest of his days in superintending the different monas- a.d. 646— 66L 
teries he had established. Passing over the labours of the 
Irish missionary bishop Livinus', who left his country with iMnm. 
three companions and suffered martyrdom amongst the bar- 
barous tribes of Brabant and Flanders, we may here notice 
those of another Frankish bishop, who appeared about twelve 
years later than Amandus, in an adjohiing district. Eligius, 
or, as he is better known, St Eloy, was bom at Chatelat, a scfzoy. 
village about a mile from Limoges, and was remarkable at 
an early age for excellence of character and genuine piety. 
Placed by his father Eucherius with a goldsmith at Limoges, 

^ Perry's Franki, p. 107. archiepiscopiw, ceoobimnGandecum 

* See AnncUes GaudemeMy Pertz, tribus discipulis aibi et Deo dileotis 

IT. 186. '*Anno vero 633 beatus decimo septimo Kalendas AuguBti 

LivinuB, genere Scotus et Hybcmie peregre initavit.*' I<anigan, 11. 467. 

160 The Musumarjf SiaUny qf the MiddU Aget. 


to faptiva <md 

CHAP. Yiir. he soon displayed such Bkill as to attract the notice of Bobbo, 
the treasurer to Olotaire IL, and the fidelity— Hare in thoae 
days— with which he executed a commission of the king, 
won for him the favour of the court) and his appointment 
to the superintendence of the mint, which he retained under 
Dagobert\ Though surrounded by temptations, in the 
midst of a profligate court, he did not forget the Christian 
lessons he had learnt in childhood, but became eminent for 
the integrity of his life, for his kindness to the poor, and 
the inteijest he took in the relief and redemption of captives. 
In this latter sphere of charity his labours were unwearied. 
Whenever he heard that a slave was about to be put up for 
sale he hurried to the place and procured his redemption. 
Bands of twenty, thirty, and even fifty, according to his 
biographer, were thus liberated, and sometimes whole ship- 
loads of slaves — Romans, Gauls, Britons, Moors, and espe- 
cially Saxons from Germany — experienced the benefits of 
his kindness*. To rescue them from the hardships of the 
servile lot he stinted himself to the last farthing, and all 
who were willing to embrace the monastic life he assisted 
liberally, hoping to train them as missionaries amongst 
their own countrymen. So munificent was he in his chari- 
ties that he was ever surrounded by a crowd of needy 
applicants for his bounty, and it became a common reply to 
any one inquiring for his house, " Wherever you see the 
largest crowd of paupers, there you may be sure to find 
Eligius." He was equally earnest in erecting churches 

^ See Ills Life (admodum prulixA) 
in Surius, Acta S8, Nov. 30. "Nam 
absque ulla fraude, vel unius etiain 
silique imminutione^ ooinini«8um 
sibi paravit opus: non ceterorum 
fraudulentiam sectans, non roordacis 
limsB fragDaina culpans, non foci 
edaccm flammam incusans, sed om- 
nia fideliter coniplens, geminam me- 
ruit felix remunerationem." c. 5. 

s <* Nonnunquam Tero agmen in- 

tegrum, ei usque ad centum animan, 
cum navi egrederentur, utriusque 
sexus ex divenis gentibus venienttts, 
parittr libcrabat, Romanorum Rcili- 
cet, Gallorum atque Britannorum, 
necnon et Maurorum : fed prsrcipue 
ex genere Saxonum, qui abunde eo 
tempore veluti greges — sedibus pro- 
priis evulsi in diversa distraheban- 
tur." Vita, o. 20. Dr Maitland's 
Dark Jffe$, pp. 10 1 — 39. 

MiasiKmary Efforts in Friesland and parts adjacent. 161 

and monasteries. One of these his biographer describes at ohap. yiil 
length, and we gain a vivid conception of the civilizing j^^. 640. 
^tttctM of such institutions at this period. Screened hj a 
lofty mountain and a dense forest and surrounded bj a 
jBoat, the gardens of the monastery were filled with flowers Z^I^^Jfi^ 
and firuit-trees of every kind, while a colony of monks em- 
ployed the intervals of devotion in various kinds of handi- 
craft, under the superintending eye of the skilful master of 
the royal mint*. Nothing shocked him more in his jour- 
neys from place to place than the sight of the bodies of 
malefactors hanging on gibbets and slowly rotting in the air. 
Wherever he saw such he always had them removed and 
decently interred. On one occasion his attendants had 
taken down the body of a man who had been hung that 
very morning, and were preparing a grave, when Eligius 
fancied he saw a quivering motion which gave sign of life 
not being quite extinct. He immediately used all his 
efforts to restore vitality, and was successful. " What a sin 
it would have been to have buried this man alive," was 
his simple remark to his followers, anxious to ascribe the 
man's restoration to miraculous agency; "let him be 
clothed, and rest awhile." It was with difficulty, however, 
that he rescued him from his accusers, who declaimed 
furiously against any mitigation of his punishment, and 
succeeded in obtaining his pardon from the king'. 

In such works of charity, and the duties of the lower 
clerical office, he found ample employment, till his eleva- 
tion, in the year 641, to the bishopric of Noyon" opened a.d. 641. 
to him a still more direct and special sphere of usefulness. 
flis diocese comprised the districts of Noyon, Vermondes, 
and Toumay, and was inhabited in great part by barbar- 
ous heathen tribes, who had never yet received the mes- 

^ Vita S. Eliffiif c. i6. catus normula aliqua teroporiB cur- 

* Ibid. c. 31. ricula exegiaset." Ktto, lib. II. c. 2, 

> Not however before " sub deri- 



162 I%e Miananarjf HtUarj/ of the Middle Agei. 

CHAP. Ym. sage of the (Gospel. Heiei in spite of immineiit peril to 
64i-66tt. himself, and amidst eveiy hardship, he strove to win over 
by his consistent life and ceaseless self-devotion the savage 
hearts of his people* He founded churches and monas- 
teries, and traversed his diocese in every part, proclaiming 
the Word to the people, and warning them against their 

BUHrmom. Fragments of some of his sermons have been preserved 

by his biographer, which are interesting as giving us an 
insight into the way in which, in the seventh century, a 
bishop like Eligius would provide for the spiritual wants 
of his people. In these, while, on the one hand, we find 
exhortations to a diligent cultivation of such Christian 
graces as love, faith, self-denial, purity and concord, to a 
careful attention to Christian ordinances, as prayer, attend- 
ance at church, hearing the Word, and the reception of 
the Lord's Supper, we find, on the other, exhortations to 
avoidance of all such heathen superstitions as were then 
rife in the country. In one sermon, after a persistent pro- 
test against the idea that men can win the favour of the 
Almighty by the mere performance of external ceremonies, 
the bishop proceeds, " It sufficeth not, my brethren, that 
ye be called Christians, if ye do not the works of a Chris- 
tian. That man alone is benefited by the name of a Chris- 
tian, who, with his whole heart, keeps the precepts and 

ckrMitm laws of Christ, who abstains from theft, from bearing: 
false witness, from lying, from perjury, from adultery, 
from hatred of his fellow-man, from strife and discord. 
For these commands Christ Himself vouchsafed to give us 
in His Gospel, saying, ' Thou shalt do no murder, thou 
shalt not commit adultery, thou shalt not steal, thou shalt 
not bear false witness, honour thy father and thy mother, 
and love thy neighbour as thyself; whatsoever ye would 
that men should do unto you, even so do ye unto them, 
for this is the law and the prophets.* Nay, He adds 

Miwionary Efforts in Friealand and parts adjacent. 163 

tnmger commands than these, for He says, ' Love your ohap. yul 

nemies: bless them that curse you : do good to them that a.d.g41-6Ml 

Ate you: pray for them that despitefuUy use you, and 

enecate you^' Behold, this is a hard and difficult com- 

laady and seems impossible to men, but it has a great 

sward; for hear what He declares it is, *That ye may 

te the children of your Father which is in heaven.' O 

rhat grace is here ! Of ourselves we are not worthy to be 

lis servants, and yet by loving our enemies we become 

he sons of God. He then who wishes to be a Christian 

ndeed must keep these commandments. He who keepeth 

hem not deceiveth himself. He is a good Christiaji who 

mtteth his trust not in amulets or devices of daemons, but 

n Christ alone. 

" But above all things, if ye would be Christians indeed, AvoidoHa^ 
leware of resorting to any heathen customs, or consulting tooon. 
VL any ti-ial or difficulty soothsayers, fortune-tellers, or 
liviners*. He who doeth thus speedily loseth the grace of 
lis baptism. Let there be amongst you no resorting to 
tagnries or observance of the flight or singing of birds 
«rhen ye set out on a journey. Rather when ye imdertake 
I journey or any business sign yourselves in the name of 
>hrist, repeat the Creed and the Lord's Prayer with faith 
ind devotion, and no enemy will draw nigh to hurt you. 
!fo Christian will choose superstitiously a lucky day for 
;oing out or coming in, for all days are made by God'. 
Jo Christian will attend to the moon before commencing 
ny imdertaking, or on the first of January will join in 

^ St Matt. ▼. 44. 

' In another place he tells hia 
earem, " mathematici spernendi, 
ngnria hoirescenda, somnia cou- quos cognoscitis vel 
ccolte aliqua phylacteria exercere, 
zpedit cum eia nee cibum sumere, 
AC qaicquam habere commercii." 
L e. I j. 

' In another place this is stiU 
further expanded: *'Neino vel in 
ulla re ininuna diaboli sequatur adin- 
ventiones : nuUuB sive exiens, sive 
egrediens domum, observet quid sibi 
occurrat, vel num qua vox reciproca 
seu echo audiatur, aut quid aves gar- 
riant, vel quid sit quod portat si 
fiustuf obviam." Fita, n. c. 15. 


164 The Mi$8umarjf Si$knf of the Middh A^. 

CHAP. vni. foolish and nnseemlj junketings and friyolitj, or noctiinial 
Aft.84i--660. ^^^Uii^gB- Neither heaven, nor earth, nor stars, nor mj 
G^anaNa- Other creature, is deserving of worship. Ood alone is to 
he adored, for He created and ordained all things. Heaven 
indeed is high, and the earth wide, and the stars passing 
fair, but £sur grander and fairer must He be who made all 
these things. For if the things that we see are so in- 
comprehensible and past understanding, even the various 
fruits of the earth, and the beauty of the flowers, and the 
diverse kinds of animals in earth, air, and water, the in- 
stinct of the provident bee, the wind blowing where it 
listetljL the crash of the thunder, the changes of the seasons, 
the alternations of daj and night; if these things that we 
see with our eyes cannot be comprehended by the mind of 
man, how shall we comprehend the things we do not see? 
Or what kind of Being must He be by whom all these 
things are created and sustained? Fear Him, my brethren, 
before all things, adore and love Him, cleave fast to His 
longsuffering, and never despair of His tender mercy." 

In other sermons the bishop enlarges on the promises 
made by the Christian at his baptism, on the duty of re- 
membering them in the course of daily life, on the true 
aspect and responsibility of life as a state of warfare 
against sin, and a preparation for the Great Day, when an 
account must be given for the deeds done in the body. 
JJjJg^ On this latter topic the exhortations of the bishop are 
powerful in their reality and earnestness. " Let us reflect," 
lie says, " what terror ours will be, when from heaven the 
^ Lord shall come to judge the world, before whom the ele- 
ments slialt melt in a fervent heat, and heaven and 
earth shall tremble, and the powers of the heavens shall 
be shaken. Then while the trumpets of the angels sound, 
all men, good and evil, shall in a moment of time rise 
with the bodies they wore on earth, and be led before the 
tribunal of Christ; then shall all the tribes of the earth 

Mu9wndry Efforts in Friealand and parts adjacent. 165^ 
Boum, while He points out to them the marks of the chap. \ui. 

lails wherewith He was pierced for our iniquities, and shall a.©. 641-650. 
Iieak unto them and say, * I formed thee, O man, of the 
lust of the earth ; with my own hands 1 fashioned thee, 
md placed thee all- undeserving in the delights of Para- 
Use ; but thou didst despise Me and my words, and didst 
nefer to follow the deceiver; for which thou wast justly 
condemned. But yet I did pity thee, I took upon Me thy 
lesh, I lived on earth amongst sinners, I endured reproach 
md stripes for thy sake ; that I might rescue thee from 
vanishment, I endured blows and to be spitted on ; that 
[ might restore to thee the bliss of Paradise, I drank 
raiegar mingled with gall. For thy sake was I crowned 
jfith thorns, and crucified, and pierced with the spear. 
For thy sake did 1 die, and wa^ laid in the grave, and 
descended into Hades, that I might bring thee back to 
Paradise. Behold and see what I endured for thy sake ! 
Behold the mark of the nails wherewith I was fixed to 
the Cross ! I took upon Me thy sorrows, that I might heal 
thee. I took upon Me thy punishment, that I might 
crown thee with glory. I endured to die, that thou 
raightest live for ever. Though I was invisible, yet for 
thy sake I became incarnate. Though I knew no suffering, 
yet for thy sake I deigned to suffer. Though I was rich, 
yet for thy sake I became poor. But thou didst despise 
my lowliness and my precepts, thou didst obey a deceiver 
rather than Me. My justice, therefore, cannot pronounce 
any other sentence than such as thine own works deserve. 
Thou didst chose thine own ways, receive then thine own 
wages. Thou didst despise light, let darkness, then, be thy 
reward. Thou didst love death, depart, then, to perdition. 
Thou didst obey the Evil One, go, then, with him, into 
eternal punishment.' " 

In the lips of the preacher these were no empty words. 
He lived in the constant realization of that awful Day 

166 The MimoMury m$iory qf the MUiU Agm, 

CHAP. Till, whose coming he thus vivicllj describes. His life wis 

A.B. 641-660. %^tning, therefore could he make his wofrds ihimder. 

xagjMr« 9f With unwearied activity he persevered in his self-den jing 
labours till his seventieth jear. Increasing weakness, at 
last, warned him that his end was near, and he spoke of it 
openlj on one occasion, as he was walking in Nojon to a 
church with some of his jounger clergy. Noticing a defect 
in the building which threatened its speedy fall, he sent 
for a workman to have it repaired. His companions sug- 
gested that the repairs should be deferred till such time 
as they could be completely carried out. '* Let it be re- 
paired now, my children," he said ; " for if it is not done 
now, I shall never live to see it finished.*" To their ex- 
pressions of sorrow at such a speedy loss of their friend 
and guide, he replied, thAt he had long felt the day of his 
departure was coming, and he would not be sorry to leave 
the world. Shortly afterwards worse symptoms appeared, 
but he still continued his labours of love, so far as he was 
able. He employed the last days of his life in solemnly 
charging his monastic brethren to remember their vows, and 
not to forsake the ilock of Christ, but to labour diligently 

Hisdtaih. to Carry on his work. When he felt that his hour was really 
come, clasping his hands in prayer, he said, " Now lettest 
thou thy servant depart, according to thy word. Remem- 
ber, O Lord, I am but dust, and enter not into judgment 
with thy servant. Eemember me, O Thou that alone art 
free from sin, Christ the Saviour of the world. Lead me 
forth from the body of this death, and give me an entrance 
into thy heavenly kingdom. Thou who hast ever been 
my protector, into Thy hands I commend my spirit. I know 
that I do not deserve to behold Thy face, but Thou know- 
est how my hope was always in thy mercy, and my trust 
in thy faithfulness. Receive me, then, according to thy 
lovingkindness, and let me not be disappointed of my 

Mimtmary Efforts in Frtesland and parts adjacent. 167 

With these words he departed. In addition to the 
care of his own people, the good bishop had not been un- ZZiS^, 
mindful of the Frisians, whose extensive territory bordered 
on his diocese, and it was on the Frisian coast that one of 
the earliest Anglo-Saxon missionaries landed about twenty 
years after his death, to impart to his own countrymen a.d. 678. 
the blessings he himself had received from Rome and from i^SSSu. 
lona. Eighty years had now elapsed since Augustine 
landed on the shores of Kent, little more than fifty since 
Paulinus preached the word at York, and Aidan opened 
his monastery at Lindisfame. And now it was from 
Northumbria that the first of that numerous band went 
forth which soon began to rival the zeal of the Celtic 
monks in seeking the evangelization of their kinsmen 
according to the flesh. The last time we encountered 
Wilfrid, he was at the Synod of Whitby, aiding Agilbert wi^fHd. 
in his controversy with the Scottish party. Since then 
he had seen strange vicissitudes of fortune, and was flying 
from what he deemed the tyranny of archbishop Theodore, 
determined to seek redress at Rome, when the ship in 
which he sailed was flung by a violent tempest on the 
coast of Friesland, in the year 678. He was hospitably j^ p. 678—0. 
received by the king Aldgis, and the natives, like those Jjjjjgj**'* 
of Malta mentioned by St Luke, treated the shipwrecked 
crew with no little kindness, " though as yet," the bio- 
grapher' of the bishop remarks, "they were firmly at- 
tached to their idolatrous superstitions." By way of 
repaying their kindness, the bishop preached the word to 
the people, and his exertions were rewarded by the con- 
version of the king, several of the chiefs, and some thousands 
of the people'. His coming was also believed to have 
improved the temporal fortunes of the people, who had 

^ Vita S. WUfridi EpUeopi, Ada Bweete<t when farthest horn, thdr 

S8. Bened. tec ni. nests, so Wilfrid did the best senrice 

* Thomas Fuller quaintly remarks to Christianity when farthest from 

that "as the nightingales sing the home." 

t68 2Xe MMtmary Hulary of ike MiidU Ag^ 

▲.D. 67fr-9* 

A.i>. 690. 

CHAP. Tni. previonslj been suffering from drought and bad aeaaoaSt 
and had hardly been able to obtain a livelihood. But 
with his coming the harvest improved, and the, fishing 
was marvellonslj successfnl. The belief that these tem- 
poral advantages were the result of his coming, and of 
the faith which he preached, probably paved the waj for 
its reception amongst the people*. But Wilfrid^s stay was 
brief, and on the death of Aldgis, the heathen Badbod 
succeeded to the chieftaincy, and the pagan customs were 
restored. After an interval, however, of little more than ten 
years, another Northumbrian of noble birth was seised with 
a desire to preach the word in this district, and, though 
not able to carry out his designs in person, was the means 
of sending other labourers into the field. This was Ecg- 
bert*, the same who afterwards persuaded the monks of 
lona to adopt the Boman custom in the celebration of 
Easter. Like many of his fellow-countrymen, he had left 
his native land to study in retirement amongst the Irish 
schools, and had been received there with the wonted 
hospitality extended at this period to all such students. 
He took up his abode in a monastery which Colgan places 
in Connaught', and became eminent for his learning and 
piety. Bccovering from a severe illness, he made a vow 
that he would never return to his country, but devote 

^ "Erat autem ante adventtim 
beati viri terra ipsa maffne salmtatis 
magnieque stcrilitatiB. Verum ad pr»- 
dicationem viri Dei eadem gente Fi- 
dem Domini suscipiente, sicut oorda 
eorum supenm duloedinia rore ad 
f«rtilitatem operuifk bonorum mol- 
lita, et inhabitatione Spiritus Sancti 
eunt aooommoda facta ; iVt et terrsB 
ipsonim salmtaa in duloedinem, ste- 
nlitas in fertilitatem, asperitas in 
mollitiem atque pinguedioem versa, 
omnibus inhabitantibus earn diverse 
commoditatis copias laatisaime intu- 
Ui." VUaS. WHfridi,AetaSS.Jkn€d. 

Eddius, cap. i$. 

' Int}\iiChronic(mffyense(ReeveA' 
Adamnafiy p. 383) he is styled, '*Eic- 
bericht Christi miles.** ** Qui in Hi- 
bernia diutius exulaverat proChristo, 
eratque et doctissimns in Scripturis 
et Iung» vitn perfectione eximius.'* 
Bede, in. 4. 

* " In monastenoqiiod Ungna Scot- 
torom Rathmelsigi appeliatur.** Bede^ 
m. ay. '* Colgan {ActaSS, Index 
Toc Jiaik-milmffe) places it in Ck>n- 
naught, but the exact situation re* 
mains to be identified.** Beeves* 
Adamnan, p. 379. 

Missionary Efforts in Friesland and parts adjacent. 169 

bitnself to the service of the Lord. An opportunity before chap. viii. 

lofig appeared to present itself. The condition of the ^ „ ggg. 
pagan n^ons in Northern Germany^ was a subject of 
deep solicitude in Ecgbert's retreat, and he was filled with 
a desire to proclaim amongst them the Gospel ; intendinp^, 
if be failed in this, to go on a pilgrimage to Rome. But 
both his designs proved abortive. In spite of a vision 
bidding him remain and '^ instruct the monasteries of 
Columba," he selected the most zealous of his brethren, 
and made every preparation for the voyage. But on the 
eve of their embarkation a storm shattered the vessel 
which was to have conveyed the missionaries, and Ecgbert, 
recognizing the hand of Providence, returned to Ireland*. 
One of his companions, Wigbert, succeeded in reaching 
Frisia, but after two years of unceasing labour, finding 
himself utterly unable to make any impression on the 
people or Had bod their chief, he too returned to his Irish 
monastery and reported his ill-success to his abbot. The 
latter however was not willing thus to give up his project 
altogether. News of the successes of Pepin of Ileristal in 
Frisia revived his hopes, and he began to seek for 
labourers who would carry out his wishes. His eye at 
last rested on Willibrord, a native of Northumbria, whose wuifinrord. 
education commenced in Wilfrid's monastery at Eipon, 
had for twelve years been carried on under his own a.d. 692. 
direction in Ireland*. He was now thirty-two years of 
age, and in Ecgbert's opinion possessed many qualifications 
for such an undertaking. Yielding to the solicitations of 
his abbot, he agreed to select eleven companions*, and try 


Proposoit . . . aliquibuB eoram 
qua nondum audierant gentibus 
evangelizando coinmittere . . . Sunt 
8Utem Fresonea, Rugini, Dani, 
Hanoi, antiqui Saxonea, Bomctu- 
arii." Bede, v. 9. 
■ Bede, v. 9. 

' Vita S. WiUibrordi ap. Acta SS, 
Bened, bibc. in. p. 564. Bede, v. 10. 
AnnaUi Xanteniea, Pertz, ii. 310. 

^ Their names are given in SuriuSy 
Mart. I. ; but the authenticity is 
plainly dubious. 

170 7%6 Uunonary Buiary of Oe Middle Ayei. 


oHAP.vni. once more what could be effected. Pepin reoelTed fhtf 
~ missionaries with joy, and gave them ample authorilj to 
commence their labonrs in that part of Friesland.whidi he 
had lately wrested from Badbod and added to the Frank- 
ish territory. 

Shortly afterwards, with that respect for the Boman 
Church which had now taken so firm a hold of the Anglo- 
Saxon mind, Willibrord repured to the Eternal Ci^, and 
sought the blessing of the Pope on his undertaking, as also 
a supply of relics to place in such temples as he might wish 
to purge from the leprosy of heathenism, and oonyert into 
Christian churches \ Successful in the object of his jour- 
ney, he returned and entered upon his work, and shewed 
such zeal and devotion, and attained such satisfactory re- 
sults, that at the expiration of four years Pepin sent him 
again to Rome, with the request that he might be elevated 
to the episcopal rank*. Sergius complied, and in the year 
696 the Anglo-Saxon priest was consecrated under the 
name of Clemens', and his seat as archbishop was fixed at 
Wilteburg, the Roman Trajectum*. Meanwhile one of his 
original companions, Suidbert, had been consecrated bishop 
in England, and commenced labouring in that capacity 
among the Bomctuarians, whose territory lay between the 
Ems and the Yssel. His work however was speedily cut 
short by an irruption of the Saxons, and he was obliged 
to withdraw to the Lower Rhine, where Pepin made over 
to him the island of KaisSrworth for a monastery ^ 

Willibrord, on his return from Rome, established him- 



A.B. 606. 

1 node v IT 

s VUa* S, WiUibrordi, Acta 8S. 
Bened. iii. Annal, Xantentet, a.d. 
690. Pertz, n. 430. 

' "WillibrordumFresonumATohi- 
epiicopuiD oonsecrat. eique Clemeuti 
oomen tribuit.*' JaSb, JUffeti, Pant, 
Rom, ann. 606. 

^ Qeda Ahbaium FonUmdUmiwrn^ 

Perte, n. 177. Bede, v. ii. 

^ Suidbert (also a Norihuiiibriaii) 
was consecrated by Wilfrid, who 
would naturally take an interest in 
tbe Frisian mission, in 693, *'qui 
tunc forte patria pulsus in Mercio- 
nuni regionibos exulabat.** Bedey 
▼. II. 

Miasumdry EJbrts in Frtealand and parts adjacent, 171 

aelf at Wilteburg, and succeeded in evangelizing a con- chap. viti. 
siderable portion of Frankish Frisia, and building several Z7^ 
churches and monasteries', being assisted in carrying on his 
work by the brethren whom he had already brought over 
from Ireland, or who came out when they heard of the 
opening in the Frisian territory. 

In the year 697, Radbod, the Frisian chief, sustained 
a severe defeat at the hands of Pepin*, and Willibrord 
endeavoured to win him over to the Christian faith. But 
though he would not oppose his preaching in his kingdom, 
he himself, like Penda in England, declined to listen to his 
overtures. Thereupon the archbishop determined to pe- 
netrate even into Denmark, but the terror inspired by 
Ongend, a ferocious Dane, rendered his* efforts utterly 
unavailing. Contenting himself, therefore, with purchasing 
thirty boys*, whom he resolved to take back with him to 
Utrecht, and educate as future missionaries, he made sail 
homewards. On his return he very nearly lost his life 
on the island of Heligoland. So sacred was this island, 
which then went by the name of Fositesland, that it was S"??*?^ '" 
forbidden to touch any animal living there, or, except in 
solemn silence, to drink of its holy well*. The archbishop, 
however, being flung upon its shores by a tempest, and 
having to wait some time for a fair wind, killed some of 
the sacred cattle to provide food for the crew, and baptized 
three men in the sacred spring. The natives, horror-struck 

^ B«de, V. II. "Nam non mnlto 
post alios quoque illis in regionibus 
ipie constituit antifiiites ex eorum 
oumero fratrum qui vel secum, vel 
post He iUuc ad pnedicandum vene- 

• See Perry's Frankt^ P* ^.^5* A- 
bout I a yean after this we find the 
son of Pepin, Grimoald, marrying 
Tbeudelinda, daughter of the Frisian 

' Alcuin, in his Z{/'e 0/ fTtZ/ifrrorci, 
toUi OS that "in eo ipso itinere 

catechizatoa eosdem pueros fonte 
lubri abluit, ne aliquid propter peri- 
cula longiorisvise, vel ex insidiis fero- 
cissimorum illius terrse habitatorum 
damnum pateretur in illis ; volens 
antiqui hoatis pnevenire insidias, ei 
Domini sacramentis animas munire 
acquimtas.*' Ft'to, c. 9. Mabilloui 
Act, Ben, m. 566. 

^ Mabilloo, Ad, Ben. m. p. 566. 
Adam. Brem. de SituDania, Grimm, 

D, M, 310, 311. 

172 The MtMumarjf Higkny of tie MOdb Agm. ' 

OBAP. vni. at his andacitj, expected the god woiild instantly yindicate 

A.D. 690. his power by striking him with immediate death, or mad- 
ness, and, when nothing ensned, they recomited what had 

^<M»oiudrbf- occnrred to Badbod. The latter summoned Willibrord 
into his presence, and decided that one of the offandera 
must die. Thrice were the lots cast before the victim 
could be determined \ At last one was taken and pnt to 
death to appease the wrath of the insulted Fosite\ The 
archbishop when he was asked by Badbod to explain his 
conduct, replied in terms which were certainly explicit: 
''It is not a god*,*' O king, "whom thou worshippest, 
but a devil, who has seduced thee into fi&tal error. For 
there is no other but one Gk>d, who made the heaven, the 
earth, the sea, tmd all things that are therein. He who 
worships this God with true faith shall receive eternal life. 
I am His servant, and I testify unto thee this day, that 
thou must abandon these dumb idols which thy fathers 
worshipped, and believe in One God Almighty, and be 
baptized in the fount of life, and wash away thy sins, and, 
abjuring thy iniquities, become henceforth a new raan, and 
walk in newness of life. If tliou dost, thou shajt enjoy 
eternal life with God and His saints, but if thou de- 
spisest me, and the way of salvation I declare unto thee, 
know assuredly that thou shalt suffer eternal punishment 
and everlasting fire with the Wicked One whom thou 
obeyest." The king, we are told, marvelled at the bold- 
ness of this speech, and acknowledging that the bishop's 
words corresponded with his deeds, sent him back with an 
honourable escort to Pepin. Encouraged by the protection 

A.». 714. of the latter, and of his successor Charles Martel, Willibrord 
now pushed forward his spiritual conquests, visited all 
parts of his diocese, and preached the word in every town 

^ Compare a limilar occurrence in neither gods nor men know any bet- 

the life of Willehad, below, chap. x. ter judgmentn than his." Thorpe^a 

' He was a son of Baldr and Northern Mythology ^ p. 30. 

Nanna, "he lettles all quarrela, and ' Mabillon, Act, Bentd. m. p. 567. 

Missionary Efforts in Frtesland and parts adjacent. 173 

and Tillage that professed to have received the faith, ohap. yui. 
adjuring them to stand fast and to glorify God by a con- j^ „~^4^ 
aiatent life. The consequence was that many more were 
added to the numbers of the Church, and made over to 
him grants of land on which to erect churches and mon A- 
teries*. Meanwhile many Anglo-Saxons left their native 
land, and eagerly associated themselves in the labours of 
the archbishop, either in Frisia or the adjacent country*. 
Among these were two brothers, named Ewald, distin- Thebrotken 
goished from one another by the colour of their hair*. 
Selecting the territory of the Old 'Saxons, they made their 
way thither, and in the first village they entered met with 
a hospitable reception. Encouraged by this, they an- 
nounced to their host that they wished ta be led into the 
presence of the ealdorman*, for whom they had a message a.d. 6W. 
of the utmost importance. The introduction was promised, 
and they remained at the house of the reeve for some days. 
Meanwhile their daily prayers, psalmody, and mysterious 
rites, provoked the suspicions of the Saxons, and they were 
afraid lest, if introduced into the presence of their chief, 
they might prevail upon him to forsake his ancestral faith, 
and draw away with him the whole tribe into apostasy. 
They, therefore, one day fell upon them unexpectedly, and 
put them to death. Ewald "the fair" was decapitated; 
his brother was reserved for more cruel tortures, and was 
hacked to pieces. But the ealdorman did not approve of 

1 Amongst these was the father 
of Liudger, Wursing, who with his 
family and relatives greatly aided 
the labours of the archbishop. A<Aa 
S. Liudgerlf Pertz, ll. Though not 
a Christian, he is described as "de- 
fensor oppressorum, adjutor paupe- 
rum, in judicio quoque Justus." 
Which virtues naturally provoked 
the hostility of Radbod, who ex- 
*pelle<l him from the country. 

• See Perry's Franks, p. 237. 

• Bede, v. 10. They also had 
been trained in Ireland. "Pro di- 
versa capillorum speeie unus Niger 
Hewald, alter Albus Hewald dicere- 

* "Xon enim," writes Bede, **ha- 
bent reges iidem antiqui Saxones, 
scd satrapas plurimos suae genti pne- 
positos, qui, ingruente belli articulo, 
mittunt aequaliter sortes, et, quern- 
cunque sors osteuderit, hunc tempore 
belli ducem omnes sequuntur." 

174 2%« JftMUHiory Hiriorg qfOt MuUb Agin. 

A.D. 696* 


OHAP. vuL this cold-blooded murder. Considering that an insult had 
been offered to his aathoritfr, he slew all the inhabitants 
of the village, and laid it in ashes. The bodies of the 
brothers were dragged from the Rhine, into which thej 
bad been fiong, and were buried with much pomp at 
Cologne bj order of Pepin\ Another Anglo-Saxon simi- 
larly distinguished bj missionaiy seal was Adelbert*, a 
prince of the royal race of Northumbria, who selected 
the north of Holland as the scene of his toils, and was 
long held in veneration as their spiritual fieither by the in- 
habitants of Egmond,' where the missionary lived and 
died. He was quickly followed by Werenfrid, who made 
Elste his head-quarters, and thence propagated the Gospel 
among the Batavi, dwelling on the island formed by the 
llhine and tlie Wahal. Plechelm, Otger, and Wiro, were 
three other Anglo-Saxons' who laboured amongst the 
people of Gueldres, and were highly favoured by Pepin. 

The labours of Willibrord were further lightened by 
the assistance of Wulfram bishop of Sens. The exact period 
when he appeared in the Frisian mission-field is somewhat 
doubtful, but it was the fame of the archbishop's success 
which induced him to join him in the work and to share 
Iiis toils. His own elevation to the bishopric of Sens co- 
incides with the year 690, and shortly afterwards he 
applied to the abbot of Fontenelle for monks to accompany 
him to Frisia\ and embarking on the Seine arrived in that 
country, baptized a son of Radbod, and preached with 
considerable success. Several incidents which occurred 
during his sojourn in the country tended to make a con- 
siderable impression on the minds of the people. Wulfram 



<r. 696-719. 

* Bede, v. lo. 

* MabilloD, Acta Bened. III. 5S6. 
' See Lingard*8 Anfflo-Saxon 

Church, II. 334. 

^ '*A(1 pnefatum FontineUn Mo- 
nasterium pervenienSf de eodem looo 
oooperatoret vorbi ttniDttoi et ad 

prgBdicandum idoneos, utpote actione 
flimul et eniditione pneclaros arau- 
mem,... in portu ejaadem monaate- 
rii navem asceDdit" Vita S. Wulf' 
ramnU, Ada SS. Bened, ssbo. m. I. 
p. 343. 

Missionary Efforts in Friesland and parts adjacent, 175 

fcnind them addicted^ to the custom of immolating humau ohap. yui. 
beings in sacrifice to their gods. Some were hung on ^ „ 696—71^ 
gibbets, others were strangled, others were drowned in the ^SSL 
sea or the river. Once, on the occasion of a great festival, 
the bishop beheld a boy led forth for this purpose. The 
gallows had been erected, and a vast crowd had assembled 
in expectation of tlie scene. The bishop expostulated with 
Radbod on the cruelty of such practices, and implored him 
to let the boy's life be spared. Badbod replied that his 
request could not be granted, the lot had been cast and 
had marked out the boy as the selected victim, and the 
Frisian law required that he must suffer. Still the bishop 
persisted in interceding for his life, and at last, with a sneer 
the chiefs who stood round Radbod said, " If your Christ 
can rescue this boy from death, he may be His servant 
and yours for ever." Thereupon he was placed under the 
beam, and tlirown off in the sight of a vast concourse of 
Christians and heathens. Wulfram meanwhile, so his 
biographer records, threw himself on his knees, and prayed 
that if it was God's will, He would glorify His name by 
saving the boy's life. His prayer was no sooner ended 
than the rope broke and the victim fell to the ground. 
Wulfram hurried to the spot, and finding life not yet 
extinct, took measures for recovering him from the swoon 
into which he had fallen. The people ascribed this result 
to miracle, and the fame of the bishop spread abroad in all 
directions. The boy, together with others whom he had 
similarly saved from a cruel death, were sent to Fontenelle to 
be educated in his monastery*. On another occasion the two 
sons of a widow woman, one seven the other five years of 

^ "Mos pessimus pnedicto incre- 
dulonim duci inerat ut corpora ho- 
mioum damnatorum in suorum so- 
lenmiifl dectrma, ssepissiroe diversis 
Htaret modis ; quosdam videlicet gla- 
diatorum aDunadvenionibua interi- 
meni, alioB patibulis appendens, aliis 

laq ueis acerbissime vitam ex torquens ; 
prffiterea et alios marinorum sive 
aquarum fluctibua inatinctu diabolico 
Bubmergebat." Vi/n S. WiUframmi, 
MabiUon, Acta Ord. Bened, lu. 344. 
' Vita 8, Wtdframmi, Acta M. 
Bened. ssbc. m. i. 344. 

176 The Mimtionary n{$iani qf Ae MiidU Agm. 


Two (^Udrm 

F^ on the 

CHAP. YUL age, were selected after casting lots for sacrifice to the gods. 
69^--n9. "^ fitake was erected on the sea-shore, to which the boja 
were fastened, and thej. were left to the mercj of the rising 
tide, in a spot where two seas met. As the tide crept 
nearer, the elder of the two children tried bj supporting 
the other on his shoulders to save him for a time from his 
too certain doom. Amidst the vast crowd that had flocked 
to the shore to witness the cmel spectacle one heart alone 
was touched. The bishop went boldlj.into the presence 
of Radbod, and begged the life of the children, declaring 
it iniquitous that beings made in the image of Qod should 
be exposed to the sport of diemons. "If your God 
Christ,*' Eadbod replied, "will deliver them from their 
present peril, you may have them for your own." There- 
upon the bishop prayed mightily to God, and, as the story 
runs, the waves seemed suddenly to gather into a heap 
and leave the spot where the children stood, so that it 
became as dry land. Then the bishop flung himself into 
the waves, and seizing one of the children in his right 
hand and the other in his left, conveyed them safe to land 
and restored them to their mother. They were afterwards 
baptized, together with a considerable number of the 

It is easy to imagine that incidents like these would 
make a strong impression upon the people ; and it is not 
surprising that the missionary's expostulations won the 
respect of many who must in their inmost hearts have 
revolted from such cruel scenes. Even Radbod's son con- 
sented, as we have already said, to receive baptism', and 
that cruel chief himself at one period entertained serious 
tlioughts of following his example. lie even approached 
the baptismal font, but stopped on the way to ask the 

» Vita S. Wulframmi, Acta SS, 
Btned. ssc. iii. i. 344, 5. 

* For other mdicationB of Bad- 

bod's better feelings, especially dur- 
ing the last days of his life, see Vita 
S, liudgerif Pcrtz, ii. 405. 

Missionary Efforts in Friesland and parts adjacent. 177 

bishop, " adjuring him to tell the truth," whether if he ouap. viii. 
received* the rite, he might hope to meet in heaven his ^ 
Frisian ancestors, or whether they were in that place oi Radbodaitht 

^ BapiinmU Font 

torment of which he had been told*. "Do not deceive 
thyself," was the prelate's uncompromising reply ; " in the 
presence of God assuredly is the ordained number of his 
elect ; as for thy ancestors the chiefs of Frisia who have 
departed this life without baptism, it is certain that they 
have received the just sentence of damnation." Thereupon 
Radbod drew back from the font, and declined to receive 
the rite, preferring, he said, to join his own people, where- 
ever they might be, rather than sit down in the kingdom 
of heaven with a handful of beggars': and as yet he could 
not assent to these new doctrines, and preferred to remain 
constant to the belief of his own people. The obstinacy of 
the chief perplexed the bishop not a little. A last effort to 
overcome his scruples appears to have been made while 
Radbod was confined to his bed by the disease which 
eventually terminated in his death. But this also was frus- 
trated by an incident which is too curiously illustrative of 
the ideas of the times to be omitted. " One day," writes 
the biographer of Wulfram, " while Radbod was lying 
sick, the Evil One, who is sometimes permitted to transform 

^ "JuramentiB eum per nomen 
Domini astringens.** Neander (v. 60) 
remarkfi, ''that this characteristic 
incident, though the chronicle cannot 
be entirely depended on, may never- 
theless be true. . .The barbarous chief, 
was, doubtless, only seeking a pre- 
text to reject, in a half faltering way, 
the proposal that he should embrace 
Christianity ; sUU this incident may 
serve to illustrate how the spread of 
Christianity was hindered and check- 
ed by the narrow and tangled views 
of its doctrines which had grown up 
out of the ordinances of the Church.'* 
Rettberg and'Ozanam consider the 
whole story an invention devised in 
behalf of the rigid predestinarian 

doctrine. The circumstance is men- 
tioned in the Annales XarUemes as 
occurring in the year 718, as abo 
Badbod^s death in the next year 719. 
Pertz, II. 221. 

' ''HsBC audiens Dux incredulua, 
nam ad fontem prooesserat, infeliz 
pedem a fonte retraxit, dicens non 
se carere posse consortio prsBdeoesso- 
rum suorum Prindpum Fresionom, 
et cum parvo numero paupenim re- 
sidere in illo coelesti r^no : quin po* 
tius non facile posse nobis dictis ad- 
sensuni pncbere, sed potlus permaa- 
surum se in his qu» multo tempore 
cum omni Fresionum g^nte servave- 
rat.*' Vita S. Wu^framnU, c. 9. 


178 T%e Mtasianary Eutcry cf the Middle Agm. 

CHAP. Till, himself into an angel of ligbt, appeared to hiniy (srowned 
^ P 719^ with a golden diadem, studded with brilliant genUy and 
arrayed in a robe spangled with gold\ While the chief 
trembled with astonishment, his visitor asked him reptoach- 
fully, 'Tell me, who has so sedueed thee, that thou 
wishest to give up the worship of thj gods, and the religion 
of thy ancestors ? be not deceived, continue constant to the 
faith thou hast been taught, and thou shalt assuredlj ait 
down in the golden mansions of bliss, which I have ap- 
pointed for thee in the world to come. And now that thoa 
mayest know the truth of my words, go to-morrow to that 
Bishop Wulfram, and ask of him where is that mansion of 
eternal splendour which he promises thee if thou wilt 
receive the Christian faith ; and when he fails to show it 
thee, then let two messengers, one of each faith, be sent, 
and I will lead the way, and show them the mansion of 
eternal glory, which I am about to give to thee hereafter.* 
In the morning, Badbod did as he was bid, and told 
Wulfram of the vision. But the latter was not to be 
duped : * This is an illusion of the devil,' said he, * who 
wishes all men to perish, and none to be saved. But be 
not thou deceived, hasten to the font, believe in Christ, 
and receive the remission of thy sins. As for the golden 
mansions which thy visitor has promised thee, believe him 
not, for he it is that seduceth the whole world ; by his 
pride he fell from his place in heaven, and from a bene- 
ficent angel became the enemy of mankind.' Badbod 
replied that he was willing to be baptized, but he should 
like first to see the mansion which his own deity had pro- 
mised him. Thereupon Wulfram sent the messenger, his 
own deacon, and a heathen Frisian. They had not gone 

^ R}idl)od'fi illness is also mentioned pitque re^niuni ejus deficore, regnum 

in the Vita S. Liudgeri, Pertz, II. 405, quoque Francorum augmentando 

*' sex annia continuis ante diom mor- profioere.*' 
tiB tuie paulatim traxit dolorein, cob- 

Missionary Effiyrts in Friesland and parts adjacent 179 

far before they met one in human form, who said to them, chap. vni. 
* Make haste, for I am about to show you the glorious ^.d. 719. 
abode which his god has prepared for prince Radbod.' The 
messengers followed their guide, and after a long journey 
they came to a street paved with different kinds of marble, 
at the end of which was a golden house of marvellous 
beauty and splendour ; entering it, they beheld a throne of 
immense size, and their guide addressing them, said, * This 
is the mansion, and glorious palace, whicli his god has 
promised to bestow on prince Radbod after his death,' The 
deacon, astonished at the sight, made the sign of the Cross, 
and replied, * If these things have been made by Almighty 
Ood, they will remain for ever, but if they be the work of 
the devil, they will speedily vanish.' He had no sooner 
spoken these words, than their guide was instantly changed 
into the form of the Prince of darkness, and the golden 
palace into mud ; and the messengers found themselves in 
the midst of a huge morass, filled with reeds and rushes. 
A tedious journey of three days brought them back to 
Wulfram, and they recounted what had befallen them." 
But they returned too late for their intelligence to be of 
any avail to the pagan chief, by assuring him that he had 
been deceived by the Prince of darkness. Before their 
arrival he had paid the debt of nature without receiving 
baptism, because, in the words of Wulfram's biographer, 
"he was not of the sheep of Christ, nor ordained unto 
eternal life." But the news of this marvellous occurrence 
made a deep impression on the Frisians. Multitudes of 
them agreed to receive the rite which their chief had 
scorned, and gladdened the heart of Wulfram by, at least, 
a nominal profession of Christianity, before his death in the 
following year\ On the death of Badbod, Charles Martel a.©. 720. 

^ This ia the year given by Ma- (Pertz, II. 721): others say that he 
billon and in the Annalti XantenH9 lived till 741. 

180 Thf MUsionary llistoDj of t/te Middle Ages. 

. oiioe more reduced the FTistans to a state of nominal sttb- 
jt^ctioii, and Willlbrord was enabled to puali forward his 
miHsionarj' operations with greater hope of permaaent 
success. But he had been already joined by a still more 
eminent fellow-lalwurer, whose auccess apeedily eclipsed 
hifl own, and who won for himself the iiaine of the " Apostle 
of Grermany." His labours must form the subject of our 
next Chapter. 


A.D. 715—755. 

''E atirpe nitaa regik Bonifaciui, 

BriUnnimm ultra deaereiu, 
AuctorlUte pontiGda Bummi, fuit 
ApOBtolui QenDUw." 

Up to this time the propagation of Chrietianity in Ger- chap, it. 
many had been effected not so much by general organized rafat t*" 
plans, aa by the voluntary activity of individuala. Between ■"S^SLi"'"^ 
the various missionaries, whether Irish or Anglo-Saxon, 
there had been little union or concert, nor had anything 
like a general supervision of the different fields of labour 
been possible'. The vast Teutonic pagan world had as 
yet been but partially assailed. Enthusiastic monks from 
Ireland had erected many outposts of civilization on its 
borders, and Wilfrid and Willibrord had shown what 
might be effected when Teutons were Apostles of Teutons. 
But no one had yet appeared to conduct the great work 
on one definite plan, to consolidate the various missionary 
bodies, to lead them forth under one banner, and to encoun- 
ter German idolatry in its strongholds. This work was re- 
served for an Anglo-Saxon, the well-known Winfiid, or, as 
he was afterwards called, Boniface', " the father of Christian 
civilization in Germany." 

' Gieseler, II. 114.. '"Bonifttoio" iWe Winfrido digniMi- 

' Iliis nsTne via probably arauni. moDei preabjrtero." fp. HI. MwnF, 

ed when he became K monk. Bueg*, Script. £in^«j. ssc. Tin. p. 690. fja- 

ViTiUog to him in 710, caUs him gma A. S. C. 11. 358. 

182 The MUsionari/ UUtory of the Middle Ages. 

CHAT. IX. Bom at Crediton, or Kirton, in DevonBhirc, about the 

"^[^"^1^^^ year 680, of an old and noble family, he waa designed by 
h^ his parents for a secular career. But at an i-arly period the 
AwiorrfEJir ^'S't of some monks quickened tho desire to embrace the 
"■"' raonaatie life. The opposition of bis father wa3 diverted 

by the alarm of a dangerous illness, and the boy waa re- 
moved, when only seven years of age, to a convcntuat house 
at Exeter [Adc^ilnricastre] under Abbot Wolfard, and 
** thence to N^uteAcelle iti*HuBp8fair6, a monastery ia tlia 

diocese of Winchester, afterwuda destroyed by the Danes. 
Here, under abbot Winberct, he became eminent for hit 
diligence and devotion, for hia deep acquaintance with tha 
Scriptores, and skill in preaching. At the age of thirty 
he received ordination, and his well-known talents procnred 
for him on several occasions high ecclesiaBtioal employ- 
ments. King Ina honoured him with his confidence, and 
the united recommendations of his brethren led to his being 
sent, on more than one occasion, on a confidential mission 
to archbishop Bertchtwald. He might, therefore, have 
risen to an honourable position in his native land, but at an 
«.D. 7U.: early period he had conceived an earnest desire to join the 
noble band headed by Willibrord, for the success of whose 
labours in Frisia many a prayer was doubtless put up in 
the English monasteries. He communicated to his abbot 
the earnest desire he felt to preach the Gospel to " his 
kinsmen after the flesh," and though the latter would have 
dissuaded him from his intention, he repaired to London', 
and thence, with three of the brethren whom he had 
persuaded to accompany him, crossed the sea to Doeratadt*. 
'"1^2^^^ He bad hoped to labour successfully in Friesland, but the 
time of his coming was unpropitious. Badbod was at war 

' "Pervenit tA locum abi vni ' "Then kflouriahingeoiporiDiii, 

fnnmi renun vouUium, et uwjue ho- now almost oblitantad from tlie map, 

dio uitiquo Aoelorum Skionamqua mty even fmm luntarical msmoiy." 

vocabulo appeutur Lundemei^," P&tgr&ve'B iVomotu'y, I. 157. 
Ftto 8. Boni/acii, Pert*, 11. 338. 

St Boniface and the Conversion of Germany. 183 

with Charles Martel, a fierce persecution of the Cliristians chap. ix. 
liad broken out, and Winfrid was fain to return to his ^^ 715^ 
cloister at Nutescelle. 

During the ensuing winter the abbot died, find, had 
Winfrid listened to the solicitations of his brethren, he 
might have been welcomed as his successor. But the old 
missionary ardour still burnt fiercely, and with the return 
of spring he had made up his mind to make another effort 
in Frisia. Daniel bishop of Winchester favoured his 
design, and gave him commendatory letters to the Pope, 
whose consent and patronage he determined to secure before 
entering on his second enterprize. Accordingly the year^^ Y^3 
718 saw him again in London, whence he embarked, ^ni jounev ta Bcm*" 
quickly reached the coast of Normandy. In the autumn 
he set out, in company with a large body of pilgrims, 
through France, offering up fervent prayers in all the 
most celebrated churches that he might have a successful 
journey across the Alps, and escape the many dangers to 
which it was incident. Reaching Rome in safety, he de- 
livered to the Pope, Gregory II., the commendatory letters 
of his diocesan, and unfolded his design. Gregory gave 
the ardent monk a hearty welcome, and during the winter 
discussed with him in frequent interviews the prospects of 
the mission, and finally gave him a letter authorizing him ^^ „. 719^ 
to preach the Gospel in Germany wherever he might find •^<^- 
an opportunity. 

In the following spring, therefore, armed with this com- 
mission, and an ample supply of relics, he set out to make 
a second efibrt to propagate the faith. Thuringia was the 
scene of his earliest labours. Here and in the district 
already partially evangelized by Rupert of Worms, he 
endeavoured to induce the clergy to adopt a more rigid 
form of celibacy, and to reclaim the people who had re- 
lapsed in too many instances into idolatry. While^ ^^^^ seamdvftuto 
employed, he received intelligence of the death of Radbod, ^^^ 

▲.D. 782. 

Second visit U> 

A.D. 788, 

184 7%6 IfiMbMisr iSEteiiy i)f ll^ 

and immediatetjr rqpftired to tlie ocna^jr of that diksftitli. 
The recent snooeflses of Chaiies ICartel had opened a mqr 
for the Qospel into the Frisiail kingdom, and for three yean 
Winfrid .united himself with the numonaiy hand nnder 
Willibrord at Utrecht, and in the destmction of many 
heathen temples, and the rise of Christian dividies, saw 
manj encouraging fruits of his labonrs. Willitxroid now 
feeling the advance of age, was eztremelj anxious that the 
energetic monk of Nutesoelle should be his successor in the 
see of Utrecht. But Winfrid firmlj declined tibe honour. 
In yain the other pleaded and intreatod. Winfrid declared 
that he was not fiftjr jeais old, tiie canonical age for a 
bishop. When that objecticm was ovorruled, he fell back 
upon his commission from the Pope. It directed him to 
preach the Gospel in Germany, and to Germany he would 
go. Willibrord was, therefore, constrained to give way, 
and Winfrid left him to plunge into the wilds of Hcssia. 
Two native chiefs were attracted by his preaching, and 
were baptized. A monastery arose at Am5neburg on the 
Ohun, and the missionary found that the protection of the 
converted chiefs, and his own acquaintance with the native 
language, gained for him an access to the hearts of many 
in Hessia and Saxony. Multitudes followed the example 
of their chiefs, and accepted baptism. A faithful brother, 
named Binna, was deputed to announce to Gregory these 
gratifying results, and the Pope, who could not fail to 
foresee what might be expected from the labours of so 
energetic a missionary, summoned him to Borne. 

Thither Winfrid obediently repaired, escorted by a 
numerous retinue of Franks and Burgundians, and, in 
reply to the Pope's questions respecting the faith which he 
preached, handed in a copy of his Creed. It was duly 
examined, and aflter an interval of five days he was again 
admitted to an audience, and was informed by Gregory 
that fie was completely satisfied, and, in consideration of 

St Bonijuce and the Conversion of Oermany. 185 

the success he had already acliieved, was ready to confer chap. ix. 
upon him the episcopal dignity. Accordingly on the feast TTtm! 
of St Andrew, 723, he was consecrated regionary bishop. ^^"^^'^^^ 
No particular diocese was, of course, assigned him, but he 
was entrusted with a general jurisdiction over all whom 
he might win over from paganism to the Christian fold. 
Gregory further supplied him with a book of Canons to aid 
him in the general government of his mission*, and a 
Synodal containing instructions for his own personal con- 
duct. At the same time, to cement still closer the bond 
of union between them, he exacted from the susceptible 
and conscientious Anglo-Saxon, over the grave of St 
Peter, the oath which had long been required of bishops 
within the patriarchate of Rome*, whereby he solemnly 
pledged himself to render all ecclesiastical obedience to 
the Holy See. "I vow to thee," it ran, "the first of the T*«<»i*?/<*f-, 
Apostles, to thy vicar, Pope Gregory, and his successors, ^^ 
that, with God's help, I will continue in the unity of the 
Catholic faith, and in no wise will consent to aught which 
is contrary to the unity of the same, but will, in all ways, 
persevere in keeping my pure faith, in communion with 
thee, and in close adherence to the usages of thy Church, 
which has received from God the power to bind and to 
loose ; and so I promise to thy Vicar and his successors. 
And if I at any time learn that the conduct of any minis- 
ters of the Church is opposed to the ancient ordinances of 
the fathers, I will hold no intercourse or communion 
with them, but will rather hinder their proceedings to the 
best of my power, and wherever I cannot restrain them, 

^ See Migne's Patroloffia, aaec. vni. 
p. 502. The rules have regard (i) 
to the qualifications of those Boui- 
face was to admit to holy orders, 
(3) the times of administering or- 
ders (non nisi qaarti, septimi, et de- 
dmi mensisjejuniiB, sed et in ingressu 
quadragesimali), (3) the seasons for 

celebrating baptism (non nisi in Pas- 
chali Festivitate et Pentecoste...ex- 
ceptis iis quibus mortis urgente peri- 
culo, ne in letemum pereant, talibus 
oportet remediis subvenire), (4) the 
income of the Church. 

* Migne, ssec. viii. p. 498. Giese- 
ler, II. 115. Keander, Y. 66. 

186 tL Mimmmrjf Bktory t^At MIMU A§m. 


A.O. 728. 

CHAP. IX. will giye infonnation thereof to tlie Pope.^* It liss Ibaeii 
pointed out by GaiEoty that the political dieitiiistaiieea el 
the times would natondly render Gregory anxious to obtsin^ 
such a TOW of allegiance from one in whoee hands tbeare 
was a prospect of the developmrat of a great Germanie 
Church^; and we shall see, again and .again, how flem- 
'pulouslj conscientious Winfiid, now to be known bj the 
name of Boniface, was in canying out his instruetions. 
Thus elevated to the episcopal dignity, with letters of com- 
mendation to the Major of the Frankish palace, to the 
bishops of Bavaria and Alemannia, and the native chidb 
of the countries where he was about to. labour, the mission- 
ary recrossed the Alps, exhibited his instructions to Charles 
Martel, and with his permission and full protection recom- 
menced operations in Hessia. 

He found that matters had not improved during his 


A ». 724. 

Mt^SUn^!^ absence. Some of his converts had remained firm in the 
faith they had been taught by him, but the majority, still 
fascinated by the spell of their old superstitions, had blended 
the new and the old creed in a wild confusion. They still 
worshipped groves and fountains, still consulted augurs 
and cast lots, still offered sacrifice on the old altars*. 
Boniface saw that he must take strenuous measures to con- 
vince them of the vanity of their old belief. A letter he 
received about this time from his old friend the bishop of 
Winchester would have suggested caution in dealing with 
the primitive superstitions. That prelate, now blind and 
far advanced in years, had not forgotten the energetic 
monk he had known in the cloister of Nutscelle, and he 
now offered him some advice on the way he ought to 
promote the knowledge of the Gospel. Writing to one 

* Guizot^s ffiitory of CwUizatton, 

n. i74» 330- (E. T.) 

« VitaS,BonifaeU,C9,^.S. "Alii 
lignia et fontibuB alii autem aperte 

Bft^ficabani. Alii anispicia et di- 
viDationes, pr^stigia atque incanta- 
tionefl occulte, alii maDifeste exeroe- 

St Boniface and the Conversion of Germany. 187 
labouring in the Teutonic mission-field, and doubtless him- chap. ix. 

self well knowing the glamour of Teutonic superstitions, ^„, 724, 
he inculcates delicacy in dealing with the idolatries ^^^^o/m!!-^^ 
their mutual kinsmen. He would have the missionary *^**'^- 
scrupulously avoid all contemptuous and violent language, 
he would have him try above all things to cultivate a 
spirit of patience and moderation. In preference to open 
controversy, he suggcstes that Boniface should put such 
questions, from time to time, as would tend to suggest the 
contradictions which the old Teutonic creed involved, 
especially on the subject of the genealogy of the gods. 
Useful and wise as was such advice in reference to his 
general conduct, Boniface deemed that the present juncture 
required sterner and more uncompromising measures. 

Near Giesmar, in upper Hesse, stood an ancient oak, TheSaeredOak 
sacred for ages to Donar or Thor, the God of Thunder. 
By the people of Hesse it was regarded with peculiar 
reverence, as the rally ing-point of the '* tings " or assem- 
blies of the whole tribe. Again and again had Boniface 
declaimed against such gross veneration for " the stock of 
a tree;" but his sermons had fallen dead on the ears of his 
hearers. He determined, therefore, to strike a blow at the 
object of so much superstition, and to remove a constant 
stumblingblock from the midst of his converts. One day, i^ 
accompanied by all his clergy, he advanced, axe in hand, 
to cut down the oifending monarch of the forest. The peo- 
ple assembled in thousands to witness the great controversy 
between the new and the old belief, many enraged at the 
interference of the strange preacher, many more confi- 
dent, like the people of Fositesland, that an instant judg- 
ment would strike down so daring an offender. But 
scarcely had the missionary begun to ply his axe than 
it was apparent that Thor could not defend his own. If 
he was a god, he was, certainly, either " gone on a jour- 
ney," or "was asleep and needed awaking;" for in. vain 

188 7!l0 ifiiinbiMwy £fi^ 

CHAP. IX. his votaries supplicated his yftmfgsKOM* After a ftir tioHm 
;;;;;;^^ of the axe a crashing} was heaid in the topmost boai^^ 
mighty rushing wind, says the CShionicleri seeum to wake 
every branch, and then the leafy idol came down to like 
ground, and split into fomr qnaiten ** The Lord Bm ia 
the Godl" the people shonted, aeknowledghf^ the sapetisr 
might of the new fidlh, nor did they interfere, When Boni^ 
face, as a testimony to the completeness of his Tietorft 
directed that an oratoiy, in honoot of St Boteri shonld be 
constructed ont of the remains of their old divinity. l%e 
work now proceeded with vigooTi and was poeecntod lof 
the bishop with unflagging eneigy for a qmce of ten yeaa^. 
Numbers in Hesse and Thnxingia were baptised, heathen 
temples disappeared, humble churches rose amid the waste 
forest-lands overspread with oaks ; monastic cells sprung up 
wherever salubrity of soil, and especially the presence of 
running water, suggested a healthy site; the land was 
cleared and brought under the plough ; the sound of prayer 
and praise awoke unwonted echoes in the forest-glades, and 
the simple lives of Boniface's little band of missionaries 
won the hearts of the rude but hardy tribes. 
A.©. 728-730. " The harvest truly was plenteous, but the labourers 
were few." Boniface determined to invite assistance from 
, his native land \ In a circular letter, therefore, which he 
addressed about this time to the bishops, clergy, and prin- 
cipal abbots in England, he painted in lively colours the 
AidfrimEng- wauts of his Gcrmau converts. "We beseech you," he 
writes, " that ye will remember us in your prayers, that 
we may be delivered from the snares of Satan, and from 
the crafts of wicked men, and that the word of God may 
have free course and be glorified. Pray for us, and pray to 
God and our Lord Jesus Christ, who would have all men 
be saved and come to a knowledge of the truth, that 
He will vouchsafe to convert to the true faith the hearts 

^ Ep. XXXYX. Migne, Patrologia, seo. vm. p. 755. 

St Bonifotce and the Conversion of Oermany. 189 

of the pagan Saxons, that they may be delivered from chap. tx. 
those bonds of the Evil One, wherewith they are held cap- ^^ 728-78o7 
tive. Have compassion on them, brethren. They often 
say, * We are of one blood with our brothers in England.' 
Have pity on them, your kinsmen according to the flesh, 
and remember that the time for working is short, for 
the end of all things is at hand, and death cannot praise 
God, nor can any give Him thanks in the pit Aid us, 
then, while yet it is day." The appeal was not ineifec- 
tual*. Not a few flocked from England to rally round the 
devoted missionary, and even devout wom^n were found 
willing to sacrifice the pleasures and comforts of their 
homes in their native land, and go forth to found or fill 
the convents which Boniface soon began to inaugurate, 
"As iron sharpeneth iron," so the countenances of friends 
from the old country refreshed and invigorated the spirits 
of the good bishop. By their united efforts a great impres- 
sion was made amongst the people of Saxony and Thurin- 
gia, and numbers were added to the Church. In such 
results much was doubtless superficial ; still the day of 
small things is never to be despised, least of all in estimat- 
ing the issues of missionary labour. The suppression, 
wherever practicable, of idolatrous worship, the destruction 
with unsparing vigour of its outward monuments, must at 
least have tended to loosen the hold of old superstitions on 
the native mind. To believe in the power of Thor or 
Woden, when their most sacred oaks were suffered to. fall 
with impunity, was hardly possible, especially while the 

^ Amongst those who thus came 
forth, besides others mentioned be* 
low, ^Kfts Wigberct, who left the mo- 
nastery of Glastonbury to join Boni- 
face at some period between the 
years 733 and 738. Amongst the 
letters of Boniface is preserved one 
from Wigberct to the brethren at 
Glastonbury annoimcing his safe ar- 
rival "in confinio paganorum Hsbs- 

sonum ac Saxonum/* and that '^nos- 
ter archiepiscopus Bonifacius, cum 
adventum nostrum audiisset, per se- 
metipsum dignatus est long& vift in 
obviam nos venire ac suscipere valde 
benigne." Ep. LXZ. ed. Migne. He 
was stationed at Fritzlar, where he 
educated the abbot Sturmi. Mabil- 
loD, Acta SS, Ben, m. 635. 


190 The Mi$9umary Buiarf rfA$ MUik Agef. 

cBAP IX. victories of Charles Martel were opening itp, daj hf day^ 
729^30. more and more of the old pagan territoxjr to the light of 
^SSmiaruL Christian civilization. Whatever others maj have done 
after him, Boni&oe maj daim the merit of having abstained 
from employing the assistance <^ tile Mayor of the Pahoe, 
in campeUtng the people to teaort to baptism. Without 
that assistance, as he himself aUow8\ his work wonld have 
been wellnigh impossiblci but it was confined within 
strictly legitimate limits. It enabled the bishop to correct 
the irregularities of his own clergy, io put down the cele- 
bration of heathen rites, at least in pnblic ; it l^galiased the 
establishment of Christian forms (^ worship ; it protected 
the monasteries as they rose in the forest wastes ; but be- 
yond this it can scarcely with fidmess be said to have 
extended. Boniface knew of other and more effectual wea- 
pons for winning over the hearts of the people to the 
Christian faith, than those which a system of compulsory 
conversion would have dictated. His monasteries were 
not only seminaries of sound learning, but industrial and 
agricultural schools, where the rude native of Thuringia or 
Saxony could learn many of the primary and most useful 
arts of life. The native missionaries, whom the bishop 
sent forth from these establishments, when duly trained 
and educated, may not have learnt much beyond the most 
elementary truths, still what they knew they endeavoured 
to practise. They had been taught themselves to repeat 
in the native tongue the form of renunciation at baptism 
and the confession of sins ; they could explain to the people, 
at least in some measure, the nature of the rite, and were 
directed to suffer none to act as godfather or godmother but 
such as could repeat the Creed and the Lord's Prayer". In 

^ "Sine patrocinio principis Fran- idolonun m Grermania, nine ilUus 

corum neo popnlum regere, nee pres- mandato et timore, prohibere valeo. *' 

byteros vel diaconos, monaohoe yel Ep. xil. Migne, p. 703. 

andllas Dei defendere potsum, neo ' See Neander, y. 73. 
ipsoe paganomm litua et aaorilegia 

8t Boniface and the Conversion of Oermany. 191 

the bishop himself they learnt to respect one who was an chap, ix 

ardent student of the Scriptures, and* indefatigable in ex- ^^ p. 723—730. 
pounding them to the people. In the correspondence he 
kept up with many old friends in England, we find him 
begging again and again for copies of different portions 
of the Divine Word. Thus to the abbess Eadburga he 
writes, to request her to send him the 'Epistles of St Peter 
inscribed in gilded letters, that he might use them in 
preaching ; to Cuthbert he writes for copies written in a 
good clear hand suitable for his weak eyes, as also for 
commentaries, among which he particularly specifies that 
of the Venerable Bede*. Thus by his own uh wearied 
exertions, aided by devoted disciples, a n6w empire was, 
won to the Christian faith, and he went on not despising 
the day of small things, but quietly availing himself of 
every opportunity to carry out the great object of his life. 

Meanwhile news arrived of the death of Gregory 1\, Death qfOrq/onf. 
Still anxious to maintain his connection with the Holy See, a.d. 731. 
Boniface wrote to Gregory's successor, and besought his 
blessing on his labours, and in the pall of a metropolitan 
received a marked recognition of his work. Not content with 
a distant correspondence*, he once more crossed the Alps in Boni/ice't third 

^ visit to Rome. 

^ See especially Epp. xix. xxxvii. 


' For this coirespondeDce see 
Migne, sac. Viil. p. 576. Gregory 

I. Congratulates the bishop on 
the success of his missionary 
1. Sends him the pall (''Dum 
missarum solerania agis, vel 
episcopum te contigerit con- 
secrare, illo tantummodo tem- 
pore eo utaris"). 

3. Empowers him to consecrate 
bishops ("ubi multitude ex- 

crevit fideliura pia tamen 

contemplatione ut non viles* 
cat dignitas episcopatus"). 

4. Directs (amongst other things) 

(a) *'Quos a paganis baptiza- 
tos esse asseruisti (Odinic 
baptism?) si ita habetur, 
ut denuo baptizes in no- 
mine sanctffiTrinitatis man- 

(6) ''Inter cetera agrestem 
caballum aliquantos conie- 
dere adjunxisti, plerosque 
et domesticum. Hoc neqna- 
quam fieri deinceps sines, 
Bed quibus potueris Christo 
juvante modis per omnia 
compesce, et dignam eis 
impone poenitentiam : im- 
mundum est erUm atque em- 

(c) As to prayers for the dead, 
"nonnisi pro mortuis ca- 


192 The Mimtmarg Butoty ^tfa MUdlk Agmu 

CHAP. IX. the year 738, with a muneraiu letiniie of 7!»iik8, Butgiui- 
' dians, and Anglo-SaxonSi and sought a penonal intenrieir 
with Ghregory III. The latter reomTedhim with moie 
than ordinarj respect. He inTested him with plenaij 
powers as legate of the Apostolic See, and authorised him 
to visit and organize the BaTsrian Church. With letteia 
accrediting him in KIs new capaeityy Boni&ce retomed in 
the following spring, and, after « short stay at Tidna widi 
Luitprand king of the Lombards, oommenoed a thorongh 
visitation of the diocese of BaTsria, and, with the consent 
of Odilo, added to the soUtaij see of Fassan those of Sals- 
burg, Fibisingen, and Batisbon^ 

While at "Borne the archbishop had leamt that his 
kinsman Wunibald' had come thither from England, and 
that another kinsman, Willibald, had returned from the 
Holy Land, and entered the monastery of Monte Cassino. 
From the former he had exacted a promise to follow him 
into the great Teutonic mission-field, and had requested 
Gregory to induce the latter to leave his monastic retreat, 
and come out to him on the same errand. The two brothers 
A.IK 740-746. accordingly joined him in the year 740, and Boniface re- 
joiced in the addition of such welcome aid. Wunibald was 
consecrated priest, and received the care of seven churches 
in the newly-converted Thurihgia, Willibald' was sta- 
tioned at Eichstadt, then a waste forest-land, which Count 
% Suiger of Hirsberg had bestowed upon the Church. One 
humble church only existed in the wild and woody dis- 
trict, but the newly-returned pilgrim from Jerusalem en- 


tholidfl memoriam faeiat 
presbyter et ioteroedat.'* 

(cQ "Rebaptizarijubeteo8,qui 
' a preiby tero Jovi mactante 
et carnes immolatitiai ves- 
cente* baptisati lint.'* 

(e) "De parriddarum poenia 
addit, in quorum numero 
vult eoi quoque haberi qui 

infidelibus ad immoian" 
dum paganit iua venundknt 
^ On the work in Bavaria tee 

above, p. 15611. 

p. 1501 

* MabiUon, Act, SS. m. Part u. 

* MabiUon, m. Part 11. 36;. 

St Boniface and the Conversion of Germany, 193 

tered with ardour on his work, and proved himself no chap. ix. 
unworthy coadjutor of his great relative*. But before long ^ „ 740—746. 
from Wimbum Minster in Dorsetshire came forth another 
relative of the bishop, and the little family circle of de- 
voted missionaries was complete. Boniface had written to 
Tetta, abbess of Wimbum, requesting that Walpurga", 
AVunibald's sister, as well as any other of his coimtry- 
women as should be willing, might be sent out to share 
the work in Germany. Walpurga did not shrink from the waipwga. 
perils of the enterprise. With thirty companions, amongst 
whom were Lioba and Thecla, she crossed the sea, and 
after a joyful meeting with the archbishop proceeded to 
join her brother Wunibald in Thuringia, and settled for a 
time in a convent beside him there. Afterwards she accom- 
panied him to Ileidenheim in the wilds of Suevia, where 
they built a church, and after much diflSculty, a double 
monastery for monks and nuns. The companions also of 
Walpurga before long presided over similar sisterhoods. 
Thus Lioba' was stationed at Bischofsheim on the Tuber, xww. 
Thecla at Kitzingen in Franconia, Chunichild, another Thecia. 
devout sister, in Thurineia, and Chunitrude in Bavaria. c%unichiid. 
It was not always easy to reconcile the natives to the 
erection of these outposts of civilization in their midst. 
Many deemed it a profanation of the majestic silence of 
the old oak-groves, and an insult to the elves and fairies 
who for untold ages had haunted the primeeval solitudes. 
Many more regarded with much suspicion this intrusion 
on the old hunting-grounds, and would have preferred that 
the peace of the wolf and bear should not be disturbed. 

' Boniface ordained bim priest, 
and shorty aftorwards bishop of 
Eichstadt, which see he held for up- 
wards of forty years, till A.D. 786. 
One of the lives of St Boniface is 
ascribed to bim. 

* Mabillon, Act, SS, Ben. lu. u. 

261. She died in 779 or 780. 

' Or Lioba, see Surius, Sept. 38. 
Mabillon, Act. 88. Ben. iii. u. 33 1. 
She was afterwards the friend of 
Bil legard, consort of Charlemagne, 
who owed much to her conversation 
and example. 


194 The Mutionary Hiaiory cf the Miiia$ Jgm^ 


CHAP. IX. But as years rolled oa, the peaceful lives of the m] 
740-^46. strangers won their respect, and the sight of waving 
fields reconciled them to the change. 
A.B.741. But we are anticipating events. In the jBn Ttt 

aSrt^Miifia, G^^^^ Martel died, and Boniface now saw farther oippor^ 
tunities opened up for carrying on and eonsolidatiiig the 
labours of the various missionary bands. It is true that 
the great Mayor of the Palace never thwarted his opem- 
tions, or declined to recognise his authority, but he tde- 
rated many of the clergy whose lives by no means cone- 
sponded with their sacred profession, and the gratitude 
due to the conqueror at Poictiers wite somewhat maired by 
his practice of occasionally pillaging churches and mo- 
nasteries when he wanted money for his numerous wars. 
Now that he was dead, the way was clear. Exerting un- 
bounded influence over Carloman and Pepin, Boniface could, 
without let or hindrance, develop his plans for organizing 
the German Church. He began by founding four new 
bishoprics in Hesse and Thuringia, Wtirzburg, EichstHdt, 
Bamberg, and Erfurt, and in the following year, proceeded 
to revive the decayed Synodal system, by calling a council 
composed of ecclesiastics and the national estates, to make 
provision for the moral and spiritual superintendence of the 
newly-formed churches. Eighty years had elapsed since 
a synod had been summoned, at least in Austrasian France; 
it was now resolved that they should meet every year. 
Revivaii^the Bouiface, as legate of the Pope, was entrusted with plenar}*- 
«fm. '^ power, but the decrees of the Councils were set forth by 
the Frankish kings in their own name. 

In the Council of 743 many regulations were passed 
for the better government, not only of the new Grermanic 
Churches, but of the Frankish Church also*. The jurisdic- 
tion of Boniface over the other bishops was duly confirmed ; 

1 One of the decree! of this C!onn- history of the rise of the Papal power, 
dl (A.D. 743) marks aa era in the ^'PeUgtiu II.** remarka HaUam 

St Boniface and the Conversion of Germany. 195 

the clergy were enjoined to observe strict celibacy, and chap. ix. 
forbidden to carry arms, to serve in war, to hunt, or to ^^.p. 741^ 
hawk : they were directed to render all due obedience to *<»••«<«" 
the bishop of their respective dioceses, to receive him with**"^ 
due homage at his visitation, and to render a faithful ac- 
count of the welfare of their several parishes ; in co-opera- 
tion with their bishops they were further directed to use 
every means in their power to suppress all heathen and 
superstitious practices, such as sacrifices of men or animals 
at funerals, impure festivals in honour of heathen deities, 
worshipping of groves, trees, and springs, all recourse to 
amulets, incantations, soothsaying, all endeavours to pene* 
trate the secrets of the past or the future by auguries from 
birds, or horses, or oxen, or casting lots. 

Besides legislating thus generally for the welfare ofA.D. 745. 
the Church, the archbishop was now able to deal more SSjSjJ***' 
directly with ecclesiastics whose views or practices incur- 
red his suspicion. Some of these belonged to the Scotch 
and Irish Churches, scattered up and down the country, 
whose peculiar views as to the limitation of episcopal 
rights, the celibacy of the clergy, and the supremacy of 
the Great bishop of the West, were naturally obnoxious 
to the archbishop. Others, again, were men whose lives 
were directly contrary to their profession. Like wolves in 
sheep's clothing they made the faith a cloak for licentious- 
ness, and sometimes went so far as to join the natives in 
their heathen sacrifices. To such we are well content the 
archbishop should have given place "no not for an hour;" 

{Middle Ages, I. 522), "had, about 
560, Bent a pallium to the bishop of 
Aries, peq)etual vicar of the Roman 
see in Gaul, and Gregory I. had 
made a similar present to other me- 
tropolitans. But it never was sup- 
posed that they were obliged to wait 
•for this favour before they received 

consecration until this Council 

It was here enacted, that, as a token 

of their willing subjection to the tee of 
Borne, aU metropolitanM should re- 
guest the pallium at the hinds of the 
pope, and obey his la>Kful commands. 
This was construed by the Popes to 
mean a promise of obedience before 
receiving the pall, which was chang- 
ed in after times by Gregory YII. 
into an oath of feaUy" Qoo£p.Bon. 
ZacharisD, ULXY. 


196 The Missionary History of As MiddU Ages* 


A D. 745. 




thej, if any, would be sure to andermine his work, and 
to cause the Christian name to be disgraced among the 
heathen. While Charles Martel was alire, Boniface had- 
hardly known how to condact himself towards such un- 
worthy members of the sacred order, when he encountered 
them in the royal palace. 

Mindful of his oath of fealty to the Pope, he had at an 
early period consulted his friend Daniel, bishop of Win- 
chester, on the subject. The latter suggested caution, and, 
if necessary, a little prudent dissimulation. This did not 
satisfy the conscientious missionary. He opened his heart 
to Gregory -Hv and sought from him a resolution of his 
doubts. The successor of St Peter suggested that he 
should sharply rebuke such clergy as openly disgraced 
tlie dignity of their profession, but counselled caution 
before proceeding to extremities, and hinted that severity 
often failed of its object, while kindness and patient ex- 
postulation were more likely to succeed. Now, however, 
he could take higher ground, and could resort to severer 

The names of three ecclesiastics have been more 
especially preserved to us, who for erroneous teaching 
rather than scandalous lives were made to feel the autho- 
rity of the Papal legate. One of these*, Adelbert, was of 
Frankish descent ; his errors formed the subject of much 
correspondence between the archbishop and Pope Zacharias. 
To define exactly in what they consisted at this distance of 
time is not easy*. According to the allegations of Boni- 

^ Boniface, Epp. Lvn. Neander, 
V, 78. Kiirtr, 506. 

■ **Domo8 multorum penetr.ivit," 
writes the archbishop, ..." inultitudi- 
nem nisticoruin seduxit, dicentium 
quod ipse esset yir apostoHca? sancti- 
tatis et signaatqae prodigiafaceret :" 
and be oontinues, "designatur in 
tUlcujus houore apostolorum vel mar- 

tyrum ecclesias consecnu^, impro- 
perans hominibus etiaiii cur tauto> 
pere studerent sanctorum apostolo- 
rum limina visitare. Postea, quod 
absurdum est, in proprii nominis ho- 
nore dedicavit oratoria ; vel, ut ve* 
rius dicam, s >rdidavit. Fecit quoque 
cruciculas et oratoriola in campis, et 
ad fontes, vel ubicunque sibi visum 

St Boniface and the Conversion of Germany. 197 

face, he had put himself at the head of some fanatical chap. ix. 
partizans who regarded him as a man of Apostolic holiness ^^.745. 
and a worker of miracles. PuflFed up with pride, he com- 
pared himself with the Apostles of Christ, erected oratories 
in honour of his own name, and placed crosses and little 
chapels by the side of wells and in open fields, where the 
merits of "holy Adelbert" were invoked, to the great 
scandal of true Saints. Moreover, he had suffered parings 
of his nails, and locks of his hair, to be carried about as of 
equal honour with the relics of St Peter; and when the 
people flung themselves at his feet to confess their sins, he 
replied, " I know all your sins, for all secrets are revealed 
to me ; ye need not confess them, they are forgiven, return 
to your homes in peace/' The other ecclesiastic was Cle- omen*. 
mens, an Irishman by birth*, who incurred the archbishop's 
suspicions on account of his loose opinions respecting the 
unity of the Catholic Church, his very partial reverence for 
the decisions of the Fathers, his refusal to acknowledge the 
vows of celibacy, and his novel opinions as to the doctrine 
of predestination and the Saviour's descent into Hades*. 
Whatever may be the merits of the controversy, Clemens 
and Adelbert felt the weight of Synodal censure, though 
it does not appear to have diminished their popularity. 
The third troubler of the peace of Boniface was the famous 
Feargil, or Virgilius', *'the Geometer," who with one Femya or rtr- 
Sidonius was labouring in Bavaria. He offended the arch- 
bishop by refusing to rebaptize certain persons, as the latter 


fuit, et jussit ibi publicas orationea 
celebrari donee multitudines populo- 
rum, spretiB caeterls epiijcopis, et di- 
missis antiquis ecclesiia, in talibus 
locis conventus oelebrarent diceiites: 
Merita aancti Adelberti adjuvabuot 
noe." Ep. Lvii. 

* "Genere Scotus eat." Ibid. 

* " Dicens quod Christus Filius 
Dei, descetideiiB ad inferos, omnes 
qao8 infemi career detiuuit inde tibe- 
ravit, credulos et incredulos, lauda- 

tores Dei aimul et col tores idolorum." 

Ep, LVII. 

» Vit. Mabillon, ActaSS, Ben.iu. 
980. Lanigan's Church Hutory of 
Jrelandf ill. 179. He had been ab- 
bot of Aghabo in Ireland: he ar- 
rived in France in 746, and won the 
peculiar esteem of Pepin. Other 
Irish missionaries in Grermany at this 
time were DobcUt, placed as a bishop 
at Chiem in Upper Bavaria by duke 
Odilo (Lanigan, ui. 188) ; Alto, wLo 

198 Tkg VSmmmjf JRutmjf 

nuw, IX. directed, beoaK Ae ^Mdi£mf pnatt viw vas 
^^flg^ ignofant of Latn, iMd wd mtead nf Ae piiiper 
f!^ wofdf, ''Baplm te in aonw iWM» #SIm, ^ 
&nc<a.** B«l ZadinM% €■ the appnl of YnSiEM, 
nouDoed tbe iMpCni p c ifectlj vvlid, iMHMdk as like 
mutake wntft not from kucticu pntilj bvt fioai ibcio 
i^cwioe of j^MMuauXm Tunt jon aftennuds wlicft Vii^ 
gfliiu was pominaffd to tbe aeeof Salsbaig,Boiiibee again 
wrote to tbe Pope to complain that the Inshop-deajgnate 
penreTsel J tangfat '* that there waa anodicr worid, and other 
men below the earth, with a son and moon of its own.** 
Whether the aichbishop'a oppontion aioae ftom honor at 
the idea of the antipodes, or beeanae he understood Yir- 
giliiu to teach tbe existence of a distinct race of mankind, 
not descended from Adam, is uncertain. Zacharias sum- 
moned the bishop-designate to Home, where be not only 
cleared himself of anj heretical imputation, but as bishop 
of Salzbarg lived to carry tbe Grospel with much success 
into the wilds of Carinthia. 
uutrti»mi- But we must not misunderstand tbe simple-minded 
nui. Boniface* He could rebuke not only obscure ecclesiastics, 

but, when occasion demanded, even the Vicar of Christ 
himself. In a letter', couched in no truckling terms, he 
rebukes Pope Zacharias for allowing the honour of the pall 
to be purchased with money, and for suiFering numerous 
scandals to good and pious pilgrims to exist in tlie city of 
Rome. His rude German disciples told him strange tales 
of tlie superstitious practices which were enacted, even 
under the sliadow of St Peter, on the first of January; how 
the women hung amulets round their arms, and bought and 
sold them openly in the shops. Of what avail was it for 

Arriroil in Bavaria about 743, and g^n, SidoniuM (Latinized from Sed- 

founded the monattery coniieorated na), a companion of Yiri^iliiig. Lani. 

bv Boniface, oX AUmumier {Act. 88, gan, ni. 181. 
lim, ad. ann. 743); />e(;^an, a miaaion- ^ Sp, XLix. 

^y in BavarUi who died at Friaen- 

St Bonifoce and the Conversion of Germany. 199 
Boniface to preach against heathen superstitions in Ger- chap. ix. 

many if they were permitted at Rome? In his reply the ^,>, 745^ 
Pontiff promised an examination of these causes of com- 
plaint, and the suppression of the abuses. 

To return, however, to his own sphere of labour, the 
death of the bishop of Cologne in the year 744, suggested 
to Boniface the idea of elevating that place to be his Metro- 
politan See, especially as it might be made the basis of 
more extended missions in Friesland, where, since the 
death of Willibrord in 739, the work had somewhat retro- 
graded. While corresponding on the subject with the Holy 
See, an event occurred which gave an entirely different 
turn to the negotiations, and illustrates one of the flagrant 
abuses of the clerical office, against which he had been 
endeavouring to legislate. In the year 744 Gerold, bishop omMand 
of Mentz, was slain in a warlike expedition against the 
Saxons ^ To console his son Gewillieb for the loss of his 
father he was consecrated as his successor, though until 
now he had been only a layman in Carloman's court, and 
had displayed more than ordinary fondness for the chase. 
In the following year Carloman headed another expedition 
against the Saxons, and Gewillieb followed in his train. 
The armies encamped on either side of the river Wiseraha, 
and, unmindful of his sacred office, Gewillieb sent a page to 
inquire the name of the chief who had slain his father. On 
discovering it, he sent the same messenger a second time to 
request the chief to meet him in friendly conference in the 
midst of the stream. The latter complied, and the two 
rode into the water, and, during the conference, the bishop 
stabbed the Saxon to the heart. 

This act of treachery was the signal for a general en- 
gagement, in which Carloman gained a decisive victory 
over the Saxons. Gewillieb returned to his diocese as 

' OthloDi Vita Bonif. cap. zzxvii. 

200 TJie Migaionartj Ili'sfnn/ of the Middle Ages. ■ 

CHAP, rx. though nothing had occurrc.I. But Boniface could not 
j^^^5_ allow 30 flagrant an infraction of iho Canona enacted in 
the recent Synod to pasa nnrebukcd. In the Council, 
therefore, of the following year, he made a formal charge 
sgainst the blood-stained bishop, and demanded hia depoai- 
tioTi'. Gcwillieb found himself unable to strugKle againat 
the authority of the archbishop; the see of Meniz was 
declared vacant, and became the seat of Boniface as Metro- 
politan, whence he exercised jurisdiction over the dioceses 
of Mentz, Worms, Spires, Tongres, Cologne, Utrecht, as 
well aa the nations he had won ovct to the Christian 
Sv^'S^Im -^^ ^^^ letter wherein Boniiacc communicated to the 
ijM»nf»c- pnpc this alteration in his plans, he made a request more 
nearly related to himself. He was now verging on three- 
score years and ten, and his long and incessant labours ' 
had begun to tell upon his constitution. Weighed down 
with "the care of all the churches" of Germany, he longed 
for repose, or at least for some diminution of the burden 
which pressed upon him. He bad already requested that 
he might be allowed to nominate and ordain his successor 
in the archlepiscopal office. This the Pope had assured 
him could not be, but he conceded to his age and in- 
firmities the unusual permission to select a priest as his 
special assistant, who might share a portion of his episco- 
pal duties, and, if he proved himself worthy of confidence, 
might be nominated as his successor. Increasing infirmi- 
ties now induced him to reiterate his request. The Pope 
in reply urged' him not to leave his see at Mentz, and re- 
minded him of the words of the Saviour, " He that perse- 
vereth unto the end, the same shall be saved;" but in con- 
sideration of his long and laborious life, he agreed that if 

• "Ad luec objioiena propriM ocu- o. iixrii. 
lu M perepeiiBM ilium com ivibuii ' Ep. xiv. Z«!li»ri». Migne, p. 

canibumiuo jocaotem, quod vpiacopo 954. *.». TM- J***. 
nuUataauB liaereL" OtUonl VUa, * Ef. sr. Migne. *.d. 748. Jam. 

St Boniface and the Conversion of Germany, 201 

the archbishop could find amongst his clergy one in whom chap. ix. 
he could place implicit confidence as fit to be intrusted "^^ ^^ ~ 
with the oflice, he might elevate him thereto, and receive 
his assistance as his colleague' and representative. Suc- 
cessful in obtaining this welcome concession, Boniface 
nominated liis fellow-countryman and disciple Lull as arch- 
bishop of Mentz. For himself, he proposed to retire to 
a monastery which was now rising in the midst of the ^ » 751. 
vast forest of Buchow *, on the banks of the river Fulda. 
Of the origin of this celebrated monastery we shall speak BanUaeedairet 
in the following chapter. Sufiice it to say here, that it^'^*'**- 
was one of the most important of the many similar insti- 
tutions which had risen under the archbishop's eye. It 
occupied a central position in reference to missionary opera- 
tions. Round it the four nations to whom he had preached 
the word for so many years seemed to be grouped to- 
gether', and here the aged prelate could employ the autumn 
of his life in directing the labours of the brethren, and 
watching the beneficial and civilizing results of their exer- 
tions amidst the surrounding country. But while thus form- 
ing his plans for promoting the good work in the land of 
his adoption, he was not forgetful of old friends in Eng- 
land. Pleasant memories of Crediton and Nutescelle still 
lay near his heart, and though his arduous duties forbade a 
visit to these familiar scenes, he yet maintained a constant 
correspondence with friends in the old country, and re- 
joiced to receive tidings of the welfare of the Anglo-Saxon 
Churches, just as he was pained to the heart when he 
heard of any moral declension. On such occasions he 
deemed it his duty to write to the off'enders, and exhort 
them to amend their lives. Thus hearing that Ethelbald 

^ Founded in 744, under the eye dignoscuntur. Qui baa cum Testra 

of Boniface. iotercenione, qiiamdiu vivo vel tUL- 

* "Quatuor enim populi, quibus pio, utilis esse povsum.** £p, Bon, 

verbum Christi per gratiain Dei dix- LXXV. 
iious, in circuitu hujus loci hnbitare 

202 The MiMionary Hulory of tke MCddk At 


nd reinoa- ] 

cnAP. IX. king ofMercla liTed in ibe practice of gross iminoralM 

IB TSL wrote to kim in Btirring and earnest terms', am 

Btrated with him on the bad example he waa netting bis 
Bnbjects, and endeavoured to shame him uito a more coB- 
Bistcnt life by contracting his conduct with that of the still 
pagan Saxons around him in the Tealonic forests, who, 
though "they had not the law" of Christ San ilv, yet "did 
by nature the things contained in the law," and testified 
by severe punishments tlieir abhorrence of anchastity. He 
also wrote to Archbishop Cuthbert', informed him of the I 
canons and regulations he had inaugurated in the recent i 
Synods, and urged him to use all possible means to pro- ' 
mote the vitality of the Church of their native land. 

t»iS»^*" Thus amidst increasing infirmities and many causes for ' 
anxiety be yet found time to remember old acenes and old 
Anends. But as years rolled on, the conviction was deep- 
ened in his own mind that the day could not be far off 
when he most leave the Churches he had founded. Lull 
had, indeed, been ordained, conformably to the Pope's per-' 
mission, aa bis coadjutor in the see of Mentz, but his ap- 
pointment had not aa yet received the royal recognition, 
and till this was secured, Boniface could not feel free from 
anxiety for the welfare of his flock. One of his last letters, 

AD. TS3. therefore, was addressed to Fuldrede, chamberlain of the 
Frankisb court, soliciting his protection and that of his 
royal master in behalf of his clergy and his many ecclesi- 
astical foundations. In this very year he liad been called 
upon to restore upwards of thirty churches in hia extensive 
diocese, which had been swept away in an invasion of the 
heathen Frisians, and it was with gloomy forebodings that 
he contemplated the fate of the German Church, if it was 
not shielded by royal protection. " Nearly all my com- 
panions," he writes to Fuldrede, " are strangers in this 
land ; some are ptiests, distributed in various places to 
1 Bf. Lxn. A.i>. 745- ■ Bp~ Lxiu. aj>. 745. 

8i Boniface and the Conversion of Germany. 203 

celebrate the offices of the Church and minister to the chap. ix. 
people; some are monks, living in their different nionas- ^ ^ ^^j^j 
teries, employed in teaching the young ; some are aged uuer to Fut- 
mcn, who have long borne with me the burden and heat 
of the day. For these I am full of anxiety, lest after my 
death they should be scattered as sheep having no shep- 
herd. Let them have a share of your countenance and 
protection, that they may not be dispersed abroad, and 
that the people dwelling on the heathen borders may not 
lose the law of Christ. Suffer also my son and brother in 
tlie ministry, the Archbishop Lull, to preside over the 
Chujches, that both priests and people may find in him a 
teacher and a guide. And may God grant that he may be 
a true pastor to his people, a true director to the monastic 
brethren. I have many reasons for making this request. 
My clergy on the heathen borders are in deep poverty. 
Bread they can obtain for themselves, but clothing they 
cannot find here, unless they receive aid from some other 
quarter, to enable them to persevere and endure their daily 
liardships. Let me know either by the bearers of this 
letter, or under thine own hand, whether thou canst pro-* 
raise the granting of my request, that, whether I live or 
die, I may have some assurance for the future^" The royal 
permission recognising Lull as his successor arrived, and 
now he could look forward to his end in peace. If ever 
he had wished to close his life in the peaceful seclusion of 
his new monastery at Fulda, that was not his desire now. 
Though upwards of seventy-four years of age, he deter- a.©. 754. 
mined to make one last effort to win over the still pagan fjfUStd!^ 
portion of Friesland, and to accomplish what Willibrord 
and Wilfrid had begun. Bidding, therefore, the new arch- 
bishop a solemn farewell, he ordered preparations to be 
made for the journey. Something told him he should 
never return, and, therefore, he desired that with his books, 

^ Ep. Lxxn. Migne^ p. 779. 

304: The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

rn^p.ix amongst whicli iras a treatise of Ambrose on T)i« Adeeat- 
TTTm '"5^ ''f -^f^"'^! miglit I>e pnckcd not onlj tlie relics which 
were hia CDnstant companions, but also his shroud. Then 
with a amAil retiDUB of three priests, three deaconB, four 
moiilvH and forty-one laymen, Lc embarked on board a 
voititel, and sailed along the bnnka of the Rliine till he 
tnaiand Teaclied the shore of the ZuyJer Zee. In Friesland he 

was joined by Eoban, an old pupil, whom he had advanced 1 
to the see of Utrecht. Together they penetrated into East- 
I'riesland, and commenced tlieir labours. For a time all 
went well. The miasioiiaries were wcleoined by somo of 
the tribes, and were enabled to lay the fonndationa of 
several cburches'. Gladdened by the accession of many 
converts, they at lengtli reached the banks of the river 
Bordau, not far from the modern Dockingen, It was the 
month of June, and the festival of Whttstmday drew near, 
Boniface had dismissed many who had been admitted to 
baptism, bidding them return on the vigil of Whitstmdaj 
to receive the further lite of confiiination. On the morning 
of the appointed day, the fifth of June, the archbiahop 
could hear the noise of the advancing multitude. Bat 
when he looked out from his tent, the brandishing of spears 
and the clang of arms told only too plainly that they were 
coming for a very different purpose than that for which he 
^[Ij'g*"*^ had summoned them. The heathen tritea, enraged at the 
success of the daring missionary, had selected this day for 
a complete revenge. Some of the archbishop's retinae 
connselted resistance, and were already preparing to defend 
themselves, when he stepped forth from his tent and gave 
orders that no weapon should be uplifted, but that all 
should await the crown of martyrdom. " Let us not return 
evil for evil," said he : " the long-expected day has come, 
and the time of our departure is at hand. Strengthen ye 
yourselves in the liord, and He will redeem your souls, 
> y^a S. Bm^facii, Pctti, IL 349. Mignt^ P«tnlogi», ma, vin. 661. 

St Boniface and the Conversion of Germany. 205 

Be not afraid of those who can only kill the body, but put chap. ix. 
your trust in God, who will speedily give you His eternal ^^ ^^g 
reward, and an entrance into His heavenly kingdom.'* 
Calmed by his words, his followers bravely awaited the 
onset of their enemies. They were not long kept in sus- 
])en8e. Naturally embittered against the opponents of 
their ancestral faith, the heathens rushed upon them, and 
(juickly dispatched the little company, whom their leader 
had forbidden to lift a weapon in self-defence. Boniface, 
according to a tradition* preserved by a priest of Utrecht, 
when he saw that his hour was come, took a volume of the 
Gospels, and making it a pillow for his head, stretched 
forth his neck for the fatal blow, and in a few moments 
received his release. The heathens speedily ransacked the 
tents of the missionaries, but instead of the treasures they 
expected, found only the book-cases which Boniface had 
brought with him; these they rifled, scattering some of 
the volumes over the plain, and hiding others amongst the 
marshes, where they remained till they were recovered by 
the Christians, and removed to the monastery of Fulda, 
together with the remains of the great missionary. 

Thus at the ripe age of seventy-five' died the father of charaderiHia 
German Christian civilization. A Teuton by language 
and kindred, he had been the Apostle of Teutons, and his 
work had not been in vain. The Church, in which he had 
been trained, was not like those of Ireland, Gaul, or Spain, 
the sister and equal of that of Rome". It looked back to 
the day when forty monks, with Augustine at their head, 
landed on the shores of Kent, and no Church regarded with 
more filial affection the source of her light and life*. What 
Mecca is to the Arabian pilgrim, that to the Anglo-Saxon 
was the city where the fair-haired Saxon boys were first seen 

* Vita Bonifacii, Pertz, II. 351 n. Vita 8, Sturmii, Pertz, 11. 372. 

' On the date of Boniface's death ' Michelet's Ifittory of Franct, I. 

tae Mabillon, Ad, SS. Ben. ad ann. 73. Guizot's CivUuation^ ii. 174. 

; 55. On the removal of his remains, ^ See Ep, xi. Zacharise. Migne, 943. 


206 The Misstonarr/ History of the MiddU Agmii 

. by the large-hearted monk of St Andrew. And no\^ 
~ do Tve find a more signal instance of the reverential feelings 
with which his countrymen regarded the great Bishop of i 
the West than in the life of the native of Credlton. Com- | 
billing singular conscientiousness with earnest piety, daunt- i 
less zeal with practical enerj^y, he had been enabled to 
consolidate the work of earlier Irish and Anglo-Saxon 
missionaries ; he had revived the decaying energies of the 
Frankish Church ; he had restored to her the long dormant 
activity of the Ecclesiastical Council; he had covered Cen- 
tral and Western Germanywiththefirst necessary elements 
of civilisation. Sloiiastic seminaries, as Amoneburg and 
Ohrdruf, Fritzlar and Fulda, had risen amidst the Teutonic 
forests. Tiie sees of Salzburg and Freisingcn, of Regens- 
borg and Fassau testified to his care of the Church of Ba- 
varia ; the see of Erfurt told of labourB in Thuringia, that of 
Buraburg, in Hesse, that of Wnrzbnrg, in Franconia, while 
hie metropolitan see at Mentz, having jurisdiction over 
Worms and Spires, Tongrea, Cologne, and XTtrecht, was a 
eign that even before his death the German Church had 
already advanced beyond its first missionary stage. Well 
may Germany look back with gratitude to the holy Bene- 
dictine, and tell with joy the story of the monk of Nate- 
scelle. The roll of missionary heroes, since the days of the 
Apostles, can point to few more glorious names, to none, 
perhaps, that has added to the dominion of the Gospel, 
regions of greater extent or value, or that has exerted a 
more powerful influence on the history of the hamaa race. 
Id the monastery of Fttlda was exposed for ages, to hosts 
of pilgrims, the blood-stained copy of St Ambrose on the 
Advantage of Death, which the archbishop had brought 
with his shroud, to the shore of the Zuyder Zee, and the 
long-continued labours of many of his loving pupils and 
associates will prove that in his case, as always, "The 
blood of the martj^TS is the seed of the Church." 



A.D. 719—789. 


Itaque Willebados et Liudgerus contemplative vite operam dabaDt, ad* 
prime orantes pro gente Saxonum, ne jactum in eis semen verbi Dei 
inimicuB homo zizaniis oppleret, impletumque in eiB esset, quod Scrip- 
tura dicit, MuUum valH deprceaiio juiti eundua.**— Adamits Bremkkbib. 

During one of his earlier missionaiy journeys in Thu- chap. x. 
riugia and Hessia*, Boniface arrived on one occasion, in Td^tiq^ 
the year a.d. 719, at a nunnery near the city of Triers, on DitetjoUi of 
the banks of the Moselle, presided over by the Abbess Ad- 
dula. After service, the abbess and her guest repaired to 
the common hall, and, as was usually the case, a portion 
of Scripture was read during meal-time. The reader was 
Gregory, nephew of the abbess, a lad of fifteen who 
had lately returned from school. Boniface was pleased i. Grmv of 
with the way in which the boy read his Latin Vulgate, 
and proceeded to inquire whether he understood the pas- 
sage he had read. The boy, misunderstanding his ques- 
tion, read it a second time. " No, my son," replied the 
missionary, " that is not what I meant. I know you can 
read well enough, but can you render the passage into 
your own mother-tongue?" The boy confessed his in- 
ability, and thereupon Boniface himself translated it into 

^ See Acta SS, BoUand, Aug. 15. 


208 T/it Mis.tUttr^ IIi«k>r^ of the Middle Agea. 

German, and then made the passage the ground of & few 
~ woi-ds of eshortatlou to the whole company. 

We know neither what the passage was, nor what the , 
missionary ^id, but we do know what was uppcrnioat in bis 
mind, and can easily imagine that lie did not lose the op- 
porlunity of exhorting the inmates of the safe and secluded 
cloister, to prize the blessing they enjoyed in the know- 
ledge of a Saviour's love, and told them of the niuiy 
thousands in the foresls of Northern and Western Germany, 
Lone of their bone, and flesh of their flesh, who knew not 
the truth, and to whom it was his privilege to proclaim 
the word of life. We know, also, what was the effect 
of his earnest words. So deep was the impression made 
on the mind of the listening youth, that he was seized 
with an Duconqverable desire to accompany the preacher 
in his arduous journeys. In vain the abbess tried to dis- 
suade him from entrusting himself to an entire stranger. 
Nothing daunted, the boy persisted in his reijuest, till at 
length the abbess was fain to consent. 

Supplying him, therefore, with horses and attendants, 
she suffered him to depart and accompany his new-found 
friend. That friend he never forsook. He shared with 
him all his trials and dangers, and, in spite of poverty^ and 
privations of tlie most discouraging character, hs continued 
liis constant companion wherever he went. lie was with 
him when he went to Kome to obtain the approbation 
of the I^ope as a missionary in Thuringia, and brought 
back from the Holy City many copies of the Scriptures", 
in which, as his master's chief assistant, he taught the 

' "In fame, at iiudiU.te,atlmbori- illio kcqiiisivit, et ucam intle md 
biu multiB. In UnU p»npertat« profectuiu proprium, disci pulorum- 
imeneruDl populuni ilium, ot vii ibi 
iilliu hftberel unda viverBt, oiii de 
longioquu ponim quid coLigaret, at 
tul modicum tempui auateptarqt p*. 
ouriBUi luam." Acta SS. Aag. ij. 

* "Plura ToIuDiiiu noetirum 
ScHptunnim, brgi«Dt« Domino, 

domum. Et puero« duoa, cum 
nau nugiatri, in diaeipuUtom 
Buum, Muchelmum videlicet, et 
Hardunum gennanoi de gence An- 

glorunj, socum iiids »dduiit." ^ela 

EfforU of the DiacipUa of St Boniface. 209 

numerous candidates for the ministry whom Boniface had ohap. x. 
in training in his different monasteries. He was with him TbTtw! 
also during his last journey to Friesland, and on the death 
of Bishop Eoban, determined to take upon himself the 
direction of the mission in that country. As abbot of a 
monastery at Utrecht (for he did not aspire to the vacant 
bishopric), he received much encouragement in his noble 
designs from pope Stephen III. and king Pepin. Under 
his superintendence the monastery at Utrecht became a 
missionary college, where assembled youths from England, MitHonarp 
France, Friesland, Saxony, Suabia, and Bavaria*, whom utncht 
the abbot sought to send forth, after a suitable training, to 
emulate the zeal of his deceased master in the wilds of 
Frisia. In preparing them for their high duties, he was 
instant in season and out of season. He grudged no toil, 
he spared no pains. Early in the morning he might be 
found sitting in his cell waiting for such of his pupils as 
sought counsel or encouragement. One by one they would 
come to him, and received suitable advice according to 
their individual wants and peculiarities. While thus he 
himself superintended his missionary school, the want of 
a bishop was supplied by a friend and fellow-labourer, 
Alubert, who had come over from England, and whom he 
persuaded to return thither to receive episcopal consecra- 
tion. Alubert crossed over to his native land, accompa- 
nied by Sigibodus and Liudger, two other pupils of Gre- 
gory; and during the year they spent in England they 
enjoyed the society and instruction of the celebrated Alcuin, 
who was superintending his school at York". Thence they 

^ " Quidam eorum erant de nobili 
stirpe Francorum, quidam et de re- 
ligiosa gente Anglorura ; quidam et 
de novella Dei plantatione diebus 
nostris incboata, Freaonum et Sax- 
onam ; quidam autem et de Bava- 
riifl et Suevis, vol de quacunque na- 
tione et gente miaiaset eoB Deus.*' 

Vita S, Grtgorii. Acta SS, Aug, 15. 
Viia S. Liudgeri, Pertz, n. 407. 

• Vita S. Liudgeri, Pertz, n. 407. 
One of the aasiatants of Gregory in 
the miaaionary work in the neigh- 
bourhood of Utrecht waa " quidam 
preabiter aanctua de genere Anglo- 
rum nomine Liafwinus ;'* be had 

t A 

210 Tl,e MUsMiary Tlrglort/ of the Middle Ageui 

returned, and the new Lishop continued to assUt Grt 
" in preparing suitable missionaries amongst the Fruiuu, 

and ordained them when prepared to tliat high office. 
^ A pleasing instance of the way in which the abbot was 
enabled to adoni the doctrine of a Merciful and Crucified 
Redeemer amongst the heathen population ia recorded by 
his biographer. Two of Gregory's brothers were journey- 
ing into Gaul when thej' were waylaid by robbers and 
murdered. A pursuit of the murderers waB»Bet on foot, 
and on their capture they were dragged into the presence 
of Gregory, and it was thought likely to soothe the pang 
of sorrow at the loss of those so dear to him, if he should 
be allowed to select the kind of death the mnrderora 
should die. But the abbot persuaded the captors to euSer 
the banditti to be released, and having caused them to be 
furnished with clothe* and food, dismissed them with « 
suitable admonition. In labours of love like these, teach- 
ing and preaching, he persevered till be had reached bis 
Beventieth year. He was then seized with a paralysis of 
the left aide, which continued for three years. Daring 
this time he still strove to exhort and advise his scholars, 
dividing amongst them presents of books, one of which, 
the Enckiridton of St Augustine, his bi<^;rapher Liudger 
affectionately records as having been bestowed upon bim- 
self, and bidding all, amidst the toils and privations of 
their daily life, to think of those encouraging words of the 
Apostle, " Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hatli 
it entered into the heart of man to conceive the things 
that God hath prepared for them that love Him." At last 
his sufferings became so severe he could bear up no longer. 
Having saluted his successor, Albric, he ordered that he 
should be carried to the church, and placed at the door, 

come to Orcgor; BnnoiindDg "lib! 
a Domino terribiliter trin« adiiiani- 
tioDS fuiua prmccptum, ut Id oonfl' 

Efforts of the Disciples of St Boniface. 211 

in front and full view of the altar. There he prayed, and chap. x. 
having received the holy Supper, died in the midst of his ^^ 73^, 
disciples, who had gathered round his bed, uttering as his 
last words, ** To-day I have my release." 

Another eminent disciple of the great Apostle of Ger- sundqfFiOda, 
many was the Abbot Sturmi. He had been committed to 
the care of that eminent missionary by his parents, who 
were of noble descent, and natives of Bavaria, at the period ad. 738—8. 
that he was engaged in organizing the Church in that 
country. Boniface accepted the boy yriih joy, and on his 
arrival at Fritzlar, placed him in a monastery there, under 
the care of the abbot, Wigbert*. The latter undertook his 
education with alacrity, "taught him to repeat by heart the 
Psalms, then opened up to him the four Gospels, and bade 
him commit to memory large portions of the rest of the 
New, and also of the Old Testament'." The period of in- 
struction completed, Sturmi was consecrated priest, and for 
three years continued to assist Boniface in missionary work. 
Then with that intense desire to penetrate the profoundest 
solitudes which we have already so often noticed as pecu- 
liar to the missionaries of the Middle Ages, he longed to 
discover a more lonely retreat, and to found a monastery 
in the awful forest of Buchonia (Burchwald), which then 
covered a great portion of Hessia. Such a desire was no 
sooner communicated to Boniface than it met with his 
most cordial approval, and he saw that an opening was 
now possible towards converting that impassable forest into 
a cultivated country, and establishing another of his nu- 
merous monastic colonies in its midst. Two companions 

^ Mabillon, ActaSS. Ben. ill. 625. 

• The following course of instruc- 
tion as prep:iratory to missionary 
work at this period is interesting : 
**Psalinis tenaci memorise traditis, 
lection ibusque quam plurirais per- 
enni commemoratione firmatis, sa- 
cram coepit Christi puer scripturam 

spirituali intelligere senau, quatuor 
evangeliorum Christi mysteria stu- 
diosissime curavit addiscere, Novum 
quoque ac Vetus Testamentum, in 
quantum Bufficiebat, lectionis assi- 
duitate in cordis Bui tb^Baurum re- 
condere curavit.'* Vita S. StumU 
Abbatis, Pertz, u. 366. 


The Miseionarif History of the Middle Agee, ' 

I. were assigned to Sturnii, and before the three set OBt, 
Boniface solemnly commended them to the Lord', bidding 
them "go forth in Itia same, and seek a auitable habi- 
tation for His servants iu the wilderneas." 
1^ After wandering on for three daya they at length 
•"■ reached a spot, now called Ilerafelt, wliich seemed adapted 
to tlieir purpose. A portion of ground was cleared, a few 
small huta were constriicled of the bark of trees, and their 
new abode was consecrated with fasting and prayer. Sturmi, 
after a short stay, determined to return, and recount to tlie 
archbisLop all that had befallen them. lie told him exactly 
every particular respecting the situation, soil, watershed, 
and salubrity of their new abode'. The prudent Boniface 
would not immediately discourage his zealous disciple by 
telling him the spot was not suitable. He bade bim Btay 
with him and refresh himself awhile, and cheered bis apirits 
by reminding bim of the consolatory promises of Scripture, 
and the great cause they both had so much at heart. At 
length he told him pkinly the situation was not advan- 
tageous; it was too near the pagan Saxone, and might 
suffer from their wild incursions; he bade him, therefore, 
persevere and renew the search for a locality more remote 
and more secure. 

Again, therefore, Sturmi set forth, rejoined bis asso- 
(uates at Herefelt, informed them of the decision of 
Boniface, and persuaded them to renew the search. A 
second journey amidst the trackless forest was scarcely 
more successful. Id a boat the little band sailed up the 

' We have > ipecimaii of the 
tcDor of the prayer offered on such 
ui ocKuion in Vila 8. Stgaani, 

r>ted in Montolembert'i Manki of 
Wat^ II. 313 : " Lonl, who hut 
made hemven ud eartb, whn hearaat 
tiie prayer* of bim that comei to 
Tlee, ^m whom every good thing 
prooeedi, and without whom alt the 
idorti of humau weaJuuM ara vaia. 

if Thoaordaincetmeto eetabUah my- 
self in thig solitude, make it Itnown 
to me, and lead to a fftoA inue the 
bcginniDg which Thou haat alreailjr 
granted to my devotiou." 

■ "Eiqne ot loci poaitionem et 
terne qualitatem, et aqu» decursum, 
et fontee et valle*. et amoia qua: ad 
locum peitinebaiit, per onlincm ex- 
poiuiC" Pert^ U. 367. 

Efaris of the Disciples of St Bon\fuce. 213 


river Fulda, and observed several spots which seemed chap. x. 
adapted to their purpose, but none presented the precise ^~^, 
qualifications which Boniface required. Ketuming to 
Hersfelt they found a messenger from the archbishop, 
summoning Sturmi to meet him at Fritzlar. The faithful 
monk straightway obeyed, and recoimted to him the boot- 
less result of the second expedition. But Boniface still 
encouraged him to make another attempt. "A place," 
said he, with the air of a prophet, " is prepared for us 
in the forest : whensoever it be the will of Christ, He will 
shew it to His servants; therefore desist not from thy 
inquiries, be assured that without doubt thou wilt discover 
it there'." 

After a short interval of refreshment and repose, Sturmi, DUeoveryofihe 
not doubting but what the bishop said would come to pass, 
saddled his ass, and again, undeterred by previous failures, 
determined to prosecute the search. This time he went 
alone. Against the wild beasts he protected himself in the 
day-time by chanting hymns and prayers, and in the night- 
time he cut down with a sword branches from the trees, 
signed himself with the sign of the Cross, and commended 
himself to the divine protection. Thus secure he made his 
way under the huge oak-groves, where the foot of man had 
never trod, till on the fourth day, guided by a forester, he 
reached a spot on the banks of the Fulda which seemed to 
combine all the advantages of situation, salubrity, and 
seclusion which Boniface required'. CareftiUy he examined 
and re-examined the situation: every hill, every valley, 
every spring was duly noted, and then he returned, and after 

» TUa S. Sturmi, Pertz, n. 368. 

■ ** Avid us locorum exploratop 
ubtque sa^aci obtutu montuosa atque 
pi Ana perluBtrans loca, monies quo< 
que et colles vallesque aspiciens, 
fontes et torrentes atque fluvios 
<oonmderan8, pergebat." On disoo- 
yering the spot^ *'quanto longius et 

latiuB gradiebatur, tanto amplius 
gratulabatur. Cumque ibi loci pnU 
chritudine delectatus, non modicum 
diei Bpatium gyrando et ezplorando 
exegisset, benedioto looo et diligenter 
■ignato, gaudens inde profectna eat" 
T^ S, Stwrmi, Perts, n. 369. 

.214 The Muai»iiMrs Bubirf ^ ^ iBifk 4t<»* 

CHAP. X. communicating the jojfbl news to the In^^ueB wiMr^iiip 
^^744. prajing for his success at Hersfelt, be passed on ssideomj^ 
out the archbbhop, to whom he xeeounted the ciieaaisliMpi 
of his diird expedition, and his own belief that the loiig4t* 
sired locality had at last been fionnd. B9oifiney oyegqwit 
listened eagerly to eveiy detail, and at last annaonoed.tbilt 
mjkmHfaceUo9\i^ was Satisfied. Shortlj afterwards he repaired to iSm 
^oMaii. court of Carloman, and preTailed upon him to grant him 

the spot with a demesne extending fonr miles each yny\ 
Sturmi, with the grant thus ratified, was directed to tidEB 
with him seven brethreni and commence the foundations of 
JL9.744. the monastery. Thither also Boni&ce himself rcpairad 
with several of the brethren, and watched the felling of the 
trees, and the clearing of the ground, wiA the same feeling 
of interest and delight which many of our Colonial Bishops 
have described at seeing the walls of some church rising 
in the backwoods of Canada or the valleys of New Zea- 
land. Thus was founded the monastery of Fulda. No 
other of his many conventual houses did Boniface regard 
with such deep affection. Not only did be obtain the site 
from Carloman, but he exempted it from the spiritual 
supervision of the bishops, and subjected it solely to the 
TheJMeqf Pope. Appointing Sttumi its first abbot, he dispatched 
him into Italy to inspect all the monastic houses, especially 
that of the Benedictines at Monte Cassino, that they 
might be reproduced at Fulda. By the wish, however, of 
the founder, the rule of Fulda was made more rigid even 
than that of St Benedict^. It was directed that the bre- 
thren should never eat flesh, that their strongest drink 
shoiild be a thin beer, that they should have no serfs, but 

^ Pertz, n. 370. tinentuBy absque carne et vino, 

' " ConsenBU omniam deoreiom absque sicera et servisi proprio ma- 

est, ut apud Ulos nulla potio fortis nuum suarum labore contentos.'* 

que iuebriare possit, sed tenuis cere- Ep, Bon. Lxxv. For the accurate 

visia biberetur." Vita 8, Sturmi^ description of the site of Fulda, see 

Pert^ u. 571. ''Yirot strlote abs* £on\facii Ep. ttvi. 


Efforts of the DUdplea of 8t Bonifnce. 215 

should subsist entirely by the labour of their own hands. So ohap x. 
popular did the new monastery become, especially after the a.©. 744-768. 
remains of the great Apostle of Germany had been trans- 
ferred thither, that numbers even more than it could con- 
tain sought to be received within its walls. Sturmi is said 
to have directed the labours of upwards of four thousand 
monks, who gladly submitted to his paternal rule, and 
employed themselves in clearing the land, and reducing the 
wilderness to cultivation, or preparing themselves for mis- 
sionary labour amongst their Teutonic brethren. The life 
of the good abbot was not without its troubles. The ex- 
emption Boniface had procured for his favourite institution 
from episcopal supervision provoked the jealousy of his 
successor archbishop Lull, and brought about the banish- 
ment of Sturmi from the monastery, and his temporary dis- 
grace at the court of Pepin. But the clouds cleared away ; 
Sturmi was restored, and he lived to a good old age, super- 
intending the labours of his numerous brethren, erecting 
churches, and adorning and beautifying his favourite retreat. 

With the accession of Charlemame he was constrained Aeee$»um<^ 
to take part in other methods of winning over the heathen 
Saxons^ to the Christian faith than those which his own 
conscience approved, or the spirit of his creed sanctioned. In 
the year 772, memorable for the destruction of the Irmin- a.©. 772. 
Saule, commenced the first of the many wars of Charlemagne 
against the Saxon race*. Conscious that on their subjuga- wanwuhou 
tion depended not only his own security', but that of Europe 

' In the year a.d. 771, Charle- 
magne took Eresburg, a strong for- 
tress on the Drimel, and thence ad- 
vanced to ''a kind of religious ca- 
pital, either of the whole Saxon na- 
tion, or at least of the more consi- 
derable tribes," near the source of 
the Lippe, where was the celebrated 
idol, the Irmin-Saule, which Char- 
lemagne destroyed. Milman*8 Latin 
ChrUtianity, U. 383. 

' *'The Saxon race now occupied 
the whole North of G^ermany, from 
the Baltic along the whole Eastern 
frontier of the Frankish kingdom, 
and were divided into three leading 
tribes, the Ostphalians, the West- 
phalians, and the Angarians.*' Mil- 
man's Latin CkritUanity, IL 3S1. 

' I. The ancient antipathy of the 
race, 3. the growing tendency to 
dviliied habits among the Franks, 

216 The MUsvmarif IlUtory of tU Uit2dle Age$. 

OHAP. s, also, that monarch dctoi-mincd at all risks to brealE their 
"^•fli, spirit, to roll back the tide of barbariau ag^ressioB, Vs 
penetrate their bleak and unknowTi worid, to seek ttan 
oitt amidst their cndJcss forests, and wide heaths, and 
trackless swamps, and lo erect there the Christian Church 
and the monastic seminary. Strange methods were now 
resorted to for the purpose of winning over the ferodoos 
».». 778- Saxon to the new faith. On one occasion the abbot of 
Fulda was awnmoned to join the emperor, who, anxious lo 
conquer tlie wild race, and to force them to accept tbc 
yoke of civilization, after consulting his clergy, had assem- 
bled a great army, and invoking the name of Christ, set 
out for Saxony', "attended," saya the biographer of 
Sturmi, " by a numerous retinue of priests, abbots, and 
orthodox adherents of the true faith, in order to indnce a 
nation, which from the beginning of the world had beea 
tied and bound with the chains of deemone, to believe tlie 
Bacred doctrines and submit to the light and easy yoke ti 
Christ. And on his arrival in their country, partly by 
war, partly by persuasion, partly by gifts, he won ot» 
the race to the faith, and dividing their land into dioceaes, 
handed over the popuUtion to the spiritual inatrnctioiiB of 
his clergy." 

Sturmi now found full employment for all his energies. 
The greater portion of the conquered race, who had felt 
the edge of Charlemagne's aword, and witnessed the de- 

run'i onlj method of oomtnniiiff 
libertj wich ponenjon of land." 
No vender *)» tbtv balod the oo- 
alaiiuticKl iTitem of the conquaror, 
for " witli the Chuioh cuae churohea. 

were, aocordinK to Michdet, ' 
chief cauaea of tLeae -vtn, I^UI 

oiSDt (o Bcoonnt for (ha conflict. 
"It VM that which makea (he Red 
lodian poouve an eoamj in the 
Anf^AlDCirioan, and (he Anrtra- 
Han WTa^ in the Engliihman. The 
Bazona, m thur deep fortttM and 
acaDtUy-culUTated plaiui, could not 
bear fixed bonodariei of land. 'Hieir 
gai» wH Indefinite; the auatiu wai 
oartaiDj it aniuhilat«d the barb*' 

and fbrtowna a 

nuuiatta^, and for 
and (he meaoi «f 
Hallam'i MUdU 

**, 8«if>L notM^ p. 35. HMttltH, 


' 7iU 3. Shtrmi, Pert^ □. 37^. 

Efarta of the Disciples of 8t Boniface. 217 

strnction of the great object of their adchration, the Irmin- chap. x. 
Saule, were committed to his care. Aided by the numerous ^^ ^^ 
brethren of Fdda he girded himself for the diflBcult task, 
proclaimed the futility of their idolatrous worship, exhorted 
them to destroy their temples, to cut down their groves, and 
to embrace the faith. His exertions were rewarded with 
partial success. Many of the vanquished Saxons, making 
V virtue of necessity, accepted the ritual of their conquerors, 
md were, with but little discrimination, immersed in, or 
sprinkled with the regenerating waters. But a rebellion 
broke out in 778. The Saxons burst in numbers into the a.©. 778. 
territory of Fulda, determined to bum the monastery with jr^,^ 
fire, and destroy the enemies of their national faith \ The 
abbot was informed of their design, and determined to seek 
safety in flight. The coffin of the Apostle of Grermany 
was hastily exhumed, and the brethren set forth from their 
retreat. They had not proceeded far when they heard that 
the tide had turned, and the Saxons been driven back. 
Charlemagne had flown to the rescue, and advanced his ad. 779. 
forces as far as the Weser. But Sturmi, who had been far . 
from well when obliged to fly, sickened rapidly after his 
return to the monastery. In vain the emperor sent him 
his own physician Wintar. A mistake was made in his sturmct death. 
prescriptions, and the sufierings of his patient were only in- 
creased. Perceiving that his end was nigh, the abbot bade 
all the bells to be rung, and the brethren to assemble round 
his bed". They came, and he begged them all to forgive 
him if any had aught against him, and declared that he for 
his part forgave all, even his old enemy archbishop Lull. 
The next day he sunk rapidly, and as the brethren stood 
round his bed, " Father," said one, " we doubt not thou 
art about to depart hence and to be with the Lord, we be- 

* Vita S. Sturmiy Perte, n. 376. pariter moveri impenyit^ et fratri- 

* ** Currere citiiis ad ecclesiam bua oongregatis obitum suum nun- 
jabet, omnes gloggas (campanas) taare prsoepit." Perts, 11. 377. 

218 The Misatonari/ Ifiittori/ of the Middle Ages. I 

CHAP. X. Beech thee, therefore, that in the kingdom of heaven v 
io. 77B, ^''^ remember us, and pray uiito the Lord in behalf of thy 
servants, for sure we are that the prayera of such an advo- 
cate will avail na much," "Shew yourselves worthy," 
was the answer of the dying abbot, " that I should pray for 
you, and I will do as yc teqaire." With theac words he . 
expired on the 17th of December, 779. 
B^ttifOie AVhila the abbot waa thas peacefully breathing forth 

ou Miu.mury liis life in the monastery of Fulda, the storm of war was 
raging without through the length and breadth of the 
Saxon territory. In 779 the great Carl chased his inde- 
fatigable enemies to the Weser, in the following year he 
ndvunced aa far as the Elbe. In the midst of the constant ^ 
din of arms, the marching and countermarching of troops, 
the baming of monaetariea and churches, it is not surpris- 
ing that even missionaries were tempted to forget that 
" the weapons of their warfere " were " not carnal," and at 
times appealed to other feelings than those of faith and 
Et UM». love. One of these, Lebuin', a man of intrepid zeal, had 
come over from England, and built him an oratory on 
the bants of the Ysell. Here, encouraged by the advice 
and cottntensnce of Gregory the abbot of Utrecht, he con- 
tinued to exhort the pagan Saxons to forsake their idolatry, 
and by the ruggedneee of his life he charmed many even of 
the martial chiefs. But the anger of the tribes was exuted, 
they rose in arms and burnt his oratory to the gronnd. 
1.1. TT6. Nothing daimted, he determined to go forth and confront 
the whole nation at th^r approaching assembly* on the- 
Weser. Arraying himself in his full clerical dress, with 
an uplifted Cross in one hand, and a volume of the Gospels 

I 8m Viia S. LOuiiii, Pert^ n. ««nm, at bcvni, UarUo niuion- 

361. utum, sleroabuit gaiienda eonoi- 

* "3t»tuto tempore aimi annaA iium, traotuitei, untdeDtai, «t pro. 

ex nnguUi JAgu, fttque ex iiidem paUutM ccmniaDii Dommoilk utlQi- 

ordiDibiu tnpHtiCu, iiiigillxtdm nri tatis, joxta plocituin k w itatotn 

duod«dm eUoti, st id anum ooUec'.i, iapM." Vila 8. Ltlmimi, ,Part^ n, 

in DMdik SHoni* Honi flnmon Wl- 3611. 

Efforts cf the DiscipUi of St Boniface. 219 

in the other, he presented himself to the astonished Saxons, chap. x. 

as they were engaged in solemn sacrifice to their national a.d. 776. 
gods. "Hearken unto me," he thundered forth, "and 
not indeed to me, but unto Him that speaketh bj me. I 
declare unto jou the commands of Him whom all things 
serve and obey." Struck dumb with astonishment i)iQ HUhoidaddrai 
warriors listened, as he went on*, " Hearken, all ye, and cvumuf^ 
know that God is the Creator of heaven and earth, the sea, 
and all things that there are therein. He is the one only 
and true God. He made us, and not we ourselves, nor is 
there any other than He. The images, which ye call a.d. 772-770. 
gods, and which, beguiled by the devil, ye worship, what 
are they but gold, or silver, or brass, or stone, or wood ? 
They neither live, nor move, nor feel ; they are but the 
work of men's hands, they can neither help themselves nor 
any one else. God the only good and righteous Being, 
whose mercy and truth remain for ever, moved with pity 
that ye should be thus seduced by the errors of daemons, 
has charged me as His ambassador to beseech you to lay 
aside your old errors, and to turn with sincere and true 
faith to Him by whose goodness ye were created, and in 
whom we live and move and have our being. If ye will 
acknowledge Him, and repent, and be baptized, in the 
name of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, and will 
keep His commandments, then will He preserve you from 
all evil. He will vouchsafe unto you the blessings of peace, 
and in the world to come, life everlasting. But if ye de- 
spise and reject His counsels, and persist in your present 
errors, know that ye will sufier terrible punishment for 
scorning His merciful warning. Behold, I, His am- 
bassador, declare unto you the sentence which has gone 
forth from His mouth, and which cannot change. If ye do 
not obey His commands, then will sudden destruction come 
upon you. For the King of kings and Lord of lords , 

^ Vita S. LebuirU, Veit^ n. 362. 

220 The Miaatomrj/ Uklory of the Middle Agea. ^PH 

p, X, Iiath appointed a brave, prudent, and terrible prince, who I 
~_ 18 not afar off, but nigh at hand. He, like a swift and 
roaring torrent, will burst upon you, and Hubdue the fero- 
city of your hearts, and eruab your stiffnecked obstinacy. 
He shall invade your land with a mighty host, and ravage 
it with fire and sword, desolation, and destruction. Ab the 
avenging wrath of that God, whom ye have ever provoked, 
he shall alay some of yoa with the sword, some he shall 
cause to waste away in poverty and want, some he shall 
lead into perpetual captivity; your wives and children he 
shall sell into slavery, and the residue of you he will reduce 
to ignominious subjection, that in you may justly be fulfilled 
what has long since been predicted, " They were made a 
handful and scattered, atid tormented with the tribulation 
and angnish of the wicked*." 
oeaft The effect of these last words can easily be imagined. 
The warriors, who had listened at first with awe-atmck 
reverence, were seized with ungovemable fury. " Here is 
that seducer," they cried with one voice, " that enemy of 
our sacred rites, and our country ; away with him firom the 
earth, and let him suffer the just punishment of his 
crimes." The whole assembly was in a ferment. Stakes 
were cat from the adjoining thickets, stones were taken up, 
and the danntless missionary would have atoned for his 
temerity with his life, had it not been for the intervention 
of an aged chief, named Buto, who, standing on an eminence, 
addressed the excited throng : " Men and heroes all, listen 
unto my words. Many a time have ambassadors come to 
' US &om the Normans, the Slaves, and the FHsons ; as is 
onr custom, we have listened diligently to their words, 
received them in peace, and dismissed them to their homes 
loaded with suitable presents. But now an ambassador of 

1 "trt da vobii JMndndnin jure Uoat maivnm it dolort." 'Pttta, 
pisdictum Tideri pout: A (xwei u. 363. 
fiuli tutit, tt •nafi «iMt a Iribiki- 

EffartB of the Disciples of 8t Boniface. 221 

God Sapreme, who has announced to us words of life and ghap. x. 
eternal salvation, hath not only been despised, but struck ^~^^^ 
and stoned, and almost deprived of life. That the God 
who sent him hither is great and powerful is plain from the 
fact that He has delivered His servant out of our hands. 
Be assured, then, that what He hath threatened will cer- 
tainly come to pass, and those judgments He has de- 
nounced will come upon us from a God whom we see to 
be so great and powerfiJ." 

With these words the old man calmed the storm, and ThespMiafhu 
so Lebuin escaped, nor did any seek his life. The spirit, <!rt*<iMi«. 
however, which breathes through his address to the heathen 
warriors, — and for this reason we bring it forward at this 
point, — ^illustrates the spirit of the Emperor, the spirit of a.d. 780— 7S5. 
the times. The Saxons were looked upon as barbarians 
and heathens, with whom no treaties could be maintained. 
The exigencies of the age made Charlemagne a Maho- 
metan Apostle of the Gospel*. While his soldiers fought 
against their idolatrous foes, threw down their temples, cut 
down their groves, the priests followed in the wake of the 
armies. The reception of baptism was the symbol of peace ; 
refusal of the rite the symptom of disaffection, and the signal 
of war. In vain men like Alcuin protested against the pmeH* qf 
monarch's plan for securing at once the subjection and the 
conversion of the Saxons ; in vain he exhorted him to call 
to mind the example of the Apostles and their Divine Mas- 
ter in the propagation of the Gospel. " No man putteth 
new wine into old bottles," says he in one of his letters, 
quoting the words of Christ; "you might hence be led to 
consider whether it was well done to impose on a rude 
people at their first conversion the yoke of tithes. Did 
the Apostles, who were sent out to preach by the Lord 
Himself, require tithes, or anywhere prescribe that they 

1 836 Hallam's Middle Ages, I. 9. Milmaii*M LaUn Chri$Uanity, n. 

232 The JtSuimay .SikM^^^'tib JflSAa .^. 

oBAr. X. should be exacted?" Again, in another letter to Arno, 
^^TSO-TSS. arehbiflhop of Salzburg, he asks, " Of what use is baptism 
withoat faith t The Apoatle saya, ' without faith it is im- 
poBBible to please God,' It ia because they have never 
had the pripcipli; of faith in their hearts that the wretched 
people of SaXDiiy hare so often abused the sacrament of 
baptism. Faith, om St Augustine says, is a matter of free- 
will, and not of compulsion. How can a man be forced 
to believe what lie dot-a not believe? A man may, indeed, 
be forced to baptism, but not to faith." 
S^ESl His protcBts, however, did not receive the attention they 

deserved. Charlemagne persisted in his policy. Death 
was denotinced as the penally for neglecting baptism, or 
resorting to secret idolatry ; the same penalty was threat- 
ened against homing churches, neglecting fasts, burning 
the dead according to heathen costoma, or oBering human 
sacrifices. Still side by side with this short-sighted policy, 
which could not fail to promote the commingling of 
Christian and heathen elements, other and better agencies 
were at work. The disciples whom Boniface had trained 
did not fail to walk in the steps of their master, and la- 
boured not only to uproot idolatry, but to plant the truth 
which should absorb heathen error, building schools and 
monasteries, erecting churches, and thus laying the beat 
and surest foundations for the future. 

The abbey of Utrecht, under the presidency of the de- 
voted Gregory, had sent forth many noble labourers into the 
mission-field, and many more had come over from England 
to take their share in the good work, and to spread the 
stumtffo: knowledge of the truth. One of the most eminent of 
these, and to whom allusion has already been made, was 
Liudgcr, the grandson of Wursing, a Frisian chief, and 
firm friend of Willibrord'. The seeds of early piety had 
been quickened within hitn in the school of Utrecht, 

> Bee kbove, CbMpbet Vill. p, 1 73 «. 

Efforts of the I>i8Ciple8 of St Boniface. 223 

and Lis knowledge had been still further extended in chap. x. 
that of Alcuin at York, whither Gregory, as we have TTroo— 785- 
8een\ had sent him with his coadjutor Alubert. He 
returned after an interval of three years and six months ; 
well supplied with books, and well instructed, he com- 
menced his missionary labours in the region where Boniface 
had met with his death, assisting Albric, the successor of 
Gregory, who was consecrated bishop of Cologne. His 
exertions, however, had not continued more than seven 
years, when thay were rudely cut short by a rebellion of 
the Saxons, who rose in 780, under their leader Wittekind, 
and ravaged the country from Cologne to Coblentz. Albric 
died, and from the sight of burning churches and exiled 
clergy Liudger betook himself with two companions to 
Rome, and thence to the abbey of Monte Cassino, to study 
the monastic rule of St Benedict. Returning in 785 he a» 785. 
found that peace had been restored, and that the Saxon 
chief Wittekind had submitted to baptism. His arrival wutMnd. 
becoming known to the emperor, the latter assigned him 
a sphere of labour among the Frisians in the neighbour- 
hood of Groningen and Norden'. 

Not content with the area marked out for him, Liudger ail^lSSHd!^ 
•xtended his anxieties to Fositesland, famous, as we 
have seen, in the- life Willibrord*. His biographer tells 
us that, as he sailed to the island, holding the Cross in 
his hand, a dark mist appeared to the sailors to roll oflf 
the shore, followed by a bright calm. Interpreting this 
as an omen of good success, Liudger landed, preached the 
Word, and destroyed the temples, erecting churches in their 
stead. Many listened to liis message and were baptized 

* The occanon of his return is 
thus related: ''£gredientibuscivibu8 
illis ad b^llum contra inimicos ruos, 
(i. e. at York), contigit, ut, per rixam 
interficeretur filius cujusdam comitis 
ipsius provinciffi a Fresone quodom 
negotiatore^ et idcirco Fres ones festi- 

naverant egredi de regione Anglo- 
rum, timentes iram propinquorutn 
interfecti juvenis." Vita S, Liud- 
geriy cap. ii. 

• Vila S. Liitdgeii, Pertz, n. 410. 

* See Chapter ix. p. 17a. 

22-i The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

in the waters of the very fountain in whicli WilHbrord, 
~at BO much riak, Lad baptized three of the islanders on a 
former occasion. A son also of one of the chiefs embraced 
the faith, was baptized, and became a teacher of the Fri- 
sians, and the founder of a monastery. After the com- 
plete subjugation of the Saxons, Liudger was directed by 
the emperor to repair to the district of MUnster, Here 
he erected a monaatery, travelled over the district with I 
untlagging energy, instructed the barbarous tribes, and j 
appointed priests to take charge of them. After many \ 
refui^als be wa.^ at last induced by Hildebold, archbishop 
of Cologne, to accept the episcopal dignity; but he did not ' 
cease to carry on as strenuously as ever his missionary 
work, and even longed to undertake a mission to the wild 
Normans; this, however, the emperor would not allow, 
and he waa fain to remun in his own diocese, where 
he did not cease to labour till the day of his death, in 809. 
On this day, afler preaching to two different congregatiotiB 
in the morning at Cosfeld, and celebrating the sacrament 
of the Lord's Supper in the afternoon at Billerbeck, he 
bade farewell to the sheep for whom he had so long 
laboured, and entered into his rest'. 

Another eminent missionary, and during part of hia 
life a contemporary of Liudger, waa Willehad, a native 
of Northumbria', who was induced to leave his cooatry 
and join the band of miaaionaries, commencing, like 
Liudger, in the district where Boniface su£^red. Remov- 
ing thence to the district of G-rBningen, he found himself 
in the midst of a population still fanatically addicted to 
paganism. Undeterred by the enmity he waa too likely 

' "IpM Tcro die dominioo, cam 
in Buljseqiienti nocta de hoc mimdo 
eatet iturua ad Dominum, qiuuu vi]«- 
facisQB croditiii >lfai ovibiu m duttbQi 
■uia eccleciii pablioe pnedickvit, 
tDM«Kilioe(iiiwoaq ' ' " " 


felt, ouente prabjUro minun, «t 
ciro horktn tertUm in loco tiuQoa* 
psto BiUurbike." Vita S. Undgeri, 

Efforts of the Disciples of 8t Boniface. 225 

to arouse, he persevered in delivering his message, de- chap. x. 
claimed against the futility of the national worship, and ^[^Ttto! 
urged them to embrace the true faith. The wrath of the 
people burst forth, they gnashed with their teeth at the 
contemner of their gods, and declared him worthy of death. 
One of the chiefs urged caution before proceeding to such an 
extremity : " this faith," said he, " is new to us, and as yet 
we know not whether it be offered to us by some deity ; 
the preacher is not guilty of any crime ; let him not, then, 
be put to death, but let us cast lots, and ascertain what is 
the will of heaven respecting him, whether he ought to 
live or die." The people consented, and the lots were cast, ij^l^ 
The decision was in his favour, and he was sent away in 
safety, and was enabled to prosecute his labours in the 
region of Drenthe. All went well for some time ; the peo- 
ple listened to the intrepid preacher; and not a few em- 
braced the doctrines he taught them. At last some of his 
companions, in the spirit of Columbanus and Gallus, began 
to attack the objects of native worship. A riot ensued, 
and Willehad was set upon with clubs, and severely 
wounded. One of his assailants drew his sword, but the 
blow, which was intended to have cleft his skull, only 
severed the thong which fastened the box of relics that 
he carried. Even the pagans interpreted this as a favourable 
omen, and he was suffered to depart. 

Charlemagne, who had just returned from an expedition w^^£! 
against his old enemies, the Saxons, now proposed that he 
should labour amongst the people in the district of Wig- 
modia, and raise up amongst them an outpost of Christian 
civilization. The intrepid man eagerly accepted the ardu- 
ous task, settled down amongst the people, and, for a space 
of two years, saw in the adhesion, whether feigned or real, 
of the natives to the new faith, some reward of his labours. 
But the rebellion of Wittekind in 782 roused all the old 
animosity, the churches fell, several of the clergy were 

226 The Mtssiojiary ITistory of the Middle Ages. \ 

murdered', aud Willehad was constrained to fly for liia life. 
~ An interval of rest was now afforded liim, and he turned 
it to account by viaiting Rome, and obtained an interview 
with the Pope. Ketuming through France, be took up 
his abode in a convent founded by Willibrord at Epteraach. 
Hero he gathered together bis scattered scholars, and spent 
two years in the quiet study of the Scriptures, tranacribing 
the Epistles of St Paul into a single volume*, and edifying 
many by the consistency and holiness of bis life and coq- 
versation. Again, however, he was called forth from bis 
seclusion by the Emperor, and bidden lo revisit bis former 
sphere of labour*. The ckurchca which had been destroyed 
duiiug tlie Saxon rising were rebuilt, and approved clorgy 
Stationed in all places where the people appeared wiiling 
to receive the Word. The land enjoyed a still longer period 
of rest oa the baptism of Wittekind, and Charlemagne, 
judging it a fit opportunity to found an episcopal diocese, 
caused Willehad to be consecrated the first bishop of 
Eastern Frisia and Saxony*. He had no sooner been 
raised to this new dignity than he commenced a general 
visitation of his diocese, preaching the Word where as yet 
it had not been beard, and confirming all that had been 
Ijaptized. Ha also erected and consecrated with no little 
pomp a cathedral church at Bremen. But be had presided 
over his diocese little more than two years, when a fever, 
caught during one of his numerous visitation journeys, laid 
him on his deathbed near Blexem on the Weser. Kound 
Ilia bed gathered the many scholars he had trained and 

> "Folcardum preabjtenim cum 
Emmiggo camite iu pago denotBi- 
nato LSri, BeoUmin autem in Ubhri- 
nstri, AtreboDum vgro clericum \a 
Tbutmueagaho, OArvaluDi quo- 
qua cum tociU mili in Bremk, odia 
nominii ChrutiaiiJ, gladio penaw- 
runt." Vita S. WUUhadi, c»p. 6. 

* LoDg praMrred u a pr«cioiu le- 
He b; ■oocMding biihopi «t BreoMii. 

* GiTlng Ii 

became luoal 
of tbe duimr 
kttandiiiK miedoouy enterprue 
amoDS Ue Suiodb, ''pro coiuoU- 
tione laboru ac pnendio aubiequaii- 
tiuro ejus, in MneGtiuui quiuidam 
««lliun in Fruitia, qiue appidlAtur 
Jiutina." Ibid. c^. 8. 
* Adam. Brem. L IJ. 

Efforts of the Disciples of St Boniface. 227 

with whom he had shared so many perils. To their mourn- chap. x. 
fill regrets at the prospect of being so soon parted from j^^. 787. 
their master and friend*, he replied in words which ex- 
pressed not only his own feelings, but those, doubtless, of 
many then toiling in the arduous Saxon mission-field; 
" O seek not any longer to detain me from the presence otBUdecuh. 
my Lord ; suffer me to be released from the trials of this 
troublesome world. I have no desire to live any longer, 
and I fear not to die. I will only beseech my Lord, whom 
I have striven to love with my whole heart, that He will 
deign to give me such a reward for my labour as He in 
His mercy may see fit. The sheep which He entrusted to 
me, I again commit to His care. If I have done anything 
that is good, it has been done through His strength. His 
goodness will never fail you, for the whole earth is full of 
His mercy'." With these words he expired on the 8th of 
November, 789, and was buried in his own cathedral at ad. 789. 

Three years after his death the long struggle between 
Charlemagne and the Saxons, between civilization and 
heathenism, came to a close. For thirty-one years that 
monarch had persevered in his policy of subjugating his 
restless foes, and now he had his reward. Slowly but 
steadily the wave of conquest had extended into the 
unknown Saxon world, from the Drimel to the Lippe, 
from the Weser to the Elbe, and thence to the sea, the 
limit of the Saxon dominion. Peace and rebellion, the re- 

1 '' A primffivis temporibas magna 
yir iflte fuit continentiae, ac devote 
Domino omnipotenti ab ineunte ser- 
vivit state. Vinum et siceram, ao 
omne unde inebriari potest non bibit. 
JEiOCtk autem ejus erat pania et mel, 
liolera et poma. Namque ab esu 
camium, a lacte et piscibus tempera- 
bat. Died quod memoratus *apo8toli- 
CU8 Adrianus, ei jam in noviasimo 
propter yaletudines quae in corpore 

tolerabat frequentes, quo piscem 
comederet, prsecepit." Vita S, WU^ 
Uhadi, cap. o. 

» Vita if. WUlekadi Pertz, ii. 384. 
One of his pupils Willerio, presided 
aa bishop of Bremen from the year 
789 to 838, and carried on with no- 
table zeal the missionary work in 
Transalbingia. See Adam. Brem. 
I. 15. Wiltsch, Geog. and SUUUUci 
of the Church, u 387, E. T. 


22S The MieBionai-y Uistory nf the Middle Ages. ^H 
CHAP. X. ccption of Laptism and the bnniiiig of Christian churches. 

"had marked the successive alternations of the bloody strife, 
and at last, wearied witli tlie ceaseless din of war, the 
Saxons were fain to acknowledge that Civilization had 
conquered. Cruel as may have l>een some of the expe- 
dients to which the victor resorted in gaining his end, he 
followed up hia conquests by nieaaures which command 
onr respect. Hia eight bishoprics' of Osuaburg, Bremen, 
Jliinster, Mindcn, Halberstadt, Paderbom. Verden, and 
D 780— BOB- Hiidcsheim, with many monasteries, which he richly en- 
dowed, were so many " great religious colonlesV' whcnco 
the blessinjrs of Clirlstianity and civilization might spread 
in ever-widening circles. It may, indeed, be said that he 
exalted the Church to a dangerous elevation; bat while she 
possessed a monopoly of the knowledge of the age, it was 
inevitable, for nowhere else could either the means or the 
men be found to exert a beneficial mfiuence on the half- 
civilized masses he had subdued. Now that the great 
fabric of the Carlovingian Empire has passed away, we 
may smile at his Capitularies, his "Fields of May," hia 
" Missi Dominici ;" bat it is difficult to see how the wild 
vrorld of the ninth century could have been lifted out of 
the slough of barbarism, or the isolated efforts of a Sturmi, 
a Willehad, or a Liudger, could have bronght^forth any 
fruit to perfection, without the rare energy and skill of this 
great monarch. For the dark shadow of his private life, 
and the cruelty of some of his campaigns', may be pleaded 
as some atonement "the huge Dom-Minsters" which look 
into the waters of the Ithine, and the Schools where AI- 
cuin from England, and Clement* from Ireland, and Peter 
of Pisa, and Paulinus of Aquitaine, and many others, kept 
alive the torch of learning, and handed it on to others. 

^ Wiltach's Geography md SUi- * Hilniui, IT. tSj. 

tiUkt of tie Church, I. 37J, and • Patgnn'a JVormaiirfjr, r, t6. 

doMb. The fmuidBtkiii of theaa bi- Kr J. Stophm'i Leetartt, i. 96. 

■boprici exlaud* fawn 780 — Sos. * Laoigu, m. 408. 



A.D. 800—1011. 

" O nun Dei Omnipoteiiljai provid«nld& de vocfttiane gmtiiun, quun dii- 
punit tuUTex, ut Tult, et quando vult, et p«r quern vult. Eoce quod 
loDgo priua temporu Willebrordum item alios et Ebonem roluiue I^imol 
nee potuiaae, nunc Ausgarium nostrum et voluiue et perfecisae mir^ 
mur, diceatea cum Apmtolo: Non at toUatU n^jM enrrtntit, led at 
Dei mUtrentU." — AdaVU!! BRSHKirHiB. 

Though the victories which Charlemagae gained over the chap, xt. 
Saxons were tliua decisive, he yet lived to see that the tide ~ 

of barbaric invasion iiad been thrown back only to be aa>-uman»i 
poured upon Europe by a different channel. According 
to the well-known story of the Medieval chronicler', he 
was one day at Narbonne, when, in the midst of the ban- 
quet, some swift barks were seen putting into the harbour. 
The company started up, and while some pronounced the 
crew to be Jewisli, others African, others British traders, 
the keen eye of the great emperor discerned that they had 
come on no peaceful errand : " It is not with merchandise," 
said he, " that yonder ships are laden, they are manned 
with most terrible enemies ;" and then be advanced to the 
window, and stood there a long while in tears. No one 
dared to ask him the cause of his grief, but he at length 
I Monachi Sangall. Gala Caroii, u. 14, Ferti, □. 757. 

230 The Missionary Ilitiory of the Middle Agea. 

on&F. XL explained it himself. "It is not for myself," said i 
7b, 800-838, " ^'"^ ^ *■" weeping, or for any harm that yon barks can do 
to inc. Bnt truly I am pained to think that even during 
my lifetime they have dared to approach this shore, and 
greater still is my grief when I reflect on the evils they 
will bring on my succeasorB." His words were only too 
truly fulfilled. The sight of those piratical banners told 
its own talc. The fleets be had built, the strong forts and 
garrison towns he had erected at the mouths of the varioua 
rivers throughout his empire were neglected by his suc- 
cessors, and what he foresaw came to pass. Year after 
year during the ninth century, the children of the North 
burst forth from their pine-forests, their creeks, and fiords, 
and icy lakes, and prowled along the delenceless shores of 
Germany, and France, and England. Nothing seemed to 
daunt them. They laughed at the fiercest storms, landed 
on the most inaccessible coasts, pushed up the shallowest 
riTers, while Charlemagne's degenerate ancestors, bowed 
down by a wretched fatalism, scarcely dared to lift a hand, 
and tamely beheld the fairest towns in their dominions 
sacked and burnt by the crews of those terrible barks'. 
KMrn^Ot "Take a mip," writes Sir Francis Palgrave' in one of 
his most picturesque passages, " and colour with vermilion 
the provinces, districts, and shores which the Northmen 
visited, as the record of each invasion. The colouring will 
have to be repeated more than ninety times successively, 
before yon arrive at the conclusion of the Carlovingian 
dynasty. Furthermore, mark by the usaal symbol of war, 
two crossed swords, the localities where battles were fonght 
by or against the pirates; where they were defeated or tri- 
umphant, or where they pillaged, burned, destroyed; and 
the valleys and banks of the Elbe, Rhine, and Moselle, 

' On thecowudiwof (h« French • Nomtaids and Engiand, I. 419. 

during the Nornuui inounioni, ms 8mftlMHUmui'BZcritn(7Arutianitjr, 

HalUm'a MiddU Aga, Suppl. ruAm, U. 431—434. 
p. 43. Hiphskt'* FriutM, L 99. 

Missionary Efforts in Denmark and Sweden* 231 

Scheldt, Meuse, Somme and Seine, Loire, Garonne, and chap. xi. 
Adour, the inland AUier, and all the coasts and coastlands socMMffl. 
between estuary and estuary, and the countries between 
the river-streams, will appear bristling as with chevaux-de- 
frise. The strongly-fenced Boman cities, the yenerated 
abbeys and their dependent bourgades, often more flourish- 
ing and extensive than the ancient seats of government, 
the opulent sea-ports and trading-towns, were all equally 
exposed to the Danish attacks, stunned by the Northmen's 
approach, subjugated by their fury." 

But while the mind faintly strives to conceive the sariymittuniarp 
misery and desolation thus inflicted on almost every town '^' 
and village of Germany and France, it finds satisfaction in 
the thought that even now missionary zeal did not falter, 
that while every estuary and river were darkening under 
the dark sails of the Northmen's barks, men were found 
l^ld enough to penetrate into the dreary regions whence 
they issued forth, to seek them out amidst their pine-forests 
and icebound lakes, and implant the first germs of Chris- 
tian civilization even in the last retreats of the old Teu- 
tonic faith. Already, so early as the year 780, Willehad, wmehad. 
as we have seen, had carried the Word as far as the Dit- 
marsi*, in the neighbourhood of Hamburg, and the in- 
trepid Liudger had longed to penetrate into still more Ltuoger. 
Northern regions. And though Charlemagne positively 
forbade his making the attempt, he was not insensible to 
the value of such self-denying zeal, and, at the conclusion 
of his Saxon wars, had already conceived the idea of esta- 
blishing an archbishopric at Hamburg*, as a starting-point 
for further missionary operations. 

^ " Transalbionorum Saxonum Sconenfeld ; tertii, qui et nobili- 

tree sunt populi : primi ad ocean um ores, Sturmarii dicuntur, eo quod 

Thiatmariffi (al. Thiedmarsi), et eo- seditiooibuB ilia geiui frequenter 

rum eccleaia Mildenthurp (al. Me- agitur/' Adam. Brem. H. Eccl, 

lindorf) ; secundi HoUzatiy diet! a c. Ixi. 

sylvis, quaa incolunt, eos Sturia ' Palgrave's Normandy and Eng- 

flumen interfluit, quorum ecclesia l(xnd, I. 44.1. 

232 77(6 Missionary History of the Middle Ages, ' 
onAP. XI. Thougli unable liimself to carry out this design, ii% 

ui sa2. °'^' neglected by Louis-le-Dc'bonnaire, He had not long 
kK "-'^"*^ succeeded to the throne, when iie was viaited by Harold 
thl'^ii^fJZi!^ ^'''''i l^i'ig of Jutland, begging hia interference in & dis- 
pute concerning the throne of Denmark, between himself 
ami the sons of Godfrey king of Lethra'. When Harold 
had done homage to Louis, it was agreed that an army of 
Franks and Slavonians should aid him in recovering bis 
dominions, and Ebbo, the primate of France, deeming the 
opportunity signally auspicious, was not unwilling to leave 
his palace at Rheims, and undertake the arduous task of 
combining with the expedition the promulgation of the 
Gti.s|iJ. Long desirous of engaging in such a work, and 
pos^nnsiiig peculiar r^ualificationa for uniting the otScc of 
ambassador and teacher amongst the heathen, he set oot, 
about the year 822, accompanied by the eminent Halitgar, 
bishop of Cambray, and encouraged by the jointco-opera- 
wiufMnr tion of Pope Fascal I. and the diet of Attigny*. The 
jam. missionaries made Welanao,is Holstein, their head-quarters; 

but of their operations we have little or no information. 
According to one account, after they had achieved some 
little success, two of the archbishop's retinue were passing 
through a town in the countiy of the Ditmarsi, on WodenV 
day, when they were struck by lightning, and tie converta 
regarding this as a sign of the wrath of their ancient god 
against the teachers of a hostile faith, fell away, and thoa 
the archbishop's work came to an end. He returned, how- 
ever, after an absence of three years, accompanied by Ha- 
BaiMimaf loH hlmsclf, his queen, and a retinue of Danes, who were 
v.ut. ind Ml. all baptized with great pomp in the vast Dom of Mayeuce*. 

I "From the lineage ot OodAri; Bah hiitoriui*, who ia King Al&ed'i 

oune ' Erio of the bloody «ie,' tim« cooqaered East Auglu, uid 

'king of the Paguu,' Id Northom- lettled llie Danelagbe." Palgrkve'i 

brU, whilst Harold wu grandfather Normaiutg and England, I. 1,(6. 

to (iDrnt-Ain-ri^. Gonn Uie mightr, ■ Vila S. AnJmrii, c. liii. Pert^ 

the QDrmund, Codriniu, Quthnm, II. 609. Adam. Brem. I. 17. 

or QuUiruD-Athelitaii, U aur Sng- * llwga&i Fikt Jiladowiei Imp, 

Missionary Efforts in Denmark and Sweden. 233 

Louis stood as sponsor for Harold, Judith for his queen, ouap. xi. 
Lothair for their son Godfrey, while the diflferent members ^^Z^L 
of the Danish suite found many among the Frankish cour- 
tiers ready to do them a similar service. A sumptuous 
entertainment, and the bestowal of royal gifts, accompanied 
the administration of the rite, while Harold solemnly did 
homage to the emperor, and agreed to hold the Danish king- 
dom as a feudatory of the Carlovingian crown. 

A door was thus opened for still further operations, and 
before the impression made at Mayence should be effaced, 
£bbo determined to seek out a monk, who might be will- 
ing to accompany the newly-baptized king on his return 
to Denmark, and remain at the court as a priest and teachen 
But the well-known ferocity of the Northmen long deterred 
any one from offering himself for such a duty. At length, 
Wala the abbot of Corbey near Amiens, announced that 
one of his monks was not unwilling to undertake the ardu- 
ous task. 

The intrepid volunteer was Anskar, a native of a vil- ^^fc^*- 
lage not far from the monastery*. Born in the year 801, 
and early devoted by his parents to the monastic life, he 
had always evinced the deepest religious enthusiasm, and 
his ardent imagination taught him to believe that he often 
saw visions, and heard voices from another world. IB^tSMhanded^- 
had lost his mother when he was only five years of age, 
and the vision of her surrounded by a majestic choir of 
virgins, the fairest of whom bade him, if he would join 

cxxxiii. Pertz,ii.597. Adam Brem. 
I. 17. '^Ludovicus ... couditionem 
barbaro intulit, opem spondendo, si 
Christi cultum exequi cousenaisset. 
Nullam eniin posse aiebat animorum 
infcervenire concordiam, dissuna sa- 
cra complexis. Quamobrem petito 
rem opis primum religionis contu- 
bemio opus habere, neque magno- 
rum operum consortes existere posse, 
quoe supemsa venerationis formula 
disparasaet.*' Saxo Grammaticus, 

lib. rx. Compare the baptism of 
Guthrun aii<l tbiriy of his chieftains 
after his defeat by Alfred at Edding- 
don in 879. On the number of ab- 
bots of Danish origin at the convent 
of Croyland, from the ninth to the 
twelfth century, see Worsae^s Danes 
and Northmen, p. 131. Pauli'i Al' 
/red, p. 109. 

^ VUa S, Anskarii, Pertz, Mon. 
Oerm, u. 690 — 7^5. 

234 75« Mttnonary Rwiory of the Middle A^ct. { 

hia mother in bliss, flee the pomps and vanities of the 
world, exerted a profound impression on his susceptible 
heart, and he devoted himself more than ever to jirnyer 
and meditation. When he was thirteen years of age, 
news reached the monastery of the death of the Emperor 
Charlemagne. Anskar had relaxed somewhat from hia 
youthful austerities at this period, and the thought that 
even that mighty prince, whom he himself had seen in all 
the plenitnde of power, could not escape the hand of death, 
'' filled him with awe and horror'. The greatest of great em- 
perors had passed away, and now, in the sepulchre which 
he had dug for himself, he was "sitting on hia curale 
chair, clad in his silken robes, ponderous with broidery, 
pearla, and orfray, the imperial diadem on hi:? head, his 
dosed eyelids covered, his face swathed in the dead-clothes, 
girt with his baldric, the ivory horn slung in his acarf, his 
good sword Joyeuae by his aide, the Gospel-book open on 
his lap, musk and amber and sweet spicea poured around*." 
No wonder that as the tale of the mighty monarch's death 
and strange entombment aped from monastery to mo- 
nastery, there were "great searchings of heart" in the 
silent cloisters. At Ckirbey Anskar must have often gazed 
on the blinded face of Besiderius, the king of the Lom- 
bards, and now, when he heard his brethren whisper to 
one another their dread misgivings' respecting the grtat 
emperor's eternal state, all the old religious enthusiasm 
returned, and he gave himself up more unreservedly than 
ever to the aeverest discipline, and his fastings and vigils 
were rewarded by still more frequent visions. Meanwhile 
his talents brought him into general notice, and when the 

> "De tand iUqna impentoris ■ FalgraWs N. and E. I. 158. 

ncenu ipse nimio ttrrort lUqut hor- * On the trance* aod ilreBmB of 

core ptrcnlim, nirsua offipit ad Be Wetteriua, the monk of Reichenan, 

redire, et ulmonitioiiia utncbe Den vha r&w the great emperor puoished 

GeuitiiciB >d memoriuu verbk redu- in pur^torial Phlegethoii, «e« Pal- 

oere." Vita S. Antkarii, op. iii. g»ve'a N. and E. 1. 161. 

Miasionary Efforts in Denmark and Sweden. 235 

abbot founded another monastic outpost in Westphalia, in chap. xi. 
a beautiful valley on the west bank of the Weser, and ^^ 333" 
called it New Corbey*, Anskar was removed to the new 
foundation, and with the common consent of all was elected 
to superintend its conventual school, and to preach to the 
neighbouring population. 

He was on a visit to Old Corbey, when the news 
arrived that a monk was earnestly required to accompany 
the Danish Harold to his native land, and that the abbot 
Wala had named him to the emperor as a fit person to be 
entrusted with the arduous mission. Summoned to ihef^^*}^^^"^ 

t<Mke the IkuUih 

court, Anskar calmly but resolutely announced his willing- ^t"*^ 
ness to go ; in dreams and visions he had heard, he said, 
the voice of Christ Himself bidding him preach the Word to 
the heathen tribes, and nothing should induce him to shrink 
from the plain path of duty. In vain, therefore, on his 
return to his monastery, the brethren, learning that he was 
about to resign all his hopes and prospects to preach 
amongst heathens and barbarians, warned, protested, and 
even mocked at him for his madness. Immovable in his 
resolution to brave all risks, he began to prepare himself 
for his great enterprise, by prayer and the study of the 
Scriptures in the solitude of a neighbouring vineyard. So jotnedbpAut- 
deep was the impression made by his devotion, that Aut- 
bert steward of the monastery, and a man of noble birth, 
when every one else hung back, declared that he could not 
find it in his heart to desert his friend, and was resolved to 
become his companion. 

A foretaste of the diflSculties that awaited them was 
experienced at the outset. No one could possibly be pre- 
vailed on to accompany them as an attendant. The abbot 
liimself shrunk from interposing his authority, and they 
were fain to set out alone. Before starting they had an 

> HUtoria Trantlationis S. ViUy Pertz, n. 579. Pftachani Radberti VUa 
8. Adtlhardi, Pertz, ii. 531. 

236 The MiasMTutT!/ Ui^ory iif the Middle Atje$, ^^H 

OBAP. XL audience of tlic Emixa-or, and received from liim cverytbing 
^^gjj_ they were likely to need for the undertaking, in iLc shape 
of church-vesselB, tcDta, and books, together with much 
exhortation to ke«p a watchful eye upon Harold and hia 
J'/'^d""'" '■'^tinue. From that Danish prince, however, they met 
jj*Mtur*. with but little cncouraycmcut ; neither he nor hia nobles 
cared much for their company ; and it was not till they 
arrived at Cologne, whence they were to pass by the Ilhine 
to Holland, and so to Denmark, and where bishop Ha- 
delbald hcBtowcd upon them a sliip with two cabins, that 
he evinced any desire to have much of their society. The 
belter nccommojation, however, promised by the use of a 
caliin, induced him to aliarc the same veswl wilh An:s- 
kar, and the engaging manners of the misuonarj gncla> 
ally won his respect, and inspired him with an interest in 
his undertaking. On landing, Anskar fixed his head- 
quarters at Schleswig, and commenced the foundation of a 
school, purchasing or receiving ftom Harold Danish boys 
whom he hoped to train, so as to form the nucleus of a 
gj^j*^"' native ministry. Two years thus passed away, and some 
'^■'- impression seemed to be made upon the people by the 

earnest self-devotion of the missionaries, when Autbert 
sickened, and was obliged to retnm to Corbey, where he 
died. Meanwhile the conversion of Harold, and still man 
his destruction of the native temples, was regarded by 
his subjects with the bitterest resentment'. A rebellion 
broke out, and the king was obliged to 6y for refuge to 
the fief of Rustringia, within the ancient Frisick terri- 
tory, which had been conceded to him by Louis; while 
Anskar also found it necessary to leave Schleswig, 
consoled by an imezpected opportunity of commencing a 
similar work under happier auspices in Sweden. 

' Saxo Gmnmktiuui, lib. EC "!)»■ pfttrim ChiiBtiAiiiinii itcn primal 
lubnk diruit, fialimuioa proacr^t, mtuUt." 
*""'"'"■" abrogftvlt, atqiM Inoondita 

Missionary Efforts in Denmark and Sweden. 237 

In the year 829 ambassadors from the latter comitiy chap. xi. 
presented themselves at the comi; of Louis, and, after ^^ ^ao. 
arranging the political object of their mission, announced ^''•^^^^ 
that many of their countrymen were favourably disposed 
towards Christianity*. The commerce carried on, at this 
period, between Sweden and the port of Doerstadt, com- 
bined with the teaching of Christian captives, whom the 
Swedes had carried off in their piratical excursions, had 
predisposed a considerable number towards lending a fa- 
vourable ear to Christian teachers. The Emperor gladly 
embraced the opportunity, Anskar was summoned to the 
palace', and, after an interview with Louis, declared his 
entire willingness to undertake the enterprise. 

A monk, named Gislema, was, therefore, left with 
Harold, and Anskar having found a new companion inAnOanaiu 
Witmar, a brother-monk of Corbey, set out in the year 
831 with presents from Louis for the king of Sweden, ad. sai. 
But the voyage was most disastrous. The missionaries 
had not proceeded far, when they were attacked by pirates ; 
a fierce battle ensued, and their crew, though at first vic- 
torious, were overpowered in a second engagement, and 
barely escaped to land. The pirates plundered them of 
everything; the presents for the king, their own books, 
and ecclesiastical vestments, all were lost. In this for- 
lorn and destitute condition they reached Birka, a haven 
and village on the Malar lake, not far from the ancient 
capital Sigtuna, where rich merchants resided, and where 
was the centre of the Northern trade. Here they were 
hospitably welcomed by the king, Biom "of the Hill," 
and received free permission to preach and baptize. The 
nucleus of a Church was found already existing in the 
persons of many Christian captives, who had long been 
deprived of the consolation of Christian ordinances. The 
work therefore commenced under fair auspices, and before 

^ Vita S, Anskarii, cap. ix. * Ibid. 

238 I7ic Mtsslonarij Histori/ of the Muhtte A. 

oKty. XI. lougi Herigar the king's counsellor, aimoimced bimse 
»ii.83a^~^ convert, and erected a cliarch on his estate'. After an in- 
terval of a year and a lialf, Anskar returned to the court 
of Louia, with a letter from tlic king of Sweden, and an- 
nounced all that had befallen him. Thereupon the Em- 
peror resolved without further delay to give effect to tha 
ecclesiastical plans formed by Iiis father, and to make Ham- 
burg an arch i episcopal see, and a centre of operations for 
the Northern miasioiis*. Anskar was accordingly elevated 
to the arehiepiscopal dignity, and was consecrated at lugel- 
hiem, by Drogo of Mayence, and other prelates. At the 
same time, because of the poverty of the diocese, and the 
dangers to which the mission would be inevitably exposed, 
the nioniwtcry of TurhoU in Flanders, between Uniges and 
Ypres, was assigned to him as a place of refuge, and a 
Booice of revenue. Then he was directed to repair to 
An^ariMn Bomc, whcre he received the pall from Gregory IV., and 
j»^gj»;j«?« was regularly authorized to preach the Gospel to the 

Northern nations*. 
AD. 634. These arrangements made, Anskar returned from Kome. 

Kbbo, who had been associated with him in the commission 
to evangelise the North, deputed his missionary office to 
g*||^<^a.. his nephew Gauzbert, who was raised to the episcopal 
MM^ dignity, and as coadjutor to Anskar was entrusted spe- 
cially with the Swedish mission'. Thither, accordingly, 
Gauzbert, who had received the name of Simon, set oat, 
received a hearty welcome from Bi&m and his people, and 
laid the foundation of a church at Sigtuna. Meanwhile 
^aSSS^ Anskar had gone to Hamburg, and in pursuance of his 

burg ledeiii conatituit vchiepUcopa- 
lem, cui lubjacereC umverw Nortfa.- 
ftlbingorum cccleiu, >t ad quuD per- 
(ineret onmium regionam ■quilon*- 
Uuin potortM td EduUtaendaa 9^ 

pro Chriiti nomine deatinaodoe 
Vita S. Aiukarii, cap. lii. Lathui 
TacUi Oemania, c, lii. 

* Jaff^'l Eegttta PotU. Stm. 
aiS. Adun. Bnm. i. iS. 

* Ftia S, Antiarii, cap. xir. 

Missionary Efforts in Denmark and Sweden. 239 

former plan, bought or redeemed from slavery a number chap. xi. 
of Danish and Slavonic youths, whom he either educated ^^^ ^^ 
himself, or sent for that purpose to the monastery of Turholt. 
But the times were hardly ripe for successful operations. 
Three years had barely elapsed, when an enormous army a.i>. 837. 
of Northmen, led by Eric, king of Jutland, attacked Ham- JSSSSlf** 
burg, and, before relief could arrive, sacked and burned it, 
together with the church and monastery which Anskar 
had erected with great trouble. He himself had barely 
time to save the sacred relics, and before the sun went 
down, saw every external memorial of his mission reduced 
to ashes*. " The Lord gave, and the Lord hath taken 
away^ and blessed he the name of the Lordy^ was the 
pious exclamation of the archbishop, as he surveyed the 
scene of desolation. Driven from Hamburg, he wan- 
dered for a long time over his devastated diocese, followed 
by a few of his clergy and scholars, and at length sought 
refuge at Bremen; but the envious bishop Leutbert refusing 
to receive him, he was fain to avail himself of the hos- 
pitality of a noble lady in the district of Holstein. And, a,J^,'^''^ 
as if this was not enough, he now received intelligence 
that, owing to similar risings of the Northmen, the hopes 
of the Swedish mission were utterly crushed*. The pagan 
party had conspired against the bishop Gauzbert, expelled ««* oaxuxntt. 
him from the country, and murdered his nephew Nithard. 
But divine vengeance, we are assured, did not fail to 
pursue the conspirators. One of them had carried home 
some of the property of the missionaries. Before long 
he died together with his mother and sister, and his father 
found his goods wasting away from day to day. Alarmed 
at this sudden reverse of fortune, he began to consider 
what god he could have offended to bring all these trou- 

^ Adam. Brem. I. a 3. Palgrave's Normandy and Englandy I. 44/. 

• Ibid. 


240 Tlie Missionary ITiHory of the Middh Aget, 

bles on his house. TTimble to eett!e the difliculty himse 
he had recourse to a soothsayer. The lols were cast, and 
it was found that none of the native deities bore him any 
ill-wiU. At length the sootliaayer esptained the difficnlty. 
"It is the God of the Christians," said he, "that is the 
author of thy ruin; there is something dedicated to Him 
concealed in thy liouse, and therefore all these evils hare 
come upon thee, nor canst tlion escape so long as that 
aacrcd thing remains un re stored'." After vainly trying, for 
some time, to comprehend wliat this could mean, the other 
suddenly recoliccted the day when his son Lad brought 
home from the spoil of the Christians' dwellings, one of their 
Baered books. 8trickcn with alarm, be immediately called 
togetiier the inhabitants of the town, told them all that 
had occurred, and prayed their advice in the emergency. 
Every one declined to receive the terrible relic, and at 
last, fearfal of further vengeance if he retained it in his 
Louse, the man covered it carefiilly and then fastened it 
to a stake on the public road, with a notice that any one 
who wished might take it down, and that for the crime 
he had unwittingly been guilty of against the CbristianB' 
God, he was ready to offer any satisfaction that might be 
required. One of the native Christians took it down, and 
the man's terrors were appeased. 

Anskar, meanwhile, was still wandering over hig deso- 
lated diocese. Even the monastery of Turholt, which Ixmis 
had bestowed upon him for the very pnrpose of being a 
covert from storms like these, was closed against him, 
having been bestowed upon a layman by Charles the 
Bald. Most men would have sunk under such accumu- 
lated disappointments, but ^skar waited patiently in 
hope of some change, and comforted bimself with the 

' Villi S. Antkraii, cap. xriii. domo tua tnocet rcconditum, idtb- 

"CbriittM," iiujnit, "no U h»bet norunt to omnis mils hso qun ftr- 

perditum ; at qui* quodUbet illonun, penua ei, mo poteru ab hii libenri, 

quod tlH omMMntDm fuent, la doneo iUnd in domo tun nuMuerit." 

Missionary Efforts in Denmark and Stoeden. 24t 

words of archbishop Ebbo shortly before his death ; " Be chap. xi. 
assured, brother," said that prelate, " that what we have ZtoTb^. 
striven to accomplish for the glory of Christ will bring 
forth fruit in the Lord, For it is my firm and settled 
belief, nay, I know of a surety, that though what we have 
undertaken amongst these nations is subject, for a time» 
to obstacles and difficulties, on account of our sins, yet it 
will not be lost or perish altogether, but will, by God's 
grace, thrive and prosper, until the name of the Lord is 
made known to the furthest ends of the earth*." And, 
before long, events occurred which seemed to promise that 
the clouds would roll away, and a brighter epoch be in- 
augurated to cheer the heart of the Apostle of the North. 

Mindful of the converted chief Herigar, he had sent a.». 844. 
Ardgar, an anchoret in holy orders, to Sigtuna, with direc- to'^^^w."*^*' 
tions to see how he fared, and to strengthen him against 
falling back into heathenism. Thither, therefore, Ardgar 
set out, and was rejoiced to find Herigar still remaining 
faithful to the religion he had embraced. The recollection 
of the divine vengeance, which had attended the previous 
outbreak, protected the missionary fi-om injury, and the 
new king who had succeeded Biorn was persuaded by 
Herigar to permit Ardgar to preach the Gospel without 
fear of molestation. That chief was no half-hearted he- TeHftart ctm- 


liever, and openly confronted the malice of the pagan 
party. On one occasion, as they were boasting of the 
power of their gods, and of the many blessings they had 
received by remaining faithful to their worship, and were 
reviling him as a traitor and an apostate, he bade them 
put the matter to an open and decisive proof. " If there 
be so much doubt," said he, ** concerning the superior 
might of our respective gods, let us decide by miracles 
whose power is greatest, whether that of the many ye call 
^ods, or of my one Omnipotent Lord, Jesus Christ. Lo, 

* Vila 5. Amkariif cap. zxziv. 


242 I%e Mi$9umary BiHary qf Oe MUdb Agm. 
CHAP. XI. the season of rain is at Iiand. Do ye call upon the 

AD. 844. ~ of 7^^ gods, that the rain maj be restrained firom fiJling 
upon jon; and I will call upon the name of my Lotd 
Jesus Christ, that no drop of rain may 611 on me; and tibe 
God that answereth onr prayeiBi let him be God." The 
heathen party agreed, and, repairing to a neighbouring 
field, took their seats in great nnmben on one side, while 
Herigar, attended only by a little child, sat on the other. 
In a few moments the rain desoended'in torrents, drenched 
the heathens to the skin, and swept away their tents, while 
on Herigar and the little child, we are assured, no drop fell, 
and even the ground around them remained dry. *'Ye 
see,'* he cried, ''which is the true Gt>d; bid me not, 
then, desert the faith I have adopted, but rather lay 
aside your own errors, and come to a knowledge of the 
vm^Mof Another instance recorded by the biographer of Anskar 

a/*Ii'oJ5n»wi. is deserving of attention, because it illustrates some of the 
motives which induced many at this period to exchange 
heathenism for Christianity. On one occasion the town 
of Birka was attacked by a piratical expedition of Danes 
and Swedes, under the command of a king of Sweden, who 
had been expelled from his realm. The place was closely 
invested, and there seemed to be no prospect of a successful 
defence. In .their alarm the townspeople oflfered numerous 
sacrifices to their gods, and, when all other means failed, 
collected such treasures as they possessed, together with a 
hundred pounds of silver, and succeeded in coming to terms 
with the hostile chiefs. But their followers, not satisfied 
with the amount, prepared to storm the town. Again the 
gods were consulted, the altars raised, the victims offered, 
and with equally unpromising results. Herigar now inter- 
posed, rebuked the people for their obstinate adherence to 
gods that could not profit, or aid them in their trouble; 

^ Vita S, A nakarii, cap. xix. 

Missionary Efforts in Denmark and Sweden. 243 

and when they bade him suggest some device, and pror- chap, xl 
mised to follow his counsel, he bade them make a vow ot'^^^ 
obedience to the Lord God Omnipotent, assured that if 
they turn to Him, He, at any rate, would not fail them in 
this hour of danger. The people took his advice, went 
forth into an open plain, and there solemnly vowed to keep 
a fast in honour of the God of the Christians, if He would 
rescue them from their enemies. Help came in an unex* 
pected fashion. The Swedish king, while the army were 
clamouring for the signal to attack, suggested that the gods 
should be consulted by lot whether it was their will that 
Birka should be destroyed. " There are many great and 
powerful deities there," said he ; " there also, formerly, a 
church was built, and even now the worship of the Great 
Christ is observed by many, and He is more powerful than 
any other of the gods, and is ever ready to aid those that 
put their trust in Him\ We ought, then, to inquire 
whether it be the divine will that we attack the place." 
Accordingly the lots were cast, and it was discovered that 
the auspices were not favourable for the assault, and thus 
Birka was spared. The arrival, therefore, of Ardgar was 
well-timed ; he was warmly welcomed by Herigar, and the 
Christian party were strengthened in their adherence to the 

Nor was it in Sweden only that the prospects of the ^jf^gj^^ 
missionaries brightened. In 847 Leutbert, the bishop of '"***^*^"'^- 
Bremen, died. Anskar's own see of Hamburg was now 
reduced, by the desolating inroads of the Northmen, to four 
"baptismal churches^" It was therefore proposed that 

^ We have other illuHtraiions of the 
way in which the Chrifltian's God 
was only regarded as a new Avatar, 
"a higher power than the old gods." 
In Iceland, Kodran refused to be 
baptized till he had seen a trial of 
strength between the bishop and a 
sacred stone in the neighbourhood. 
The bishop intoned Church-hymnB 

over it 'till it split in two. KrUtni- 
Saga, cap. II. quoted in Pearson's 
£arly and Middle Ages of England^ 


' Vita S, Anskarii, cap. xix. 

' " Non nisi quattuor baptismales 
habebat ecclesias dioscesis, et hieo 
ipsa multoties jam barbaroram in- 
cursionibus devastata." VUaf c. zxii. 


hopric i 

244 27te Miasionartj History of the Middle Aijea, 

the ace of Brcmeu alioulcl be annexed to the archbishopricl 
" of llamburg, and, after some difficulty, tbu plan waa 
matured, and Anekar found himstclf no longer hampered 
by want of means from devoting himacif to the wider 
planting of the faith. At the same time he found himself 
able to appoint a priest over the church at Schleawig, and 
from Horik, king of Jutland, he no longer experienced 
0])p'tsition in preaching the word amongst the people. 
Thi:rcupon many who had received the rite of baptism at 
Hamburg and Doerstadt, but had secretly conformed to 
idolatry, publicly professed their adhesion to the Christian 
faith, and rejoiced in the opportunity of joining in Ghria- 
tiau fellowsLip'. The trade also of Doerstadt prospered by 
the change; Chriftian merchanta flocked tJiitlier in greater 
ntunbeis, aud with greater confidence, and tbufi helped 
forward the work of the missionaries. 

At this juncture the hermit Ardgar retomed from Swe- 
den. Anskar, more than ever nnwilling that the mission 
there should be allowed to droop, tried to prevail on Ganz- 
bert to revisit the scene of his former labours. But the 
latter, discouraged by his previous failure, declined, and 
the " Apostle of the North" finding no one else willing to 
undertake the work, once more girded up his loins, and 
encouraged by Horik*, who gave him letters to Olaf, king 
of Sweden, and deputed attendants to accompany him, set 
out for Birka. The time of his landing was unfortunate. 
The heathen party had been roused by the native priests, 
and a crusade was preached against the strange doctrines. 
Suborning a man who pretended to have received a mes- 

' Thne were defects, bovaver, H vits Bun b^ptizorentur, quktinm 

might be eipeated. " Libenter qui- purifioti Uvacro ulutiui, puri et 

dem mgnaculum crucia \^^Primn- iiiiiii>cal*tt vila stems januu Bba- 

jfaini)'] recipiebutt, al OBtecbaineiii que aliqua retutlatione intnrent." 

fierent, qun at aocleslMD ingredi et Vita S. Antkarii, cap. uir. Sm 

Mcria offidii i ntnoiio lieei«t,b»pa«mi alia Quarterly BecitiB, No. 111. 

buuen peroeptionam difeiebMiC, boo ■ Yita S. Amtarii, cap. izrL 
ubi domam d^jadioHitai, at In fta» 

Missionary Efforts in Denmark and Sweden^ 245 
sage from the native deities, the priests announced that chap, xl 

it was the will of heaven, if the people wished for ^ ,, ^53^ 
new gods, to admit their departed king Eric into their 
company, and to allow divine honours to be paid to him. 
To such a pitch of frenzy had the feelings of the popu* 
lace been brought, that the retinue of the archbishop 
pronounced it absolute madness to persevere in his un- 

But Anskar was not to be thus thwarted. He invited %r^/*»» 
Olaf to a banquet, set before him the presents sent by the S^JS^S.*** 
king of Jutland, and announced the object of his visit. 
Olaf, for his part, was not indisposed to make the conces- 
sions he desired, but, as former missionaries had been ex- 
pelled from the country, and there was danger of a revulsion 
of feeling, he suggested that it would be well to submit 
the affair once for all to the solemn decisions of the sacred 
lots, and consult in open council the feelings of the people, 
Anskar agreed, and a day was fixed for deciding the mo- 
mentous question. First the council of the chiefs were for- 
mally asked their opinion. They craved the casting of 
the lots. This omen was taken, and was favourable to the 
admission of the archbishop and his retinue. This was 
announced to Anskar by one of the chiefs, who bade him 
be of good courage and play the man, for God plainly 
favoured his undertaking. Then the general assembly of 
ihe people of Birka was convened, and, at the command of 
the king, a herald proclaimed aloud the purport of the arch- 
bishop's visit. This was the signal for a great tumult, in 
the midst of which an aged chief arose, and, in the true 
spirit of Coifi the Northumbrian priest, thus addressed the 
assembly ; " Hear me, O king and people. The god, whom ^f^^^. 
we are invited to worship, is not unknown to us, nor the »«<»««3iif. 
aid he can render to those that put their trust in him. 
Many of us have already proved this by experience, and have 
felt his assistance in many perils and especially on the 


246 Tie Missionary IliMorij of the Middle Agea. 

flea'. AVTiy, then, reject what wc know to Ije useful and n&- 
~ ceasary for us ? Not long ago some of us went to Dorstede, 
and bclieviDg that this new religion could profit us macli, 
willingly professed ourselves ita disciples. Now the voyage 
thither is beset with dangers, and pirates abound on every 
ahore. Why, tlieu, rejwt a religion thua brought to our 
very doors, which wc went a long way before to seek? 
Why not permit the servants of a god, whose protecting 
aid we have already expfinenced, to abide amongst us? 
Listen to my counsel, then, king and people, and reject 
not what is plainly for our advantage. We see our own 
deities failing us, and unable to aid us in time of danger; 
surely it is a good thing to enjoy the favour of a god who 
always and at all times ean and wilt aid tliose that call 
upoa him*." 

His words ibtmd favour with the people, and it was 
imauimoualy resolved that the archbishop should ^ per- 
mitted to take up his abode amongst them, and should not 
be hindered in disseminating the Christian faith. This 
resolation was annonaced to Anskar by the king in per- 
son, who iurther conceded a grant of land for building a 
church, and welcomed Erimbert, a colleague of the arch- 
bishop, whom the latter presented as the new director of 
the Swedish mission. Though the resolution of the as- 
sembly bound only the immediate neighbourhood of Birka, 
yet in other parts of the country a similar leaning in favour 
of the new faith was manifested, and the worship of Christ 
was allowed as a powerful Deity in war, and a tried Pro- 
tector in all dangers*. 

> Id Mkllet'i North. Antiquitia uksd him." 

t«S7)t "• find " recortod %hti on * Vita 3. Antlarii, c»p. ixviL 

voyage to Greenluid the orcv of ' We have » striking illustn&in 

a None venel foond a itnndad of this in tha expedition of Olar 
wbftle — thereupon thnr loader ei< againit CourLuid, m S6i. {Vita S, 
cUimed, "The radbe»rd Thor hM Antiarii, cap. ixx.) Far nioa daya 

attacked Pilten, and 

lo imprBgaion on the 15,000 
t It ahdtered. Becoune iraa 

Missionary Efforts in Denmark and Sweden. 247 

Meanwhile matters had retrograded in Denmark. Eric chap. xi. 
the Red, though not professedly a Christian, had, as we 1~^ 
have seen, aided the archbishop in the introduction of Chris- 
tianity. His apostasy provoked the inveterate hostility of 
the Northmen. The sea-kings determined to avenge the 
insults offered to their laws, their institutions, their national 
gods. Rallying from all quarters under the banner of 
Guthrun, the nephew of Eric, they attacked the apostate 
king near Flensburgh in Jutland. The battle raged for 
three days, and at its close Eric and Guthrun ^ with "a 
cohort of Kings and Jarls," lay dead on the field; and so 
tremendous had been the slaughter that all the Viking 
nobility seemed to have been utterly exterminated. The 
new king, Eric II., easily persuaded by one of the pagan 
chiefs that the recent reverses were owing to the apostasy 
of his predecessor, ordered one of the churches to be closed, 
and forbade all further missionary operations. After a 
while, however, he was induced to change his policy, and 
Anskar, on his return from Sweden, was reinstated in the 
royal favour, and received a grant of land for the erection 
of a second church at Ripa, in Jutland, over which he 
placed Rirabert, a native priest, charging him to win the 
hearts of his barbarous flock by the sincerity and devotion 
of his life. The new king further evinced the change in 

had to the lots, but no heathen deity 
was found willing to aid them. Then 
"quidam negotiatorum, memores 
doctrinse institutionis domini Epi- 
Bcopi, suggerere eia coeperunt: *Deu8,' 
inquiunt, * Christianoruni multoties 
ad 86 clamantibuB auxiliatur, et po- 
tentissimus est in adjuvando. Quee- 
nunus an ille nobiscum esse velit, 
et vota ei placita libenti animo spon- 
deamus.' Omnium itaque rogatu 
■upplici missa est son, et inventum, 
quod Christus eis vellet auxiliari. 
Quod cum publico denunciatum 
ounctis innotuisset, omnium corda 
ita subito roborata sunt, ut confes- 
tim ad urbem expugnandam intre- 

pidi vellent accedere. 'Quid,' in- 
quiunt, 'nunc vobis formidandum, 
quidne pavendimi est ? Christus est 
nobiscum ; pugnemus, et viriliter 
agamuii ; nihil nobis obstare poterit^ 
nee deerit nobis certa victoria, quia 
potentisflimuro Deorum nostri adju- 
torem habemus.**' The town fortu- 
nately capitulated. 

^ "Tanta cssde utrique mactati 
sunt, ut vulgus omne caderet, de 
stirpe autem regia nemo omnium 
remaneret, pneter puerum unum, 
nomine Horicum." Adam. Brem. 
I. 30. Vita S. An»harii, cap. xxxi. 
Palgrave*8 Normandy and England, 
I. 449. 

248 The MimloiKir}/ UUtary of the Middle Ages. 

his sentiments by permitting, what liad hitherto been strictly 
tbrbiiidcn tlirough fear of enchdiitment, the suspension of a 
bell in the church of Schlcswig'. 

Anakar now returned to Hnmburg, and devoted him- 
self to the administration of his diocese. One of the last 
acts of his life was a noble eifort to check the infaraoas 
practice of the slave-trade, which recalls the similar efforts 
of the Apostle of Ireland with the chief Coroticna. A I 
number of native Christiana had been carried off by the 
Northern pirates, and reduced to slavery. Effecting their 
escape, they sought refug-e iu the territory of North Albin- 
gia. Instead of sheltering the fugitive;", some of the chiefs 
captured them again, and while they retained some as their 
own slaves, sold others to pagiin and even professedly 
Christian tribes aronnd. Kews of this reached Anskar, 
and, at the risk of hia life, he determined to confront the 
guilty chiefs in person, and rebuke them for their cruelty. 
A vision of Christ, he declared, had prompted him to this 
resolve, and he carried hia point. Sternly and dauntlessly 
he rebuked the chiefa, and succeeded in inducing them to 
set the captives once more free, and to ransom as many as 
possible from the bondage into which they had sold them*. 

This noble act formed an appropriate conclusion to hia 
life. He was now more than sixty-four years of age, and 
during more than half that period had laboured unremit- 
tingly in the arduous mission-field of the North. Hia 
biographer expatiates eloquently on his character, as ex- 
hibiting the perfect model of ascetic perfection. ' Even 
when elevated to the episcopal dignity he never exempted 
himself from the rigid discipline of the cloister. He was 
robed in a hair-cloth shirt by night as well as by day ; he 
measured oat, at least in earlier youth, his food and drink 

> Vita S. AyaJcarii, cap. xxiii. AJbid. Brem, I. ;i. 
"Inluper etkni quod uitek ne&n- ■ Vita S. Amtarii, csp. xxxviii, 

dnm paganis Tidebatut, at cloca* in Ad&m. Brem. I. 31. 

dnm pagaiuB Tidebfttut, at 
Md«ni habsntuT eooli^ 01 

Missionary Efforts in Denmark and Sweden. 249 

by an exact rule; he chanted a fixed number of Psalms chap. xi. 
when he rose in the morning, and when he retired to ^^ ggg 
sleep at night. His charity was nnboonded. A hospital HUeharaair. 
at Bremen testified to his care of the sick and needy, and not 
only did he distribute a tenth of his income to the poor, and 
divide amongst them any presents he might receive, but 
every five years he tithed his income afresh that he might 
be sure the poor had their proper share. Whenever he 
went on a visitation tour of his diocese, he made a practice 
of never sitting down to dinner in any place without first 
ordering some of the poor to be brought in, and he himself, 
sometimes, would wash their feet and distribute amongst 
them bread and meat. Such a practical exhibition of Chris- 
tian love could not fail to have a gradual influence even 
on the rough pirates of the North, and they testified their 
sense of the power he wielded over them by ascribing to 
him many miraculous cures. But he was not one to seek 
a questionable distinction of this kind. " One miracle," he 
once said to a friend, " I would, if worthy, ask the Lord to 
grant me, and that is that by His grace He would make me 
a good man." One source, however, of disquietude troubled 
his last hours. In vision he believed it had been intimated 
to him that he was destined to win the martyr's crown*. 
What sin of his had deprived him of this honour? In 
vain one of his most intimate pupils pointed out that it 
had not been distinctly intimated by what death he was 
to die, by the flame, or the sword, or shipwreck. In vain 
he recalled the hardships the archbishop had undergone, 
and the perils which had made his life a continual martyr- 
dom. At length, his biographer informs us, another and 
a last vision assured him that his fears were groundless, 
that no sin of his had robbed him of the wished-for crown. 

1 In the vision related, so his bio- bidden him, *^ Oto, return hither, 

grapher says, in the very words of crowned with miutyrdom." Vita 

Anskar himself, he declares that a S. Anskarii, II. 3. 
voice from the highest heavens had 

250 The Mtssumofy Hilary qf ike Middh Agee. 

CHAP. XT. Thns comforted, he busied himtelf with arrmnging ilitt 

AD. 865. affairs of his diocese, and after dictating a letter, in whidi 

he eamestlj commended the Northern mission to the caie 

jiu tkatk. of the Emperor, calmly expired on the Srd of Fehnuoy, 866. 

That Anskar^s snccess was partial, and confined to 
narrow limits, was the natural tesnlt of the times in which 

pmadttetaf he lived. The whole North was in confosion* His sno- 

Himheri. ccssor Rimbcrt contrived to keep the flickering spark alive, 
" but was sadly impeded by incursions of Nordimen and 
Slaves ; nor could any permanent impression be made on 
the great ma&s of heathen barbarism till Henry L estar 
blished, in the year 934, the Mark of Schleswig as a pro* 
tection for Germany from the constant inroads of the 
Northmen. When the work commenced so nobly by Ans- 
kar was resumed, its effect was limited, to a great extent, 
to the Danish mainland, while the islanders long persisted 
in their old rites, and still continued, in some places, to 
offer human sacrifices. In many places the princes con- 
tinued pagan, and, when they did profess a change of senti- 
ments in religious matters, there was no telling how long 
the change might last, originating, as it too often did, in 
low motives, and based on the temporal advantages afforded 

A.i» 934. by the rival faiths. Thus Henry I. extorted from king 
Gorm a promise not to molest the Christians, and arch- 
bishop Unni repaired to the new Christian colony in 
Schleswig, hoping to produce some effect on the Danish 
chief. But all his efforts were of no more avail than those 
of Willibrord or Boniface on Radbod. The influence of 
his mother, the sagacious and renowned Thyra, over the 

uardd Diaa- mind of her grim-visaged son Harold, sumamed " Blaatand" 
or " Black-Tooth," enabled the archbishop to obtain from 
that prince, when associated in the government with his 
father, permission to travel in every part of Denmark, 
and extend a knowledge of Christianity ^ But it was not 

' On Harold Blaatand, seo Palgrave's iVormanrfy and England, IL 277. 
Snorro Sturleson, i. 393. 

Missionary Ejffbris in Denmark and Sweden. 251 

till the year 972, that, after an xmsuccessfol war with the oha^. xi. 
Emperor Otho I., Harq}d consented to be baptized. The ^.d. m1-^. 
presence of Otho graced his reception into the Christian 
Church, but the circumstances which had won his respect 
for the Christian faith as contrasted with his old national 
gods, did not augur well for his fidelity. According to stmyi^Pappo. 
an old tradition he was once visited by a priest, named 
Poppo, from North Friesland. At a banquet, where Poppo 
was a guest, the conversation turned on the then much 
debated question of the superiority of the old and the new 
religions. The Danes asserted that "the White Christ" 
was indeed a mighty Grod, but their deities were mightier, 
and could perform more wonderful works. Thereupon Poppo 
declared tha:t Christ was the only true God, and declaimed 
against the deities of the country as no better than evil 
Spirits. Harold quietly asked the missionary if he was 
willing in his own person to put the question to the test. 
Poppo declared his perfect readiness, and was kept in ward 
till the morrow. Harold, meanwhile, ordered a mass of 
iron to be heated red-hot, and then bade the champion of 
the new faith take it up and carry it. Poppo, we are 
assured, complied with the suggestion with undaunted 
resolution; and the astonished king, perceiving that his 
hand sufiered no harm, and convinced thenceforward of 
the superiority of the Christians' God, ordered due honour 
to be paid to His ministers, and declared the national 
deities unworthy to be compared with Him\ From this 
time he continued to regard Christianity with more or 

1 The story is related in Widu- 
kind, III. 6!s, (Pertz, v. 463), also in 
Tbietmar, Chronicorit 11. 8, and a 
similar story, though, as it seems, of 
a different Poppo, is told in Adam. 
Brem. n. 33 ; where see Dahlmann*8 
note. In the latter case, however, 
it was the Christian's brave en- 
durance rather than a miraculous 
exemption from pain which won 

the moDarch*8 attention, ** liquentes 
flammas tam patienter sustinuit, ut 
Teste prorsus combusta et in favil- 
1am redacta hilari et jooundo vulta 
nee fumum incendii se sensisse tes- 
tatas est." On the question of the 
credibility of these conflicting tradi- 
tions, see Neander, V. 397. A bi- 
shop Poppo is mentioned as iDstmct- 
ing king Harold in Snorro, I. 393. 


252 The Mimonaty Eiskny qf tkB MiddU Agu. 

CHAP. XL less favour ; bat the rough meihodB he adopted, in the spi« 
941-flOO. ^^ ^^ Peter the Ghreat, to cheek t}ie rode passions of his 
people, can scarcely be said to have aided Adaldag, arch- 
bishop of Hamburg and Bremen, in his efforts to spread 
the faith. He suc^eded, however, in consecrating several 
Danish bishops, and thus hoped to open up other centres of 
missionary activity^. But the battle between heathenism 
^^^^^^^^ and Christendom was not yet ended. Harold's own son, 
^^""^ Sweno, headed the rebellious heathen faction, and the 

* grim-visaged king perished in the unnatural contest. Seated 
on the throne, Sweno commenced a crusade against the 
professors of the faith in which he himself had been edu- 
cated, expelled the Christian priests, and reestablished 
the pagan party. But his eye was fixed on the fair lands 
of England, where his atrocities exceeded all that ever 
before had been committed by the Northmen. Wasted 
fields, plundered churches, blazing villages, pillaged mo- 
nasteries, marked his progress, and the final close of the 
great migration of nations which, as Lappenberg remarks*, 
these Danish invasions may be regarded, was signalised 
Hit death in ^7 ^trocitics to which history affords few parallels. Un- 
thigiitnd, ^gj. circumstances like these it is no matter of surprise 
that the results of missionary labour in the North' were 
scanty, and its very footing precarious. Little that was 
permanent can be said to have been effected before the 
reign of Canute ; and in the meantime it will be well to 
turn to the kingdom of Norway, before we touch upon the 
religious reforms of that great monarch. 

1 Adam. Brem. il. 15, sq. the latter, Sigfrid, archdeacon of 

* Lappenberg, II. 181. York, carried on missionary work 

^ For seventy years after the death for many years, and was consecrated 

of Anskar Sweden was scarcely visit- to the see of Wezio. But reactions 

ed by the Christian missionary, and constantly occurred, nor was Chris- 

until the reign of Olaf the Lap- king tianity £rmly established till the reign 

(1015 — 1034) little was effected to- of King Inge in 1075. Robertson's 

wards the propagation of Christian- Church UUtory^ IL 446. Gieseler, ii. 

ity. He introduced several German 451. 
clergy, and many from England ; of 



A.D. 900—1030. 

''Transeuntibus insulas Danomm alter mundus aperitur in Sveoniam vel 
Normanniam, qu» sunt duo latissima aquilonis regna, et nostro orbi 
fere incognita.'' — Adamub Bbsmekbis. 

Until the ninth century Norway was divided into nu- chap, x ii. 
merous petty principalities, and was little known to the omduion of 

V J r r ,,. , . , Norwaif m the 

rest of Europe, except as the hive whence issued num- '»^'»^«^«rif 
berless hordes of pirates who devastated her shores. Up 
to the same period the political power in the country had 
l)een shared by a host of petty princes, who, true to the 
motto of the Norsemen, "a man for himself," gratified 
their love of war by constant contentions with one another. 
But about the year 860 there arose a king who had very a.d. 860—933. 
different ideas respecting royal power than those he had re- 
ceived from his fathers. Harold son of Halfdan "the Black" R^fdmuo/tia- 
having conquered many of the petty kings of the country, ^ ^ ^^^' 
sought, we are told, the hand of Gyda, most beautiful of 
all the maidens in Norway^ But his suit was rejected 
with scorn. Gyda would never marry the lord of a few 
thinly-peopled kingdoms. He who had the courage and 
power to win for himself the mastery over the whole coun- 
try, he, and he alone, should gain her hand. Harold heard 

^ Snorro Sturleson^s ffeimskringlaj translated by Laing, L 273. 

254 The Mt»»i(mary History of the Middle Aga^^ 

CHAP xn her reply, and swore lie would never comb hia bcantifbl' 
i,u 860— 933. ''*''* *'" ^^ ^^ become absolute monarcb, like Eric of 
Sweden, or Gorm of Denmark. 

Assembling a crowd of youthful warriora bo quickly 
fought his way with hia terrible swoid, and wherever he , 
went, broke up the little separate clans, abolished tlie 
allodial laws of inheritance, and made every land a fief 
to be held directly from himself. Furthermore, he insisted 
that all rents should be paid in kind, that the Northman 
should be his, not only in time of war, but at all times, i 
that he should submit to the jarl appointed by tlie king, 
and do him the same suit and service that the Franks 
rendered to the great counts act over them by Charle- 
magne. It was a long straggle, but his nndaunted courage 
and perseverence carried him through, and then, mindful 
of his vow, he cut and combed his hair, and e^ichanged 
his name Harold Lufa, or Harold "of the horrid hair," 
for Haarfager or " Fair-hair," and sent for and married 
Gyda, by whom he had one daughter and four sons. 
roKuquBii mi- liut the change was utterly repugnant to hia sturdy 
'^wnn. and independent subjects, and he saw them leave the land 
in numbers, to colonise the Orkneys, the Hebrides, tha 
Faroes, and Iceland, to invade Russia and Normandy, and 
become the terror of the coasts of England, Ireland, and 
Spain'. He retained, however, his supremacy till the year 
» D. 933—957. 933, when he resigned in favour of his son Eric Blodiixe. 
The new king became involved in perpetual wars with 
his surviving brothers, and the people, groaning under his 
rule, began to sigh for a deliverer. The deliverer came, 
and his accession to the throne was the signal for a long 
contest between Christianity andOdinism in its last strong- 

News of Eric's cruelties reached the court of our Anglo- 
' SnorTD, I. p, i88. Wonae's Dana taid Norlhmca, p. 35, Lappen- 

The Cotweraion of Norway. 


Saxon king Athelstan, where Hacon*, the youngest son ohap. xii. 
of Harold was, at this time, residing. His protector had a.d. 983-967^ 
taken care that the young prince should be baptized and ^^f^^ 
" brought up in the right faith, and in good habits, and '^^^ 
all sorts of exercises," and now strongly favoured his de- 
sign of oflfering himself to his countrymen as their de- 
liverer. Furnished with ships and men Hacon sailed to 
Drontheim, and was straightway joined by Sigurd, Earl of 
Lade, who espoused his cause, and recommended him to 
the Thing. The people welcomed their deliverer with 
shouts of applause, and listened with delight while he 
promised to secure to the bonders their full udal rights, 
and restore the old customs. One by one the jarls gave 
in their adhesion to his cause, and, when Eric, convinced ^^ 957— 961. 
of the disaflfection of his people, left the country*, they g«»«^^t*« 
gladly made Hacon sole king in his stead. ^^^'^ 

During his residence in England the new king had, as ^^3^1'^^,^. 
we have said, been baptized, and he now determined to '*«»^'»- 
expel the native heathenism, and plant in its stead his 
newly adopted faith. Such a design, however, was 
fraught with peril, and Hacon could not fail to foresee 
the storm of opposition he would encounter. Resolved to 
proceed by degrees, he contented himself, for the present, 
with a secret conformity to his new creed, and kept holy 
the Sundays and the Friday-fasts'. As a first step, how- 
ever, in the proposed direction, he contrived to persuade 
his people to keep the great festival of Yule* at the same 

^ Snorro, i. 309. Lappenl>erg, n. 
T05, 106, who gives the evidence on 
both Bides. 

* Eric came over to England, and 
held Northumberland as a fief from 
king Athelstan, submitting to bap- 
tism with his wife, children, and 
retinue. Snorro, i. 316. 

8 Snorro, i, 325. Geijer, p. 43». 
Neander, v. 404. 

* " Yule, or the midwinter feaRt, 
was the greate&t festival in the 

countries of Scandinavia. Yule 
bonfires blazed to scare witches and 
wizards ; offerings were made to the 
gods; the boar dedicated to Freyr 
was placed on the table, and over 
it the warriors vowed to perform 
great deeds. Pork, mead, and ale^ 
abounded, and Yuletide passed mer- 
rily away with games, gymnastics, 
and mirth of all kinds." Worsae's 
Danes and Northmenf p. 83. 

,-3of Krk''- 
m, I. p, iSS 

^^ dot V Mcfc tfcm^ »f vecaa 
..^P«mUc far n. It k.-w^Tw, 
_^n *** • l>«gh band, xod will 
^^ ipiinrt IM, We bondera have 
. |»rt wirh ttiM, and to take lo 
• li'r will ••■ caiidact himself 

The Conversion of Norway. 257 

towards us, that we can freely and safely enjoy that faith chap, xit 
which suits our own inclinations \" 

A.n. 961. 

Great applause followed this independent speech, and 
Earl Sigurd, who presided over the sacrifices, was fain to 
intimate to the people the king's acquiescence with their 
wishes, and to advise him to postpone his religious reforms 
to a more convenient season. But the suspicions of the 
people were now excited, and Earl Sigurd's promises did 
not satisfy them. At the next harvest festival, therefore, 
they demanded that Hacon should openly avow his attach- 
ment to the national faith by drinking, as heretofore, in 
honour of the gods. Earl Sigurd promised that he should Htunmhiddmto 
do so, and persuaded the king, who had hitherto been <*«• «"««»«• 
wont on such occasions to take his meals in a little house 
by himself, to present himself on his throne before his 
people, and quiet their suspicions. The first goblet went 
round, and was blessed in Odin's name*. The Earl drank 
first, and then handed it to Hacon, who took it, and made 
the sign of the Cross over it. " What does the king mean 
by doing so?" said one of the bonders; "will he not sacri- 
fice?" "He is blessing the goblet in honour of Thor," 
replied the earl, "by making the sign of his hammer 
over it when he drinks it." This quieted the people. 

But, on the next day, they resolved to put Hacon's 
sincerity to a severer test, and therefore pressed him to eat 
of the horseflesh slain in the sacrifices. This was one o{HedeeUnetu> 

tat the tacfti 

the distinguishing marks of heathenism, and, as we have *<»»c^«*- 
seen, had been solemnly forbidden by the Church ever since 
the days of Archbishop Boniface'. Hacon, therefore, posi- 
tively refused to comply with the demand. Thereupon thd 
bonders offered him the broth, and when he also declined 
this, they declared he should at least taste the gravy, and 

1 Snorro, I. 319. • See the correspondence of Gre- 

s On the sacred toasts of the gory III. with Boniface, above, p« 

Scandinavians, see Snorro, I. 3^7, 19'* 

Dasent's Bwrwb Njal, i. xli. 


258 The Mt'gsionart/ Hutory of the Middle Agea. 

HAP. xiL Tvhen lie refused this too, they were going to lay bands on 

a mi, ^'■"' when Earl Bigurd interposed, and so far prevailed 
with the king that lie consented to hold his mouth over 
" the handle of the kettle, upon which the fat gnioke of tlie 
boiled horseflesh had settled itself; and the king firel laid 
a linen cloth over the handle, and then gaped over it, and 
tetunied to the throne; but neither party was satisfied with 

In the following winter the popular feeling expressed 
itself still more plainly against Hacon's religious reforms. 

i'««ffiK"- Four chiefs bound themselves by an oath to root out Ciiri»< 
tianity in Norway, wliile four others resolved to force the 
king to offer sacrifice to the goda. Three churchea were 
burnt and three priests killed at Mcere, and when Hacon 
came thither with Earl Sigurd to hold the Yule Feast, the 
bonders insisted that the king should offer sacrifice. The 
tumult could only be appeased by some show of compli- 
ance, and at Earl Sigurd's intercession, Hacon consented 
at last, to taste some of the horse-liver, and to empty such 
goblets aa the bonders filled for him. This determined 
opposition to his plans roused the king's anger, and he 
was meditating a violent revenge, when the news arrived 
of the invasion of his kingdom by the sons of his brother 
Eric. A battle ensued, and the invaders were forced to 
retire. Henceforth Hacon is stud to have become more 
tolerant of heathen rites, and finding it impossible to stem 
the torrent of opposition, consented to forego his designs. 

.D. H9. In the year 963 his kingdom was again invaded by his 
nephews, and in a great battle he himself was mortally 
wounded. Perceiving that his end drew near, he called 
together his friends, and after arranging the affairS' of bts 
kingdom, began to feel the pangs of remorse on account of 

imjattttn his guilty concession at the Drontbeim Feast. "If fate," 
Kud he, "should prolong my life, I wilt at any rate leave 
' SnoiK^ I. 331. ' 

The Conversion of Norway. 259 

this country, and go to a Christian land, and do penance ohap. xii. 
for what I have done against God; but should I die in ^^^ 993, 
a heathen land, give me any burial you may think fit." 
Shortly afterwards he expired, and was buried " under a 
great mound in North Hordaland, in full armour, and in 
his best clothes." Though he had incurred much enmity 
from his determination to impose Christianity on his peo- 
ple, all was now forgotten ; friends and enemies alike be« 
wailed his death, and solaced themselves for his apostasy, 
by believing that because he had spared the temples of 
Odin he had now found a place in Valhalla, *^ in the blessed 
abodes of the bright gods\" 

On the death of Hacon, the sons of Eric, of whom riotaudnna 
Harold was the eldest, assumed the supreme authority, and {iJI^^S 
having been baptized in England, thought it their duty to 
pull down the heathen temples, and forbid the sacrifices in 
all places where they had the power. Great opposition 
was roused, which was not appeased by the badness of the 
seasons during their reign, and the harshness they dis- 
played towards the bonders. " In Halogaland," says the 
Saga, "there was the greatest famine and distress; for 
scarcely any com grew, and even snow was lying, and the 
cattle were bound in the byres all over the country, until 
Midsummer*." In the midst of the commotions that now 
ensued, Harold Blaatand, king of Denmark, conquered the 
country, and placed over his new territory the jarl Hacon 
as his viceroy. Hacon allied himself with the heathen a.d. 077. 
party, and did all in his power to re-establish paganism, in 
direct contravention of the wishes of Harold Blaatand', who, jpoiiatpqfihe 
on the occasion of his baptism, had given him priests and 
** other learned men," and commanded him "to make all 

^ See translation of Eyvind Skal- • Snorro, I. 365. 

ifaspiUar'B poem on the death of ' Sazo-Grammaticti8| Lib. Z. p, 

Hacon, and how he was received 183. Snorro, I. 413. 
into Valhalla^ Laing'i Snorro, i. 346. 


SCO The Miusionary History of the Middle Aget, ^^1 

CHAP. 3UI. the people in Norway be baptized'." Bacon's crownillg 

A u 977! ^^ ^'^ apostasy was the sacrifice of one of his sons in honour 
of Thor, in the great battle with the Joujabiirg piral&i. 
Ilia rule was offensive and unpopular', and he was de- 

».D. BB6. poacd in 995 by Olaf, the son of Tryggve, a petty prince, 
whom the oppressed Norsemen welcomed aa their deliverer. 

niifTrnara- The history of the new king is a remarkable illustra- 
tion of the times in wliich he lived, as the transition period 
between Odinism and Christianity. He ia represented in 
the Sagas as one of the handsomest of men', escelling in 
all bodily exercises. He was, withal, a great traveller, 
and liad visited not only England and the Hebrides, but 
Nortiiern Germany, Greece, Kusaia, and Constantinople. 

JmI''^'"^'' ■'^" Germany he had become acquainted with a certain ec- 
clesiastic of Bremen, named Tharigbrand, a son of AVille- 
bald, count of Sa:sony, Thangbrand is described "as » 
tall man and strong, skilful of speech, a good clerk, and a 
good warrior, albeit a teacher of tlie faith ; not provoking 
Others, but once angered, and he would yield to 00 maa 
in deeds or in words*." Olaf was attracted by a large 
shield which the martial ecclesiastic was wont to carry. 
On it was embossed in gold the figure of Christ on the 
Cross. Olaf asked the meaning of the symbol, and was 
told the story of Christ and of His death. Observing how 
greatly he was taken with it, Thangbrand offered him the 
shield aa a present, which was gratefully accepted, and 
preserved with diligent care. The rude Viking carried it 
about with him wherever he went, and ascribed to it his 
deliverance from many dangers both by sea and land. 
During one of his many piratical voyages, Olaf touched 

' Snorro, I. sgf. 

* The great uDBe of liit miafor. 
tanes, kcoording to the Saga(SDom>, * aBoiro, I. 397. 

I. 414) wu ' ' that the time wu come ' See DaseDt's Bumi Njal, n. 64. 

when heathen aacrificee and idola- Metcalfe'i ftcontantn /isefand, p. 77, 

tn>u* worabip ware dacnMd to ttiX, SoimO) I. 441, 

The Conversion of Norway. 


at the Scilly Islands*, where he heard of the fame of a onAP. xii. 
great seer. Having made trial of his skill, he repaired to ^ ,^ ^95^ 
his cell, and asked him who he was, and whence he had o*?/**^ ^ 

' ' ^ Sculp likmdi. 

this knowledge of the future. The man told him he was 
a hermit, and that the Christian's God revealed to him the 
secrets of the future. Thereupon Olaf resolved to be bap- 
tized with all his followers, and going thence to England, 
was confirmed by Elphege, bishop of Winchester, in the a.d. 994. 
presence of the Saxon king Ethelred. Repairing afterwards 
to Dublin', he married Gyda, sister of king Olaf Kvaran^ 
and during his stay in Ireland received a visit from one of 
the Northern Vikings, who persuaded him to revisit his 
native land, and assured him that one of Harold Haarfager's 
race would be welcomed by the people. Adopting his ^Jj?** ^*^' 
advice, Olaf sailed to Norway, where he was welcomed as 
a deliverer from the oppressive cruelty of Hacon the Bad, 
and at a general Thing held at Drontheim was unani- 
mously chosen to be king over the whole country, as 
Harold Haarfager had been. 

No sooner had Olaf strengthened himself on the throne Prodaiwud 
than he resolved on the extermination of heathenism '. His 
long abode with his brother-in-law, king Olaf Kvaran, in 
Dublin, where he had been in constant intercourse with 
the Irish Christians, could not fail to have strengthened 

* Snorro, i. 397. Lappenberg, ii, 
158. Diuent's Burnt Njalf u. 360. 
WoTsae'B Dana and Northmtrit p. 
333* ^^<> however holds that the 
Isles where Olaf landed were "not 
the Scilly Isles near England, but 
the SkelHg Isles on the S. W. coast 
of Ireland, on one of which there 
was at that time a celebrated ab- 

^ Dublin was the central point 
of the real Norwegian power in 
Ireland, though the Ost-men also 
fletUed in considerable numbers at 
Waterford, Limerick, Wexford, and 
Cork. Worsae's Danes, p. 315. Tiie 
Norwegians and Danes settled iii 

Ireland, were soon converted from 
heathenism by Irish monks and 
priests, and through these converts, 
Christianity was communicated to 
many uf their Scandinavian fellow- 

' His own fidelity to Christiani^ 
was, however, dubious enough, if 
we may believe Adam of Bremen : 
^' Narrant quidam ilium Christi- 
anum fuisse, quidam Christian itatis 
desertorem ; omnes autem affirmant 
peritum auguriorum, servatorem sor- 
tium, et in avium prognostids om- 
nem spem suam poeuisse. Qoare 
etiam cognomen accepit, ut Olaph 
Cracabben diceretur." Ii. 38. 

262 I'he Missionary Itistory of the Middle Ages. 

OHAP, XII. Him in this determination. The means he resorted to were 
A.O 096-997. ^^'''^ ^ might have been expected from a Northern Viking, 
with an ecclesiastic like Tiiangbrnnd at his side. He 
begun by destroying the heathen idols and temples, where- 
ever it was practicable, and then, summoning his relatives, 
"he would," he declared, "either bring it to pass that all 
Korway should be Christian, or die. I shall make you all 
great and mighty men in promoting this work, for I trust 
aaU¥aitnpui to you most as blood-relations and brothers-in-law." They 
*"- agreeing to do as he desired, he made a public proclama- 

tion to all tlie people of Norway, declaring it to be his will 
and pleasure that Christianity should be adopted as the 
national faith. Those who had already pledged their as- 
fltstance, straightway gave in their adhesion, and being very 
powerful and influential, speedily induced othera to follow 
their example, till at last all the inhabitants of the Eastern 
part of Viken allowed themselves to be baptized. Pro- 
ceeding thence to the Northern part of the same district, 
lie invited every man to accept the new faith, and punished 
severely all who opposed him, killing some, mutilating 
others, and driving the rest into banishment*. 

Successful in his own kingdom, and in that of his 
relative Harold Greenske, he next proceeded to Hordalaad 
and Bogaland, summoned the people to a Thing, and pro- 
gmgjwo"''/ posed the same terms. Here, however, he encountered 
more active opposition. The bonders no sooner received 
the message-token for the Thing, than they assembled in 
great numbers and in arms, and selecting three men who 
were regarded as the best spokesmen, they bade them 
argue with the king, and answer him, and especially de- 
cline anything against the old customs, even if the king 
demanded it, "When the bonders came to the Thing," 
we read in the quaint and vivid language of the Saga, 
" and the Thing was formed, king Otaf rose, and at first 

' ftlOITO, I. 4*7. 

The Conviraian of Nartvajf. 263 

spake good-humouredly to the people ; but they ohserved chap, xil 
he wanted them to accept Christianity with all his fine 7d1»&hw7. 
words; and in conclusion he let them know that those 
who should speak against him, and not submit to his pro- 
posal, must expect his displeasure and punishment and all 
the ill it was in his power to inflict. When he had ended 
his speech, one of the bonders stood up, who was con- 
sidered the most eloquent, and who had been chosen as 
the first to reply to king Olaf. But when he would begin 
to speak, such a cough seized him, and such a difficulty of 
breathing, that he could not bring out a word, and was 
obliged to sit down again. Then another bonder stood up, 
resolved not to let an answer be wanting, although it had 
gone so ill with the former; but he became so confused, 
that he could not find a word to say, and all present set up 
a laughter, amid which the bonder sat down again. And 
now the third stood up to make a speech; but when he 
began, he became so hoarse and husky in his throat, that 
nobody could hear a word he said, and he also had to sit 
down again. There were now none of the bonders to 
speak against the king, and as nobody answered him, there 
was no opposition ; and it came to this, that all agreed to 
what the king had proposed. Accordingly all the people 
were baptized before the Thing was dissolved \" 

Shortly afterwards, this Northern Mahomet summoned cmtmuory 
the bonders of the Fiord district. South M5re, and Raums- peopfc. 
dal, and offered them two conditions, "either to accept 
Christianity, or to fight." Unable to cope with the forces 
the king had brought with him, they too made a virtue of 
necessity, and agreed to be baptized. Sailing next to Lade, 
in Drontheim, Olaf destroyed the temple, despoiled it of its 
ornaments and property, and amongst the rest, of the great 
gold ring, which the apostate Hacon had ordered to be 
made and caused to be hung in the door of the temple. 

' SnoxTO, I. 419. 

2G-1 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. ^^^| 

rnAP. XII. Then at a Thing held in Viken, he denonnced terriMfl 
i.B.895— 997. pdi'ltics flgainst all who dealt with evil spirita, or were 
addicted to aorcery and witchcraft. Summer came round, 
o^iiiim at and Olaf, collecting a large amiy sailed Northwards to Ni- 
daro9, in the Drontheim district, wiiere he summoned tte 
people of eight districts round to a Thing. The bonders, 
however, changed the Thing-token into a war-token, and 
called together all men, free and unfree, to resist this re- 
forming Jehu. Remembering how thej- had succeeded in 
forcing Hacon into some sort of Bubmission, they inter- 
rupted Olaf a proposals by threatening him with violence. 
Perceiving that this time he was numerically weaker, Olaf 
feigned to give way, and expressed a desire to go to thdr 
temples, and sec their customs, and decide which to hold 
by. A Midsummer sacrifice was fixed to take place at 
Maire, the site of an ancient temple in the Drontheim dis- 
trict, and thither all the great chiefs and bonders were 
invited to repair. As the day approached, Ohif ordered 
that a great feast should be prepared at Lade, at which the 
mead-cup went round freely. Next morning he ordered 
early mass to be sung before him, and then summoned a 
House-Thing, to which the bonders repaired. " We held a 
Thing at Froste," said he, " when they were all seated, and I 
proposed to the bonders that they should allow themselves 
to be baptized. But they invited me to oflFer sacrifices, aa 
Hacon had done. So we agreed to meet at Mtere, and 
make a great sacrifice. Now if I, along with yon, shall 
turn again to making sacrifice, then will 1 make the great- 
est of sacrifices that are in use ; and I will sacrifice men. 
But I will not select slaves or malefactors for this, but will 
take the greatest men only to be offered." Thereupon he 
nominated eleven principal chiefs, whom he proposed to 
Sacrifice to the gods for peace and a &uitfiil season, and he 
ordered them to be seized forthwith. 

So unexpected a proposal utterly confoanded the bond- 

Hie Conversion of Norway. 265 

erSy and thej were fain to be baptized, and to remain as chap. xii. 

hostages until the arrival of their relatives. Having taken ^.d. wb-^M- 
these precautions, Olaf set out for the great sacrifice' at 
Msere. Here the whole heathen partj had assembled in 
great force, determined to make the king comply with the 
national customs. Olaf proposed his usual terms, and the mafdeitnpt 
bonders demanded that he should offer sacrifice to thejj^^ 
gods. Mindful of his former promise, Olaf then consented 
to go to their temple and watch the ceremonies, and entered 
it with a great number of his men. As the sacrifice pro- 
ceeded, the king suddenly struck the image of Thor with his 
gold-inlaid axe, so that it rolled down at his feet, and at 
this signal his men struck down the rest of the images 
from their seats. Then coming forth, he proposed his 
usual conditions, and the bonders, after this manifest «proof 
of the powerlessness of their deities, surrendered to his will, 
and gave hostages that they would remain true to Chris- 
tianity, and " took baptism*.'* 

Shortly afterwards Olaf made him a great long ship, BmidVuistrong. 
which he called the Crane, and sailed Northwards to 
Halogaland, imposing Christianity wherever he went. But 
at Godo Isle in Salten Fiord he encountered great oppo- 
sition. There dwelt here, the Saga tells us, a chief of great 
power, but a great idolater, and very skilful in witchcraft, 
named Baud the Strong. Hearing that Olaf was coming, 
lie went to meet him in his own great ship the Dragon. 
A fight ensued, in which Baud was vanquished, and forced 
to retreat to his island. Olaf followed, but when he 
reached Salten Fiord, which is more dreaded even than«ormi»s«ttm 
the famous Maelstrom, such a storm was raging that for a 
whole week he could not make the land. In this diffi-* 
colty he applied for counsel to bishop Sigurd, who accom- 
panied him on this occasion, and whom he had placed over 

^ Snorro, i. 440. For another imtance, Me Bobertaon*i Church Hidofjf, 
n. 4SO. 

266 TJie Missionary History of the Middle Ajea. ^^^ 

0HA7 XI I- the Drontheim diatrict. Sigurd promised to try if "God 
i.i..e9&-997- would give him power to conquer these arts of the devil." 
BiAtpHig^Td Accordingly, airayed in all his maas-robcs, he went to 
■■itMBT.- the bows of tiiu Crane, lit many tapera, kindled incense, set 
the crucifix at the stem, read the JCvungeliat, offered many 
prayers, and, finally, sprinkled the whole ship with holy 
water. Then, declaring thiit the charm could not fail to be 
efficacious, he bade Olaf row into the fiord. Thus encou- 
raged, the king, followed by hia other long ships, rowed 
boldly up the throat of the fiord, and so efficacious had 
been the bishop's prayers, that " the sea was curled about 
their keel-track like aa in a calm, so quiet and still was the 
water ; yet on each side of them the waves were lashtng 
np 80 high that they hid the sight of the mountains," 
After a day and a night's rowing, Goda Isle was reached, 
and an attack immediately made on Baud, as he was sleep- 
ing'. After many of his servants had been murdered, the 
chief was dragged into the presence of Olaf, " I will not 
take thy property from thee," said the king, "but will 
rather be thy friend, if thou wilt make thyself worthy to be 
BO, and be baptized." Hand exclaimed he would never 
believe in Christ, and made his scoff of Ood. Thereupon 
Olaf was wrath, and ordered him to be put to death amidst 
revolting tortures', and having carried off all hie effects and 
his fine dragon-sbip, he made all his men receive baptism, 
and imposed Christianity on all the people of the Fiord, 
and then returned Southward to Nidaros. 

Thus did Olaf " bend his whole mind " to uprooting 

heathenism and old customs, which he deemed contrary to 

LD. 097. Christianity. Iceland, also, did not escape his attentions. 

He had sent Thangbrand thither' on accotmt of his misdeeds, 

' Soorro, I. 448. I. 448. 

* According to the Bagft, t, iot- * Daaent'i BarrU Njal, i. xd, 

pent WM forced down his throat, Soorro, I. 4JO. Piicovered in (be 
which ate ita wa; tlmiugh hia body 
(I) and canaed lua doat£. Bnoiro, 

The Canverawn of Norway, 


t over to the Faith* But that rough ecclesiastic chap. xn. 

no easy matter. Some of the chiefs submitted j^^ ^^ 
1, while others not only refused but composed 4Mfv<»to 

upon him, whereupon Thangbrand slew two '«*«<<• 
lutright. About this time some of the Icelandic 
i a visit to Nidaros, and staid there during the 
here they encountered Olaf, and were obliged, 
inst their will, to answer him many questions 
[and. The following Michaelmas the king had 
\ celebrated witli great splendour, and the Ice- 
me, and listened to the singing and the sound of 

and on the following day were baptized and 
bh much kindness. At this juncture Thangbrand ^^^T*'^' 
md informed the king of his ill success, and how 
ders made lampoons upon him, and threatened to 

Olaf was so enraged that he ordered a horn to 
, and all the Icelanders in Nidaros to be sum- 
id would have put them all to death, had not one 
eminded him of his promise to forgive all who 
im heathenism and became Christians, and de- 
ii Thangbraud's ill success was the result of his 
ice and bloodshed. It was owing to the influence 

It period traces were 
)lder Christianity which 
anted in the island by 
able Irish missionaries, 
be name of Papar, were 
i Orkney, Shetland, and 
Is, and left behind them 
i, and Irish books. But 
a flickering spark, and 
tinguished. No efforts 
towards rekindling it 

981, when a native, 
wald, brought into the 
m bishop named Fred- 
horn he had been oon- 

possibly, belonged to 
9copal Church at Ham- 
atpoet Charlemame se- 
lese Northern missions. 

His success was confined to building 
a church, and baptizing a few prose- 
lytes, but many refused the rite, 
from unwillingness to wear the white 
robes used by the neophytes, and 
worn in Iceland by none but chil- 
dren. One chief proposed that the 
rite should be administered to his 
aged father-in-law, and as it did not 
save him from death soon after, 
he put off his own baptism for some 
years. In 986, the bishop and 
Tborwald were expelled, and took 
refuge in Norway. F. Johannsus, 
Hut. Eecles. liUmditE, Dicuili Liber 
de Mensura Orbit Tems^ Paris, 1807, 
I. 47. Dollinger, in. 19. DasenVs 
Burnt Njal, I. vii. Worsae^s Ikmes 
and Norihmtn, 382, 

2GS The Missionary History of ^e MiiWe Ages. ^^H 

otiAP. xii. of these Icelandic chiefs on their retnm, that the LawtBaa 
Zn 997^ ~ Thorgeir proposed to the Icelandic national council that 
Christianity should be introduced, which resolution was 
supplemented afterwards by another, that all the islanders 
should be baptized, the temples destroyed, and at least the 
public ceremonies of paganism abolished'. 

i.b 1000 ^" *'^^ same year, however, ttiat this resolution was 

passed in Iceland, Olaf's violent efforts to uproot heathen- 
ism in Norway were brought to a close. Worsted in a tre- 
mendous engagement with the united forces of Denmark and 
Sweden, rather than yield to liis enemies, he flung himself 
from the deck of Baud's ship into the sea, and sank beneath 

«iyjwi( ifl the waters". He was the type of a northern Viking. The 
Sagas delight to record instances of his strength and ngili^, 
bow he climbed the Smalsor Horn, an inaccessible peak of 
a mountain in Bremager, and fixed his shield upon it ; how 
he could run across the oars of the Serpent, while bis men 
were rowing ; how he could cast two spears at once, and 
Btrike and cut equally with both hands. In private life, 
they tell us, he was gay, social, and generous ; and though, 
when enraged, he was distinguished for cruelty, " burning 
Bome of his enemies, tearing others to pieces by mad dogs, 
and mutilating or casting down others from high precipices," 
yet he was as dear to his subjects as Ivan the Terrible* to 

' June 14. A.D. 1000. Duent's 
Burai Njal, 1. xcii. Hnorro, t. 465. 
MeCcalfu'a Oxonian in Jctland, p. 'jy. 
Quaritrly Reviete, No, i]i. Il w.>s 
at this Thing that 8110m m»le hii 
funoua speech : " Then came » man 
nmning, and said tbat a etream of 
lava (earth fire) had bunt oat at 
dlfoa, and would run over the homa- 
ttead of Thorod the priert. Then 
the heathen mea began to lay, ' No 
wonder that the godi are wrath at 
mch apeechei as we bav« heard.' 
Then fenom-tbe priait spoke and 
■aid, 'At what, then, were the 
goda wrath, when tUi lava waa 

* SnoTTo, I. 49a. Adam Brem. 

n. 38. 

* Stanlej's LtclurtB on the Eatltrn 
Chwrch, pp. 335,6. "Hie erathet 
which we render 'Terrible, re- 
DUfka Staole;, "in the original 
rather expreuee the idea of ' Awful,' 
the feeling with which the Athe> 
niana would have regarded, not Peri' 
ander or Dionjidiu, bub the Eumen- 
idea. His memoiy itill iirea among 
the peaaani* aa of one who waa a 
Qtar mdttd.'' 

The Conversion of Norway. 


the Bussian people of Moscow ; nay, many of them are said chap. xu. 
to have died of grief for him, and after his death exalted ^^^"loooi 
him to the dignity of a saints 

During the fifteen years which succeeded the death of 
Olaf, Christianity made but slow progress in Norway, 
though its followers were not persecuted by the sons of 
Earl Hacon, whom the conquerors at the great battle of 
Sv5ldr had set over the country. At length, about the 
year 1015, a descendant of Harold Haarfager, Qlaf x.». 1015. 
Haraldson, better known as Olaf the Saint, gathered a o!^^j£!J^,o„. 
party, put an end to the domination of the Swedes and 
Danes in Norway, and became Over-king. His youth had 
been spent in piratical expeditions, and he had shared in 
the invasions of England. Seated on the throne, he in- 
vited a considerable number of clergy from that country*, 
at whose head was bishop Grimkil, who composed a sys- 
tem of ecclesiastical law for the Norsemen. Olaf also 
wrote to the archbishop of Bremen, and requested his aid 
in evangelizing his people. His own measures savoured 
too much of the example set by Olaf Tryggvason. Ac- 
companied by bishop Grimkil, "the horned man," as the 
people called him from the shape of his mitre, he made 
frequent journeys through his kingdom, summoned the 

^ On the legend of bis re-appear- 
ance as an Egyptian abbot, see the 
quotation from Mtinter, in Kobert- 
aon*8 Ch. History, ii. 45 1 . 

' ''Habuit secum multos episco- 
pofl et presbyteros ab Anglia, quo- 
rum monita et doctrina ipse cor 
tuum Deo prseparavit, subjectumque 
popolum illis ad regendum commisit. 
Quoram clari doctrina et virtutibus 
erant Sigafrid, Grimkil, Rudolf et 
Bernard.'* Adam Brem. ii. 55. 
O^pi**" Hittory of the Swedes, p. 37. 
<*llie English missionaries, with 
Scandinavian names," remarks Wor- 
■ae (p. 135), who went over to Scan- 
dinavia in the tenth century, for the 
purpose of converting the heathens. 

were, as tbeir names shoMr, of Dan- 
ish origin, and undoubtRly natives 
of the Danish part of England. 
Sprung from Scandinavian families, 
which, though settled in a foreign 
land, could scarcely have so soon 
forgotten their mother tongue, or 
the customs which they had in- 
herited, they could enter with greater 
safety than other priests on their 
dangerous proselytizing travels in 
the heathen North; where, also, 
from their familiarity with the Scan- 
dinavian language, they were mani- 
festly best suited successfully to 
prepare the entrance of Christianity.*'. 
See also Lappenberg, il 904. 

270 The Miasionary UUtory of ike Middle Ages. 

CHAP. iiL Tilings, and read the laws whicli commanded the obsenr- 
'i^, ance of CLiiatianity; all who refused to otcy them he 
//"rt^^' threatened with confiacalion of property, maiming of the 
^*Ii'i!» body, or death. Having discovered that the old heathen 
sacrifices were still secretly offered in divers places, he 
determined to ascertain the truth of tlieae reports. Sum- 
moning his bailiff In the Drontheim district, he desired to 
know whether the proscribed rites were still celebrated 
there. Under a promise of personal security, the man 
confessed that the old aatumn, winter, and summer sacri- 
fices were still secretly offered, and presided over by twelve 
of the principal bonders. Thereupon Olaf equipped a fleet 
of five vessels and three hundred men, and sailed for Maere- 
fiord, where, in tlie middle of the night, ho surprised the 
guilty parties, put their leader to deaths and divided their 
property amongst his men-at-annB. Then, having taken 
many of the chief bonders aa hostages, he summoned a 
Thing, and obliged the people to submit to the erection of 
several churches, and the location amongst them of several 
AnMSfua Proceeding afterwards to the Uplands, he summoned 

Vtdima: a Thing for the districts of Loar and Hedal, and made 
his usual requisition. Not fat from Loar dwelt a power- 
ful chief named Gudbrand, who hearing of Olaf's arrival, 
sent a Aessage-token calling together the peasantry far 
opiKiuiai^ and wide, to resist these encroachments on the national 
Sl^lt^ faith. "This Olaf," said he in the Thing, "will force 
npon us another faith, and will break in pieces all onr 
gods. He says be has a much greater and more powerful 
god; and it la wonderful that the earth does not burst 
asunder beneath him, or that our god lets him go about 
unpunished when he dares to talk such things. I know 
this for certain, that if we cany Thor, who has always 
stood by us, out of onr temple that is standing on this 
> Samto, a. 15s. 

The Conversion of Norway. 271 

fann, Olaf s god will melt away, and he and his men be chap. xii. 

made nothing, so soon as Thor looks upon them." The Zd. 

bonders shouted applause, and Gudbrand's son was di- }^^^}^^' 

rected to repair Northwards to Breeden, and watch the JJ;SjJ^%<^ 

movements of Olaf, who, with bishop Sigurd, was busy in *»^ **«""'• 

fixing teachers in various places. Hearing rumours of 

opposition, Olaf hurried to Breeden, and in a battle which 

ensued utterly routed the rude peasantry, and captured 

Gudbrand's son, whom he sent to hil father with the news 

of his own speedy approach. Gudbrand, in his alarm, 

consulted the neighbouring chiefs, and it was resolved to 

send an embassy to Olaf to propose that a Thing should 

be summoned to decide whether there was any truth in 

this " new teaching," during which a strict truce should 

be maintained on both sides. Olaf consented, and the iJ!S%dSde 

bonders met to decide the question between the rival SSSr****^'**^ 

Creeds. The king rose first, and informed the assembly 

how the people of the neighbouring districts had received 

Christianity, broken down their houses of sacrifice, and 

now believed in the true God, "who made heaven and 

earth, and knows all things." "And where is thy god?" 

asked Gudbrand, " Neither thou nor any one else can see 

Him. We have a god who can be seen day by day. He 

is not here, indeed, to-day, because the weather is wet; 

but he will appear to thee, and I expect fear will mix 

with thy very blood when he comes into the Thing. But 

since, as thou sayest, thy god is so great, let him send us 

to-morrow a cloudy day, without rain, and then let us 

meet again*." 

His counsel was taken, and Olaf returned to his lodg- iiMeH^Mttf 
ing accompanied by Gudbrand's son, whom he retained as Thor. 
a hostage. As the evening drew on, the king inquired of 
the youth, what the god was like of which his father had 
spoken. Thereupon he learnt that the image was one of 

1 Snono, u, 157. 

'as of f!H^ 

272 The Miasxonary History of the Middle Afft 

CHAP xn. Ttior, that he held a hammer in his hand, was c 

'^, size, but hollow within, that he lacked neither gold nor 
lOiB— 1030. gjiver about him, and every day received foiir cakes of 
bread, besides meat. While the rest retired to bed, the 
king spent the night in prayer, and in the morning rose, 
heard mass, and after eemco proceeded to the Thing, the 
weather being sudi as Gadhrand had desired. The first 
epeaker Was bishop Sigurd, who, arrayed in all his robes, 
witli his mitre on 1^ head, and his pastoral staff in his 
hand, spake to the bonilers abont the tme faith, and tlie 
wonderful works of God. To which one of the bonders 
replied, " Muny things are we told of by this homed man 
with the staff in his hand crooked at the top like n ram's 
horn; but since ye say, comrades, that your god is so 
powerful, and can do so many wonders, tell him to make 
it clear sunshine to-morrow forenoon, and then we shall 
meet here again, and do one of two things,— either agree 
with you about this business, or fight you." And then 
they separated. 
fi^'iS^S *^"^ °^ *'*^ king's retinue was Kolbein the Strong, 

a chief of high birth, who usually carried, besides hia 
sword, a great club. Olaf begged him to keep close to 
' Jiim next morning, and meanwhile sent men to bore holes 

in the bonders' ships, and loose their horses on the farms. 
This done, he again spent the night in prayer, and in 
the grey of the morning, as soon as he had beard mass, 
proceeded to the Thing-field, he and his party ranging 
themselves on one side, Gudbrand and his faction on the 
TiafKwttf other. Soon a great crowd appeared carrying " a great 
«M<iM<i%>iv. man's image" ghttering all over with gold and silver. 
The bonders rose, says the Saga, and did obeisance to the 
"ugly idol," while Gudbrand cried alond to the king, 
"Where is now thy god? I think neither thou nor that 
homed man yonder will lift your beads bo high as in 
former days. See how our idol looks upon yon." Olaf, 

The Qmtersian of Norway. 273 

thereupon, whispered to Kolbein, " If, while I am speaking chap. xii. 
the bonders look elsewhere than towards their idol, see ~~ 


that thou strike him as hard as thou canst with thj club,'* 101&-1080^ 
and then turning to the bonders, he said^ '^ Dale Gudbrand 
would frighten us with his god that can neither hear, nor 
see, nor save himself, nor even move without being carried. 
Ye saj our god is invisible ; but turn your eyes to the 
East, and see Him advancing in great splendour^*' At Ttuu^de- 
that moment the sun rose, and all turned to look. Kol- 
bein was duly on the alert, and immediately struck the 
image with all his might, so that it burst asunder and 
disclosed a number of mice and other vermin which had 
hitherto fattened on the sacrifices offered to it. The bond-* 
ers, terrified at this unexpected result, fled in alarm to 
their ships, which soon filled with water, while others ran 
for their horses, and could not find them. Betreat being 
thus cut off, they returned once more to the Thing-field, 
" I cannot understand," said Olaf when they were seated, 
" what this noise and uproar means. There is the idol, 
which ye adorned with gold and silver, and supplied with 
meat and provisions. Ye see for yourselves what he can 
do for you, and for all who trust to such folly. Take now 
your gold and ornaments that are lying strewn about on 
the grass, and give them to your wives and daughters ; but 
never hang them hereafter upon stock or stone. Here 
are now two conditions between us to choose upon,— ^ 
either accept Christianity, or fight this very day; and the 
victory be to them to whom the god we worship gives it." 
Even Gudbrand could do nothing. " Our god," he said 
to the king, " will not help us, so we will believe in the 
Gt>d thou believest in," and he and all present were bap- 
tized, and received the teachers whom Olaf and bishop 
Sigurd set over them, and Gudbrand himself built a church 
in the valley*. 

1 Snorro, n. 160. * Snorro, n. 161. 



274 T}te Missionary Jlislory of the Middle At/ea, 

Thia story, told with all fbe (juaint vividneaa of 
Saga, illustrates sufficiently the contest which was now 
■ going on thronglioat the length and breadth of the land 
between Christianity and expiring Odinisn:, Wherever 
Olaf went, accompanied by his bishops, much the same 
scene was enacted. Extending hia care to Greenland, the 
Orkneys, and Iceland, he sent to the latter a quanti^ of 
timber for building a church, and a bell to be suspended in 
it ; he also endcavonred to introduce Grimltil's ecclesiasti- 
cal laws'. The example which he himself set to his sub- 
jects waa more satisfactory than that of either of hia pre- 
decessors. He was exemplary in observing the ordinances 
of religion. It was hia custom, the Saga tells ua, to rise 
betimes in the morning, put on his clothes, wash his hands, 
and then go to ehurcii nnd henr matins. Thereafter he 
went to the Thing-meeting, to arrange quarrels, or amend 
the laws, and settled all matters of religion in concert with 
bishop Grimkil and other learned priests. The impartial 
severity with which he adminiatered the lawa, panishiag 
equally both great and small, was one of the chief causes 
6f the rebellion against his rule, which broke out about 
the year 1026, and waa greatly fomented by Canute, king 
of Denmark, who sowed disafTection amongat the chiefe*. 
At last, Olaf determined to leave his kingdom, and fled to 
Bussia, where he was honourably received by Yaroslaff, 
and requested to settle in the country. But while doubting 
between accepting the offer of a province and undertaking 
a pilgrimage to Jerusalem, Olaf Tryggvason is said to bare 
appeared to him in vision, and bade him return to Norway, 
and reclaim hia kingdom. Olaf therefore set out, and 
Bailed to Sweden, where the king Onnnd, hia brother-in- 
law, welcomed him, and aided him in hia plans for re- 

' Sdotto, it. 186. The fint Ice- in ti07. ' Adim Bnnn. Doer. Inul. 

landio biahop, coiuccnted by Adel- a. 35. WilUcb'* CAure& Omg. 1. 4 rg. 
bent of Bremen, vM pUoed *t Kkkft- ■ AiUm Brem. II. 59. L>pp«a- 

Iholt, in ios6, k ttcoad it HoIIdid, ba^ □. *iS, 

The Omveraim of Nonoay. 275 

covering Norway, He no sooner appeared in tte latter ch*p xu, 
country than mnltitndes flocked to his standard, but he TnTiMt 
rejected all who did not comply with the one condition .«(oiij*tort- 
of service — , the reception of baptism. The helmets and *^ 
shields of all who fought on his side were distinguished by 
a white Cross, and on the eve of battle, Olaf directed many '■. 1W0« 
marks of silver to be given for the souls of his enemies, 
who shoald fall in the battle, esteeming the salvation of 
his own men already secured. He also directed that the 
war-shoot should be " Forward, Christ' s-men ! Cross-men .' 
King's-men." The battle was hot and bloody, and Olaf 
was defeated and slain. After his death, his people re-OQMai<BHi 
pented of their rebellion. They fonnd that if Olaf had 
" chastised them with whips," the new ruler, Swend, son of 
Canute, would " chastise them with scorpions," and they 
groaned under the taxes now imposed upon them. Mean- agpwma 
while it began to be whispered that Olaf was a holy man, 
ttnd had worked miracles, and many began to put up prayers 
to him as a powerful saint, and to invoke his aid in dangers 
and difficulties. News of this reached the ears of bishop 
Grimkil, who, during Olaf's absence in Kussia, had re- 
mained in Norway'. He came to Nidaros, and obtained 
leave from Swend to exhume the body of the departed 
king. On opening the coffin, the Saga tells us there " was '^1^^*^ 
a delightful and fresh amell, the king's face had undergone 
no change, but his hair and nails had grown as though he 
had been alive." Alfifa, Swend'a mother, remarked sneer- 
ingly that " people buried in sand rot very slowly, and it 
would not have been so if he had been buried ia earth." 
Grimkil bade her notice his hair and beard. " I will be- 
lieve in the sanctity of his hair," replied Alfifa, " if it will 
not bnm in the fire." Thereupon the bishop put live 
coals in a pan, blessed it, cast incense on it, and then laid 

27G T}ic Mlmonanj IlUtor>f of the Middle Ajca. ^H 

thereon king Oiaf'a liiiir. Tiic incenae bnrat, Lut the bstE 
teniLtiiied unsinged. Alfifji proposed it should be laid on 
unconsecrated fire. But lier unbelief shocked tie by- 
standers ; bishop, and king, and assembled Thing, all agreed 
that Olaf should be regarded as a man " truly holy." Ilia 
body was, therefore, remoTed to St Clement's church', 
which he himself hnd built at Nidaros, and enclosed in a 
shrine mounted with gold and silver, and studded with 
jewels'. And so Olaf became patron saint of Norway, pil- 
griius docked to his tomb*, and churches were dedicated to 
his name, not only in his native land, but in England and 
Irelnnd, and even in distant Constantinople*. 

Tlie story of Olaf the Saint may be taken as a sign of 
tlie change wliich was now coming over the Norseman. 
He was beginning to lay aside his old habits of lawleda 
piracy, and to respect civilized institutions ; the Yiking waa 
gradually settling down into the peaceful citizen'. Expe^ 
ditions to Christian lands, intermixture with the popular- 
tiona, admission to ecclesiastical offices', had gradually 
brought about very different feelings towards Christian in- 
stitutions, than those entertained by the Vikings of the 
eighth and ninth centuries. We are not surprised, then, 
that when Canute had seated himself on the throne of Eng- 
land, and had espoused an English consort, he not only 

> St Clemeat wu the Kamui'R 
patron gtunt. See Wora*e'« Dava 
and Northntn, p. 17. 

■ Snorro, II, ,4ja. Adun Brem. 
n. 59. " St Olare'ii church and 
Toole; Street (in London) *re very 
remarkkble memoriali of the cou- 
venton of tha ScandiiUTiuia oa 
English Boil." Fauli's Jingland, p. 

* " Adcujiutumbamiuquemho- 
dienium diam nutxima Duiuiana opa- 
ntui ■anitatiim minuniU, it» ut a 
longinqnil iHie ngionibus onnSuant 
ii qui ae ia«rllli aancti non dvaperant 
juvari." A'l»mDKm.Dt$er. Imal-^i. 

* Wareae'a i>ana and iVbrttm«n, 
p. 18. It was not till Uie following 
period that the Norwegian aeei of 
KidftTOB, Opolo, Bargen, Hammer, 
and Stevanger uere fnunded. 

' Chriatiimity certainlj put mi 
endto thelifa oftho Viliing. "So- 
haner" (aaa-cockB) were do longer to 
be found, " who ■oomiMl to sleep by 
the corDBT of the hearth, or under 
■ooty beauu." Wonae, p. 111. 

* During the tenth centurj three 
archbwhopa of Daniih faniilj pr«- 
tided over the Engliih Church. On 
the Daniah de^fy, istt Woraae, p. 

I^e Conversion of Norway. 


promulgated severe laws against heathenism^, and under- chap. xn. 
took a pilgrimage to Rome, but dispatched missionaries to TTwso^ 
evangelize his Scandinavian subjects, and strengthen the canuw$kgu- 
cause of Gbristianity throughout the North. His influence 
in Denmark, combined with that of Olaf the Lap-king in 
Sweden, had an important influence on the progress of the 
Scandinavian churches*. Schools and monasteries now onduaidvai' 
gradually rose, bishoprics were founded, the rude Runic ^orth. 
characters retired before the Latin alphabet, agriculture 
was encouraged by the Benedictine monks, and new kinds 
of com were planted, mills were built, mines were opened, 
and before these civilizing agencies' Odinism retired more 
and more from a useless contest, as surely as Brahmanism 
in India is yielding before European science and European 
literature, before the telegraph and the railway, the book 
and the newspaper. 

' Lappenberg, ii. 104. Canute 
bestowed Danish bishoprics on £ng- 
Ush ecclesiastics ; Scania on Bern- 
hard, Fionia on Keinhere, Seeland 
on Gerbrand. Turner's A. -Saxons, 
m. 137. Spebnan^s ConcUict, 553. 
Amongst the objects of worship for- 
bidden are — the sun, the moon, fire 
and flood, fountains and stones, 
trees and logs: also witchcraft, 
framing death- spells, either by lot 
or by torch, or phantoms. 

* Adam Brem. ii. 38, 40,. 44. 

• In 1075, the public services 
in honour of Thor and Odin were 
absolutely interdicted in Sweden. 
In 1056 the see of Skaalholt was 
erected in Iceland, and in 1 107 that 
of HoUum. For a striking picture 
of the Icelanders under the new 
regime, see Adam Brem. Deacrip. 
IfiMul. 35. ^'Episcopum suum ha- 
bent pro rege: ad illius nutum re- 
spicit omnis populus, quicquid ex 
L>eo, ex Scripturis, ex consuetudine 
aiiorum gentium ille constituit, hoc 
pro lege habent.** From Iceland 

Christianity was wafted to the 
dreary shores of Greenland, whither, 
in 986, Eric the Red led out a 
colony that flourished vigorously 
for several centuries (Snorro, m. 
143): a bishop was consecrated for 
Greenland in 10 15, and he presided 
over 13 churches in the Eastern 
part of the country, 4 in the West- 
ern, and 3 or 4 monasteries. Six- 
teen bishops in succession ruled over 
the Greenland Church, attended sy- 
nods in Norway as well as Iceland, 
and were subject to the archbishop 
of Nidaros. The seventeenth bishop 
was unable to land owing to the ac- 
cumulation of ioe on the shore, and 
from the year 140S, the Church 
of Greenland disappears. The popu- 
lation, decimated by the '* Black 
Death,** (Hecker^s Epidemics of the 
Middle Affes, p. 28), fell a prey to 
the Esquimaux. On the tradition 
of an Irish missionary who crossed 
over from Greenland into North 
America, and died a martyr, see 
Miinter, i. 561. Hardwick^ 119. 



*,.D. 800—1000. 

"Literas deoiquo Slavoniciu ft Coutantina qaodun philiunplio reprrtM, 
quibtiA Deo iKudefi tlebile reaonint, jure landaitius, et in eailuiii linguS 
Cbiiiti Domini ncatri pneeonu ut eDurentur et opara jubemni." 

>. XIII. Let us now turn from the blue fiords and pine-foreste of 
dKHioH Scandinavia to the great Slavonian family of nations, whoae 
wide territory extended Eastward from the Elbe to the slug- 
gish waters of tiie Don, and from tlie Baltic on the North 
to the Adriatic on the South. While for three centuries the 
Tetitonio tribes had been yielding to the influences of Chris- 
tianity, scarcely any impression had been made on the vast 
population which clustered together on either side of the 
Danube, and thence spread onwards into the very heart of 
the modem Russian empire'. " They were still rude, war- 
like, and chiefly pastoral tribes," says Milman of one por- 
tion of this great family, " inaccessible alike to the civili- 
zation and the religion of Rome. The Eastern empire had 
neither a Charlemagne to compel "by force of arms, nor 
zealous monkish missionaries k, like those of Germany, to 
penetrate the vast plains and spreading morasses of the 

* Kruinski'i SfformaHon in Pa- 
' For MiM renuA* an the noa- 

miRmanuy ch&ncter of the Eaat- 
ern ChuitJi, see filuilqp'a Stuttrm 
Churti, 34. 

Missions among the Slavic or Slavonian Races. 279 

xebarbarised province on either side of the Danabe; to chap, xiil 
found abbacies and bishoprics, to cultivate the soil, and 
reclaim the people*." 

(i.) With the death, however, of the great apostle of «• BvUgaria. 
Sweden STuchronizes one of the earliest missionary efforts 
made amongst any portion of this great family, A map of 
Europe in the sixth century discloses to us the Bulgarians 
seated along the Western shore of the Euxine, between 
the Danube and the Dnieper. About the year 680 they had -^'»>- 680. 
moved in a southerly direction into the territory known 
in ancient times, as Macedonia and Epirus. Here they 
bestowed their names on the Slavonians, whom they con- 
quered, gradually adopted their language and manners, 
and by intermarriage became entirely identified with them*. 
Unable to return either in a Northerly or Westerly direc- 
tion, in consequence of the formidable barrier which the irrup- 
tion of more powerful nations had interposed in their rear, 
they extended their conquests to the South of the Danube, 
and became involved in continual struggles with the Greek S(!k'X5©iSl'* 
emperors. In the year 811 the Emperor Nicephorus ad- ^"•^*^' 
vanced into tlie centre of their kingdom, and burnt their 
sovereign's palace. The insult was terribly avenged. 
Three days after his disastrous success, he was himself . 
surrounded by the collected hordes of his barbarous foes, 
and fell ignominiously with the great officers of the empire. 
His head was exposed on a spear, and the savage warriors, 
true to the traditions of their Scythian wilderness, fashioned 
his skull into a drinking-cup, enchased it with gold, and 
used it at the celebrations of their victories^. But these 
border-wars were destined to produce more beneficent re- 
sults. In the early part of the ninth century, when Theo- 
dora was Empress of Byzantium, a monk named Cupharas 

1 Milman's Latin Christianity, n. Krasinski's Lectwrts on Slavonia, 

4 '9- P- 35, «. 

* G;bboD, VII. 65, n. {ed. Smitii). » GibboD, VU. 67. 


I 280 2^ Mlssionar>j Hlstorif of ike Middle Age». 

CHAP, xm, fell into the hands of the Bulgayan prince Bo; 

, P ggQ^ At the same time, a sister of the prince was in captivity at 

iiaa^ua^tu Constantinople, and it was projiosed by the Empress that 

""■ the two captives should be exchanged. During the period 

of ]ier captivity the princesB had adopted the Christian 

faith, and on her return she laboured diligently to deepen 

in her brother's mind tlie impression whieh had already 

I teen made by the captive monk. Like Clovis, the prince 

long remained unmoi-ed by her entreaties. At length a 
famine, during which he had vainly appealed to his native 
deities, induced him to have recourse to the God of hia 
sister. The result was such as he desired, and he was 
UMiaH.bip. baptized by Pliotius the patriarch of Constantinople, the 
ii"<. Emperor himself standing sponsor by proxy, and the Bnl- 

• B. eei— BM. S*^"*^" prince adopting his name'. A short time afterwards 
the prince requested the Emperor to send him a painter for 
the decoration of his palace. A monk, named Methodius, 
was accordingly sent, and was desired by Bogoris to adorn 
his hall with paintings representing the perils of hunting. 
As he appeared anxious for terrible subjects', the monk 
*l'^al'^&t c^P^^y^^ himself in painting the scene of the " Last Jndg- 
judgmmt. ment," and so awful was the representation of the fate of 
obstinate heathens, that, not only, was Bogoris himself in- 
xlaced to put away the idols he had till now retained, but 
even many of the court were so moved by the sight, as to 
desire admission into the Christian Church. So averse, 
however, was the great bulk of the nation to the conversion 
of their chief, that his baptism, which was celebrated at 
midnight, was kept a profound secret, the disclosure of 
which was the signal for a formidable rebellion in favour 
of the national gods, and Bogoris could only put it down 
by resorting to the severest measures. Pbotins had given 
to the prince at his baptism, a long letter, or rather a 
treatise on Christian doctrine and practice, as also on the 
' Cedrani AwtaUi, p. 443. * Dud. * lUd. 

Mianona among the Slavic or Slavonian Races. 281 

daties of a soyereign. But its language was far too refined chap. xin. 
for his comprehension, and his difficulties were ^further in- ^^.888. 
creased by the arrival of missionaries, Greek, Boman, and S*2*ij;^^ 
Armenian, who all sought his union with their respective -JJJJJiSS*^ 
Churches, and all propounded different doctrines. Thus 
perplexed by their rival claims, and unwilling to involve 
himself in more intimate relations with the Byzantine 
court, Bogoris turned to the West for aid, and made an 
application to Louis II. of Germany, and, at the same 
time, to Nicolas the Pope, requesting from both assistance il^SS^^ 
in the conversion of his subjects, and from the latter, more *''**• 
intelligible advice than he had received from the patriarch 
of Constantinople. 

The Pope replied by sending into Bulgaria Paul, bishop ad. sea. 
of Populonia, and Formosus bishop of Portus, with Bibles fS^,^^^ 
and other books ^ At the same time he also sent a long 
letter treating of the various subjects on which Bogoris 
had requested advice, under one hundred and six heads. 
Respecting the conversion of his subjects, he advised the 
Bulgarian chief to abjure all violent methods, and to appeal 
to the weapons of reason only; apostates, however, ought 
to meet with no toleration, if they persisted in refusing 
obedience to the monitions of their spiritual fathers. As 
to objects of idolatrous worship, they ought not to be treated 
with violence, but the company of idolaters ought to be 
avoided, while the Cross, he suggested, might well take the 
place of the horse-tail as the national standard. All re- 
course to divination, charms, and other superstitious prac* 
tices, ought to be carefully abolished, as also polygamy, 
and marriage within the prohibited degrees, and the spi- 
ritual relationship contracted at the font ought to be 
esteemed equally close with that of blood. As to prayer 
for their forefathers, who had died in unbelief, in respect 

' See Jaff^B Rtjetta Pont, Rom. Neander, V. 4)6. 

282 The Missionary History of the Middle Age* 

CHAP. xin. to which the simple prince had requested advice, "anoli h 
j.T~B«! ^"''1 mark of filial affection could iioi be allowed for a 
moment." With these precepts bearing on tbcir spiritnal 
welfare, were mingled others designed to soften and ciTilize 
their savage manners. The Pope exhorted them to greater 
gentleness iu the treatment of their slaves, and protested 
against their barbarous code of laws, their use of the rack 
in the ca^ of suspected criminals, and llieir too freqaent 
employment of capital punishment Finally, as to tlie 
I request of the prince that a patriarch might be sent him, 

the Pope could not take such an important step till he had 
more accurate information as to the numbers of the Bul- 
garian Church; meanwhile he sent a bishop, who should 
be followed bv oihers, if it was found necessary, and as 
Boon aa the Church was organized, one with the title of 
A.B.8eT- archbishop or patriarch was promised. 
Jjg;2t^ ^^'3 intervention, however, of the Western Church was 

**"* no sooner announced at Constantinople, than it stirred to 

a still greater heat the flames of jealousy which had alreodjr 
been kindled between tlie two Churches. Nicolas claimed 
the Bulgarians, because their countiy had always been in- 
cluded within the boundaries of the Boman empire; Fbo- 
tius claimed them, as having baptized their prince, and 
introduced amongst them the genns of Christian civiltza- 
orfOar tiou. He proceeded even to summon a council at Con- 
pStfiHt. stantinople, and, in a circular epistle to the patriarchs of 
Alexandria, Jerusalem, and Antioch, denounced the no- 
warranted intrusion of the Pope, enumerated the various 
errors of the adlierents of the Western Church, their pecu- 
liar usages in respect to fasting, the celibacy of their clergy, 
the second unction, the heretical addition to their creed, 
and all other points whereon the Churches differed. Re- 
criminations on the one side were met by recriminations on 
the other. Hincmar of Rheims, Odo bishop of Beauvais, 
^neas of Paris, Batramn of Corbie, composed treatises in 

Mtsatons among the Slavic or Slavonian Races. 283 

reply to the charges of Photius, and in defence of the purity chap, xiil 

of the Roman see. The Bulgarians meanwhile, who had ^ ^ g^^ 

raised this theological tempest, again began to waver as to 

the quarter whence they would receive their creed. At 

length, in spite of the solemn warnings of Pope John VIII. 

as to the danger they would inevitably incur by connecting 

themselves with the Greeks, who were "always involved 

in some heresy or other," they united themselves morei%<ftifaoWaw 

closely with the Byzantine patriarchate, and a Greek arch- Bifxat^UfupatH- 

bishop, with Greek bishops, chosen from among the monks, 

were admitted into the country, and exerted supremacy 

over the Bulgarian Church. The reception of Christianity 

in Bulgaria paved the way for its admission in other quar-» 

ters. The Chazars of the Crimea, the Slavic tribes in the 

interior of Hellas, the Servians, who extended from the 

Danube to the Adriatic, and other tribes, were more or 

less affected by Christian influences, though in several 

cases, they were weakened by the equally zealous efforts 

of Jewish and Mussulman propagandists. 

(ii.) But a more important portion of the South-Sla- u. Moravia. 
vonic area was now to be added to the Church. In the 
early part of the ninth century the kingdom of Moravia 
comprised a considerable territory, extending from the fron- 
tiers of Bavaria to the river Drina, and from the banks of 
the Danube, beyond the Carpathian mountains, to the river 
Styri in southern Poland. Falling within the ever-widen- 
ing circle of the empire of Charlemagne, it had acknow- 
ledged him and his son Louis as its suzerains. According Earivj^fimisef 
to the settled policy of these princes, thfe conquered terri- an^.L^HSu- 
tory had received a compulsory form of Christianity, and 
a regionary bishop had endeavoured, under the auspices 
of the archbishop of Passau, to bring about the conversion 
of the people. But these efforts had been productive of 
very pai-tial results. Foreign priests unacquainted with 
the Slavonic language were not likely to attract many to 

281 The aUsumary History of the Middle Aiji 

cif*P. xfTL their I^tin Bervices, or to prevent the great iHiIk of ft*' 
TaBM. peoplfi reltipKing into heathenism. 

u^Muiarn- But in ihc jcar 863 Sloravia inftde ^reat eflbrts tu 

ft^ftrtliCn" '"'^"^^'^ ifi* independence, and Roatislav, its raler, requested 
'™**^ the Greek Emperor Michael to Bend him learned men, who 
mif;Iit trnnslfite the Scriptures into the Slavonic tongue, i 
and arrange the public worship upon a definite baais, 
" Our Ifind ia baptized," ran the message, " but we have 
i\(t tciLcherH to instruct u.i, and translate for us the sacred 
liooltH. We do not understand either the Greek or the 
Latin language. Some teach ua one thing, eome another; 
therefore wo do not understand the meaning of the Scrip- 
tures, neither their import. Send ua teachers who may 
explain to UH the Scriptures, and their meaning." When 
the Emperor Michael heard this, he called together his 
philoHophers, and told them the message of the Slavonic 
princes; and the philosophers said, "There is at Thessn- 
lonica a man named Leon : he lias two sons, who both 
know well the Slavonic language, and are both clever 
philosophers." On hearing this, the Emperor sent to Thes- 
Halonien to Loon, saying, " Send to us thy sons MethodiuB 
and Constnntiue'; which hearing, Leon straightway sent 
tC^f.a'' *'"''"' "^"'^ when they came to the Emperor, he said to 
tiwLuiiiM. them, ' The Slavonic lands have sent to me, requesting 
teachers that may translate for them the Holy Scriptures.' 
And, being persuaded by the Em|>eror, they went into the ] 
Slavonic land, to llostislav, to Sviatopolfc, and to Kotzel; 
n^f-MM and having arrived, they began to compose a Slavonic , 
■»» " i ' . alphabet, and translated the Gospels and the Acts of the 
AiMwtlcs; and the Slavonians rejoiced, hearing the great- 
ness of Gi>d in their own language; after which they | 
translated the Psalter, and the other books'." In the com- ' 
position of this alphabet these eminent missionaries made 

Missions among the Slavic or Slavonian Races. 285 

use of Greek letters, with the addition of certain other chap, xiil 
characters, partly Armenian and Hebrew, and partly of ^^ gsa. 
their own invention, the total number amounting to forty*, andtranriate 
This innovation on the methods employed by Western 'Sckiftunt, 
ecclesiastics was bles3ed with signal success, many of the 
people were converted, and several churches were erected. 
For four years and a half their work went on in peace. 
But, in the meantime, they were regarded with no friendly cnpnguimof 
feelings by the Grerman clergy, and their introduction of a «<»w. ^ 
Slavonic alphabet was looked upon as little short of heresy. 
Intelligence of their strange proceedings reached the ears ^»- MS. 
of Pope Nicolas, who summoned Cyril and Methodius 
to Rome. On their iirst arrival in Moravia, they had 
brought with them a body supposed to be that of St 
Clement of Rome, which Cyril boasted to have found on 
the shores of the Tauric Chersonese, whither Clement had 
been banished by Trajan. With this sacred relic ih^j TheMMnnnrici 
repaired to Rome, and its production produced no little -«<»"«. 
sensation. Admitted to an audience with Adrian, they 
recounted the method of their proceedings, and offered 
their creed for examination. Adrian pronounced himself 
satisfied, and Methodius was appointed Metropolitan of 
J^oravia and Pannonia, but without any fixed see. 

. Thus armed with the approval of the sovereign Pon- 
tiff of the West, Methodius* returned to the scene of his 
labours, and achieved still greater success. But political 
troubles soon arose. Rostislav was betrayed by his nephew 
into the hands of Louis of Germany, dethroned, and 
blinded. Deprived of the protection of his patron, Metho- 3f<rf*^*«#»*. 

* . * . . turns to Alo- 

dius was constrained to retire from his dangerous post. ~«^- 
The suspicions aroused by his Slavonic Bible and Liturgy ^'^' ®^®' 

^ On the vexed question of the at Bome, or, aooording to another 

Slavonic alphabet, see Krasinski's account, to have retireid to a con* 

Mfformation in Polandf lo, n. vent. Gieseler, il, i. 953, 

' Cyril would seem to have died 

r AM; ^da JSUb Aie.. 


cM^F mz fclkwd Ua ato Us letoait n 1 ^"— 'i*. and rendei 
,, ,1^ ■< ! ! >■ 1 I M J- a wbbkA JKmw^ a» Kane to ^fend himself 
^y» Wfen 99ft Ais Tin. n«a tkii BsBti^ mfter much 

WUtSbvHiKi^lBhelaiLibesj. It is said tbnt tijc 

FmaW ma^km ««■ mmantA Vj laneatperii^ the rerse 

,, — ^^ « tfe hriw - Am» Ik X«< ^ 9> -^wu." Thia 

gSgST* wrst iHMsti to tim to W dnRve. It cooM hardly 

""^ ■»■ Oal *• Cbotor'W |nH vm to be restiicteil to 

An« laeMettv lUscw. Owclk. aad Lstni. He who 

foi M.4 thae hagviscs ■■&! hsvc finwd others for Ilis 

•«« |^lj'> Oke MM&BS^ how a ie t. wu umexed to tliU 

«ew»Mi^ Xhm Hot ^H* k BcldBBted in one at Itasi 

•f Ae iMtfWWjLi if Ac Clavek, other Gnek or Lalio'. 

> RtvxBHl to the Moravian 

e af Hack afpeGitiaa, maintained 

ftn^A*giaa|Mb^lfcaCtkelMgHeeofeacb sepanle 

KMiiM «( Mfe to pi« flM^ ■• pdtte vonUp, to a sacred 

iM^M^e fccdv to Ik ^"SF. '^■t " ibdf adapted for 

lAg. Bot. after his 

■ !<' ife GoMBB Jmjj dcvpened into 

ptcSM^i^ wA ■Hf af th* Gmk Sbfonic clergy were 

A:\vm m/t «f X«kvift. BwfciR ki^ israded hj the 

fi^w Xagni^ «r Bmagmiamm\ Kvara eeased to exist, 

as tm mkfmiiat sk^ taA «■ ^ mexatioD of otder, 

vMKltA to th* liieiin ar BdkMB. 

ns among the Slavic or Slavonian Races, 287 

he latter country, once the home of the Celtic chap. xiii. 
the Boil, then occupied by the Marcomanni, and, ~^ 
migration with the Goths and Alani to the lu. uokemia. 
t of Europe, by the Slavonic nation of the 
experienced, as might be expected, the effects 
ssioriary labours of Methodius. The existence 
5 influences in the same direction might be 
om the fact, that fourteen Bohemian chiefs were 
kt Eatisbon in the year 844. But such conces- 
lie dominant religion of the German court were 
t in their effects. About the year 871, the 

Duke Borziwoi, who was still heathen, visited i>«iteft>reti#»< 
of the Moravian prince Swatopluk. The story ^^^sitophik, 

on his arrival, he was received with all due 
ut, at dinner, was assigned by the Moravian 
gether with his attendants, a place on the floor, 

by Henry the Fowler, 
IT Merseburg. (Men- 
ny, I. 321.) Twenty 
)tho the Great inflicted 
a terrible defeat^ and 
g with the Avars, they 
I within their present 
md began to value the 
dvilization. Two chiefs 
been baptized in 949, 
•sed into I^aganism, and 
uld make but little im- 
lis rude subjects. The 

another chief, named 
by the exertions of nu- 
itian captives, kept the 
ark alive till the year 
*iligrin, bishop of Pas- 
mally commissioned by 
[I. to undertake the 
n of the country. Ap- 
bishop of Lorch (Jaff(^'s 
Ram. p. 33?), and aided 
3rgy, he strove to carry 
3ion. But his success 
erable. A more auspi- 
^med in 997 on the ac- 

Bon of 6eifia» named 

VTaik, or Stephen, as he was called 
at his baptism by Adelbert, Arch- 
bishop of Prague. (Pertz, Mon, 
Germ, xiii. ^31.) The new king, 
amidst much opposition, and in spite 
of formidable resistance established 
schools, and Benedictine monaste- 
ries, divided his kingdom into eleven 
dioceses, under the archbishop of 
Gran, and invited monks and clergy 
from every quarter. To encourage 
pilgrimage and open communica- 
tions wim other countries he found- 
ed a collie for the education of his 
countrymen at Home, and monaste- 
ries and hospitals at Ravenna, Con- 
stantinople and Jerusalem. (Pertz, 
XIII. 235. DoUinger, iii. 34. Gies- 
eler, ill. 463.) His zeal won the 
fervent gratitude of Silvester II., 
who bestowed upon him the title of 
king, and invested him with the 
most extensive authority in ecclesi- 
astical affairs. But with his suc- 
cessor a reaction set in, and as late 
as 1 06 1 the old and the new religion, 
were struggling for the mastery. 
^ Krasinski's Lectum, p. 43, 


288 The Missionary Hittory of iht Middle ^ff«KM 

oiiiP, xm. as bcin» tainted with heath enism. Thia attracted 

^1, g,i_ " notice of Methodius, who waa seated with Swatopluk at 
the high table, and ho expressed to the Duke his surprise 
tlmt one ao powerful as hiinseU" should occupy a positioo no 
higher than that of a swineherd. '"What may I hope to 
gain by becoming a Christian?" inquired tJie Duke. "A 
place higher than all kings and princes," was the reply.'-'J'J'^ Therenpon he was baptized, together with thirty of his 
attendants. Subsequently his wile Ludmilla, and tlietr 
two sons, embraced the faith, and became eager for ita 
propagation amongst their people. A Moravian priest had 
accompanied Borzlwoi to his kingdom, and a partial suc- 
cess rewarded the efforts of the court, which was itself 

PifH, ruij^i divided as to tlie admission of the new creed. The pjetr 
of Wratislav, his successor, kept alive the tiickering spark, 
and the energetic Ludmilla hoped to mainttun it daring 
another generation hy superintending the education of his 
two sons, Wenceslav and Boleslav. But on the death of 

jlh. 935. Wratislar in 925, a reaction set in. His widow, Drago- 
mira, who had never laid aside her heathen errors, did all 
in her power to eradicate Christianity ; she murdered the 
Tirtuons Ludmilla, banished the clergy, and destroyed the 
churches. The young princes differed widely in their 
sentiments with respect to the new faith. Wenceslav, who 
succeeded to the throne, in spite of all the efforts of his 
mother, continued faithful to the lessons taught him by 

wimfa-nc Ludmilla. His life was distinguished by exemplary in- 
tegrity, and he was on the point of exchanging his crown 
for the cowl of a monk, when he was basely attacked by 
his brother Boleslav, while performing hia devotions, and 
killed in the tumult that ensued. 

4.B. S3B. The new king, who was sumamed the " Cruel," offered 

no quarter to his Christian subjects. A bitter peraecutioa 
broke out, the clergy were expelled, the churches and 
monasteries razed to the ground. Bat, after a period of 

Mtsstof^s among the Slavic or Slavonian Races. 289 

fourteen years, the success of the Emperor Otho 1/ obliged chap. xiir. 
him to change his policy, nor could he purchase peace j^^nTose! 
except by consenting to leave his Christian subjects unmo- Sj^jjf^ j 
lested, and to offer no obstacle to the propagation of their 
faith. The infant Church of Bohemia now had rest, and, ^•»- W7-«99. 
under the new king, Boleslay "the Pious," whom his 
father, with a strange inconsistency, had devoted to a re- 
ligious life, experienced a very different fortune. Boleslav 
II. was as eager to extirpate paganism as his father had 
been to maintain it, and by his exertions, supported by 
the authority and influence of the Emperot Otho, a more 
definite organization was imparted to the Bohemian Church, 
and a bishopric established at Prague*. The first bishop Ditthmar 
was a Saxon named Diethmar ; his successor Adelbert, who PraJ^ 
had been educated at Magdeburg, and whose Bohemian 
name was Wogteich, distinguished himself by energy and a.d.982. 
activity in his duties, and erected many churches and mo- 
nasteries. But though a door was opened for missionary 
exertions, there were "many adversaries" who hampered 
and restricted the work. Pagan customs and a pagan 
party still exerted a baneful influence. Polygamy BJiiAdeibart*sat- 
incestuous marriages were unchecked, and a divorce could 
be obtained for the slightest cause. The clergy were sunk 
in the grossest immorality, and the slave-trade was carried 
on with unblushing effrontery, Jewish slave-merchants dis- 
posing of captives to heathens, even, it is said, for the 
purpose of sacrifice'. The bishop determined to undertake 
the arduous task of reformation* But his zeal was not 
tempered with prudence. Educated at Magdeburg, he had 
learnt to regard the Slavonic Liturgy, which had found 
its way into Bohemia from Moravia, with the utmost sus- 
picion. His determination to uphold the Boman " uses " 
provoked the most strenuous opposition, and he retired in 

1 On this emperor's proselytiziDg ' Wiltsch, I. 415, 

ware, Bee Snorro, L 391 — 393. * Dollinger, ui. a;. 


290 The Miasioitary History of the Middle Ages. 

■ ciiAP, XIII. despair to the seclusion of a convent. The voice of » 
• iTBMi Roman Synod recalled him to resume hia work iu 994. 
Kriira la Pnw- He returned, but only to fly a second time, and finally 
repaired to Prussia, with a commission from Gregory V. 
to cvangelizo that country, where, as we shall see, he met 
witli hia death. What he had unsuccessfully endeavoured 
to bring about in Bohemia, was achieved by a later pri- 
* i> mate, named Severus, Under hi3 influence the Slavonic i 

~ ■ ritual disappeared more and more, and the Dohemiau i 
Church was organized on the model of the orthodox Ger- 
man chuTcLes'. 
\y. nuuia. ir. And now, reserving for a Bubsequent Chapter the 

history of missionary exertions among the more Northern , 
members of the great Slavonic family of nations, let oa 
turn in an Easterly direction towards those Scythian wilds 
and level steppes, where arose the Russian kingdom of 
tB. 893. Ruric the Norman. We need not linger over the legends 
iSl^mStiau. of St Andrew, the Apostle of Scytliia', nor the traditions 
of early missionary success which adorn the pages of 
Photius'. Before the close of the tenth century, news of 
the great kingdom rising round Novgorod and Kieff had, 
indeed, been carried to Constantinople by the tradeiB 
passing down the great rivers, and tangible proof of the 
rising spirit of enterprise had heen afforded, as early as 
867, by the Russian armies, which appeared before the 
Byzantine capital, but it was scarcely known how vast 
were the resources of the great Slavonic empire, which had 

' GieselcT, II. 458 n. 17. Hard- 
vick'a CAurrA HUtory, Middlt Age, 

5.i]5n. Inlo6o, tbs Synod of SaJona 
eclnred Methodiui a heretic, and 
tb« SlBVonian alphabet a diabolical 
inTeotian. Kruingki'g Btformatioa 
in Poland, p. 17. 

* "Aacetiding up and penetnting 
b; the Dnieper into the deserta of 
Scjthia, he planted the flnt croM on 
the bilk of Kieff, and 'Sea fou,' 

aaid he to bis discinla, 'these hilli! 
Oa tbe« bilk ihall ahioe the Ug^( 
of divine grace. There ibaU be here 
a p'tat cit;, and Gud iba]! have in 
it Tnanj cburcbei to Hlx Name.*'* 
Nestor, (quoted InMuunvivS'sCAurvA 
u/ Ruaia, tranelated by Blaokmore, 
p. 7. Stanley'«fi'cn(«Ti('Al(rrA,p.aj|j, 
Fabricii Lax Erang. p. 471. 
' Epitt. II. j8. Hardwiclt, ug b. 

Missiona among the Slavic or Slavonian Races. 291 

already expanded from Moscow to the Baltic on the one ohap ziii 
hand, and to the Euxine on the other. But now it was, ^^ 3^ 
while the Western Church was contemplating with awe 
and terror the gradual coming of the Day of Doom, that 
^' the Eastern Church, silently and almost unponsciouslyi 
bore into the world her mightiest offspring ^" 

In the year 966 the Princess Olga, accompanied by a ad. 955. 
numerous retinue, left Kieff on a journey to the Byzantine i-^^wyo. 
capital, and there, whether from predisposing causes al- 
ready at work", or from the effect of what she saw*, was 
induced to embrace Christianity, and received the name of 
Helena, having for her sponsor the Emperor Porphyroge- 
nitus. Betuming to her native land she exerted herself 
with exemplary diligence to instil the doctrines of her new 
creed into the mind of her son Swiatoslav. But on this 
prince her exhortations produced little or no effect. He 
was the very type of the rough Varangian warrior. 
" Wrapt in a bearskin," writes Gibbon, " he usually slept 
on the ground, his head reclining on a saddle; his diet 
was coarse and frugal, and, like the heroes of Homer, his 
meat (it was often horseflesh) was boiled or roasted on the 
coals*." For him the gods of his ancestors were suffi- 
cient, and the entreaties of his mother were thrown away. 
Her grandson, Vladimir, seemed likely to become a more a.d. 930. 
docile pupil, though the zeal he subsequently displayed 
for the savage idolatry of his countrymen was not at first 
calculated to inspire much confidence*. 

^ Stanley*B Eattem Churchy p. 194. purple." Gibbon, vn. 93, ed. Smith* 

• Dollioger, lu. 30. Hardwick, * Gibbon, vii. 89, ed. SmiUi. 

p. 1 29. B In bis reign Uie only two Chris- 

' The Emperor ConBtantine For- tian martjrrs, (of the Russian chroni- 

phyrogenitua has described, with mi- clers), the Varangians Theodore and 

Dute diligence, the ceremonial of her John, "were put to death by the 

reception in his capital and palace. fury of the people, because one of 

The steps, the titles, the salutations, them, from natural affection, had 

the banquet, the presents, were ex- refused to give up his son, when he 

quisitely adjusted to gratify the va- had been devoted by the prince Yla- 

nity of the stranger, with due reve- dimir to be offered as a sacrifice to 

rence to the superior majesty of the Peroun." Mouniviefir, p. 10. 


292 The MUswnary Uislory of the Middle Ages. 

But he was not to remain long hailing between two 
opinions. The desire of converting so powerful a chief 
attracted missionaries from many qnartcrs. First, accord- 
ing to the Russian chronicler, came the Mahometan Bul- 
garians from the Volga; hot " the mercy of Providence 

ijfirw.. inspired Vladimir to give them a decided refusal." Then 
came Jews from amongst the Chazars, priding themselves 
on tlieir religion, and telling many stories of the ancient 
glories of Jerusalem. " But where is your country?" said 
the Prince. " It is ruiuecl by the wralh of God for the 
sins of our fathers," was the reply. Thereupon the inter- 
view was cut short by the decisive answer, " How can I 
embrace the faith of a people whom tlieir God has atterly 

j^njnMiic.1- abandoned?" Nest appeared Western doctors from Ger- 
many, wlio would havii had tlic prince embrace the creed 
of Western Christendom : bat Vladimir knew of no form 
of Christianity save such as was taught at Byzantium. 
They too, therefore, retired without effecting their object. 

4 attfkwOt- Last of all came one who is styled by the chronicler, " a 
philosopher from Greece." He reasoned with Vladimir 
long and earnestly; and learning that he had received 
emissaries from the Jews, wlio accused the Christians of 
worshipping a God who had been crucified, he took the 
opportunity of relating the true account from beginning to 
end. Then he went on to speak of "judgment to come," 
and showed him on a tablet the scene of the Last Day. 

pwiip«or(»* On the right were the good going into everlasting joy, 
on the left were the wicked departing into eternal fire. 
" Happy are those on the right," said Vladimir; "woe to 
the sinners who are on the left." " If thou wishest to 
enter into happiness with those on the right," replied the 
missionary, " consent to he baptized'," 

Vladimir reflected in silence, but deferred his decision. 
Next year, however, he sent for certain of his nobles, and 

^ Mutrnvicff, p. II. Neander, T. 4J3. 

Mijmans amon/j the Slavic or Slavofiian Racei. 293 

informed them of the different deputations he had received, ghap. xni. 
" Every man praises his own religion," said they; " send, ^p^^ 
therefore, certain of thy court to visit the different churches, 
and bring back word." Messengers were accordingly dis- tiau^otS^ 
patched to the Jews and Mahometans, as also to the Ger- 
man and Eastern churches. Of all they returned the 
most unfavourable report, except only the Church of Con- 
stantinople. Of this they could not say enough. When |J|^]Jf 
they visited the Byzantine capital, they were conducted 
to the church of St Sophia, then, perhaps, the finest eccle- 
siastical structure in the world. The patriarch himself 
celebrated the Liturgy with the utmost. pomp and magni- 
ficence. The gorgeous processions, the music, the chant-* 
ing, the appearance of the deacons and sub-deacons with 
lighted torches, and white linen wings on their shoulders, 
before whom the people prostrated themselves, crying 
" Kyrie Eleison," all this so utterly different from any- 
thing they had ever witnessed amidst their own wild 
steppes, had such an overpowering effect on the Russian 
envoys, that, on their return to Vladimir, they spake not 
a word in favour of the other religions, but of the Greek 
Church they could not say enough. " When we stood in 
the temple," said they, " we did not know where we were, 
for there is nothing else like it upon earth : there in truth 
God has His dwelling with men; and we can never for- 
get the beauty we saw there. No one who has once 
tasted sweets will afterwards take that which is bitter : nor 
can we now any longer abide in heathenism." Thereupon 
the Boyars said to Vladimir, " If the religion of the Greeks 
had not been good, your grandmother Olga, who was the 
wisest of women, would not have embraced it. The 
weight of the name of Olga decided her grandson, and he 
said no more in answer than these words, ** Where shall 
we be baptized*?" 

^ Mouravieff, pp. i9, 353. Stanley's Eoitern ChMxh, p. 300. 

294 The Missionary Hiatory of iTie Middle Ages. 

CHAP. xriL Still, like Clovla, he hesitated before takinfj bo im- 
*o 988. ' P<'"^"t ^ Btep, ftiid "led by a sense which lind not yet 
viadijfir been purged by grace," according to the chronicler, he 
OicriuK. tliought fit to overawe the country whence he intended to 

receive hia new religion, and laid siege to Cherson in the 
Tauride. The aiege was long and obstinate. A priest at 
length informed the Russian chief by meana of an Brrow 
shot from the town that its safety depended on cutting off 
the supply of water from the aqueducts. Elated at the 
prospect of success Vladimir vowed to lie baptized aa Boon 
aa he should be master of the place. Ilia wish was grati- 
fied, and forthwith he sent ambaasadora to Constantinople 
to demand the hand of Anne, sister of the Emperor Basil. 
Compliance was promised on condition of his accepting 
Christianity. Vladimir declared his conaent, and the sis- 
ter of the Emperor was constrained to go, and she sailed 
for Cheraon accompanied by a large body of clergy. 
A D 968 ^^'^ arrival hastened the baptism of the prince, which 

^i^of was celebrated in the church of the Most Holy Mother of 
God. Nor, according to the chronicler, was it unaccom- 
panied with miracle. Vladimir was suffering from a com- 
plaint of the eyes when his new consort reached bim, but 
no sooner had he risen from the font, cleansed of the le- 
prosy of his heathenism, than the bishop of Cheraon laid 
his hands on his eyes, and hia sight was restored, while 
the prince cried, "Kow I have seen the true God." Many 
of his suite, thereupon, consented to follow his example, 
and shortly afterwards, accompanied by the Greek clergy, 
he returned to Kieff', and forthwith ordered his twelve 
sons to be baptized, and proceeded to destroy the monu- 
ments of heathenism. The huge idol Peroun was dragged 
from its temple at a horse's tail, scourged by twelve 

' Eteff wai one of tbs great oen- Mecklenburg!), Karem in BBgen, 
trM of the Slavonio rtligion: other Winoeta in WoUio, Jnliii, SuMd, 
centie* were MoTgorod, B«tm In Ui4 Aroouk 

Missions amffng the Slavic of Slavonian Races. 296 

mounted pursuers, and then flung into the Dnieper. " The chap. xiii. 
people at first followed their idol down the stream, but ^^^ggj 
were soon quieted when they saw it had no power to help TheidoiPeroHn 
itself." Thus successful, Vladimir felt encouraged to take"^^- 
a further step, and gave order for the immediate baptism 
of his people. " Whoever on the morrow," ran the pro- 
clamation, " shall not repair to the river, whether rich or 
poor, I shall hold him for my enemy." Accordingly at 
the word of their ** respected lord" all the inhabitants 
with their wives and children flocked in crowds to the 
Dnieper, and there, in the words of Nestor, " some stood 
in the water up to their necks, others up to their breasts, 
holding their young children in their arms; the priests 
read the prayers from the shore, naming at once whole 
companies by the same name." Vladimir, transported at 
the sight, cried out, "O great God! who hast made 
heaven and earth, look down upon these Thy new people. 
Grant them, O Lord,"" to know Thee the true God, as Thou 
hast been made known to Christian lands, and confirm in 
them a true and unfailing faith ; and assist me, O Lord, 
against my enemy that opposes me, that, trusting in Thee, 
and in Thy power, I may overcome all his wiles." 

On the very spot where the temple of Peroun had ad. 006. 
stood he now erected the church of St Basil, and encou- 
raged the Greek priests in erecting others throughout the 
towns and villages of his realm. Michael the first Metro- 
politan with his bishops travelled from place to place, bap- 
tizing and instructing the people. Churches were built, 
the choral music and service-books of Constantinople were 
introduced, as also the Greek Canon law; schools also 
gradually arose, and the people became familiar with the 
Slavonic Scriptures and Liturgy, which the labours of 
Cyril and Methodius, in Bulgaria and Moravia, had made 
ready to their hands. 

Under Leontius, the next Metropolitan, the Greek 

296 2Se Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP, xiii, Cbiirch was enabled to consoliilato her conqacats, Bishops 

• 99B- ^''^^'^ °°^ placed at Novgorod, Hostoff, CheruigofF, Vla- 

x*u™i(w"« dimir, and Belgorod. In the first of these new sees the 

jiwHir". contest with idolatry waa carried on aa succcfiafully as it 

had been at Kieff. Another statue of Peroun was flang 

into the river, and the idolatrous altars were overthrown 

without opposition on the part of tlie people'. Wherever 

civilization had penetrated^ and trade and commerce had 

opened up the country to external influences, the work 

went on with comparative ease. But the first two bishops 

of Hostoff were driven away by the people, who continued 

long fanatically addicted to their old rites; and it was only 

by dint of untiring labour, and amidst much persecution, 

A LP. tliat tlieir successors succeeded in planting the foundations 

1019-1077. of the Church*. 

■• Monnvieff, p. 17. 
. ' The irruption at tha terrible 

Mongola (iiaj) long checked the 
developmeat of the Boasuui Kiite, 
nur (lid it finally free iteeU from 

their oppreaaon till 1461. Daring 
this period the cbkir of the onetro- 
politao VMS ramoved to VlMliniir, 
*od tbeoce itt 1310 to Uoacow. 
Uordwiclc, 131 n. 



A.D. 1000—1127. 

"Addentes virnm esse Honorabilem, dorot divitero, et imnc quoque in 
aliena terra suisopibus suffioientem; nihil enim petere, nalHus egere, 
pro illorum salute advenire^ non qiuestus gratia.** — Ebbokis VUa 

Though by his reception of Christianity Vladimir dealt chap , xiv. 
a heavy blow to the supremacy of the Slavonic superstitions kj>. ees. 
in Russia, they long continued to maintain their ascend- sSSSHSZlltr- 
ancy in other parts of Europe, and nowhere more persist- pJwSJid 
ently than in Poland, Pomerania, "Wendland, and Prussia. 
In these countries, the Slavonic hierarchy, who were as 
numerous and almost as potent as in the religious insti- 
tutions of India and Egypt, presented a formidable obstacle 
to the labours of the Christian missionary. Not only had 
they their representatives in every town and village, but 
the higher members of the order wielded a power always 
equal, and often superior to that of the dukes or princes of 
the several states*. The time, however, was now at hand 
when these strongholds of the Slavonic faith were to be 
penetrated by the light of civilization, and their votaries 
reclaimed, at least in some measure, from their heathen 

^ "Bex apud eos modicse estima- dent.^ Helmold, Chron, Slav. n. ii. 

tionia est coruparatione Flaminis. Peter de Dusburg, Chronicon Prut" 

Sacerdos ad nutum sortium, et porro sia, 79. 
rex et populus ad illius nutum pen* 

298 The Mtsaionanj lUatory of the Middle Agea. ^^M 

Pomerania, the district with which wo shall he mainly 
~ concerned in the prceent Chapter, owed its evnngellzation 
in the first instance to ita subjugation by the Bukes of 
Poland, to the rise of Christianity in which country we 
shall first devote a few words. The seeds of Christianity 
are said to liave Leen wafted info Poland' from Moravia, 
as early as the ninth century, and Christian refugees from 
the invasions of the Ilungarians appear to have still fiir- 
thcr extended its progress during the tenth. In the year 
965 the Polish duke Mieceslav I. married Dambrowka the 
daughter of the Christian king of Bohemia, and ebortly 
afterwards embraced the Christian faith'. The relations 
between Poland and tha Crermau Empire at this period 
f- were of the most intimate character. Jllecealav not only 
recognised the sovereignty of the German Empire, bnt 
took his place in the diets aa one of its members. Poli- 
tical causes, therefore, conspired to induce the wish that 
hia subjects should adopt his own creed ; bnt he could 
think of no other means of producing this resalt but stem 
and rigorous penalties. An illustration of their rigour is 
Supplied by a proclamation which he issued forbidding 
liis subjects, under penalty of losing their teeth, to eat 
flesh during the interval between Septuagesima Sunday 
and Easter. This enactment is recorded by Ditmar*, 
bishop of Merseburg, who pleads in its extenuation that 
for a people requiring to be tended like cattle, and beaten 
like stubborn asses, such means of proselytism were more 
adapted than the gentler meaaures which the spirit of 
Christianity would have dictated. Mteceslav's subjects 
viewed the matter in a different light ; they rebelled against 

> Od the Iwend of St Andrew's have bt-en ictive in the ooimtiy. 

preaching in FuUnd, aee Fabricii Krasineki, p. 13. 

Lux Evang. 451. Kraamild'a Btfor- * " Popului mare borii fit pu- 

malion in Potatut, p. 6. cendns et tArdi rjtu udai CMtigwuJiu, 

' Cjril had Mclthodiua are Rtip- et line gnvi pfcna non pottot onm 

poaedbjKimetohaveviaitsdPoUiid, uluta priodpii tractari." Thietanarl 

or at least their diadplea are aaid to Ckrmiewt, Perti, v. 861. 

The Conversion of Poland and Pomeranta. 299 

their chiefs relentless rigour, and consequently the Grospel chap. xit. 
made little progress during the first twenty years of his^;;:^. 

In the year 970 the Emperor Otho I. had erected a ErefHon t^a 
Polish bishopric at Posen, which was subordinated to the ^ '*««•• 
jurisdiction of the archiepiscopal see of Mayence, and after- 
wards to that of Magdeburg*. Coming as it did through 
Moravia the early Christianity of Poland was tinged with 
Eastern influences. But the marriage of Mieceslav with his 
fourth .wife Oda, the daughter of a German count, gradually 
led to the preponderance of the Latin system, which was 
still fiirther promoted by the influx of foreign clergy from 
t'rance, Italy, and Germany, who filled the numerous mo- 
nasteries erected by Oda, and appropriated all the eccle- 
siastical preferments in the country. Otho III., on the a.d. lOOO. 
occasion of his visit to Gnesen', bestowed the title of king 
on the son of Mieceslav, made Gnesen a metropolitan see, 
and gave it authority over the sees of Breslau, Cracow, 
and Colberg*. 

On the death of Mieceslav II. Poland fell into a state of 
utter confusion. The heathen party, who had long sub- a.d. io34. 
mitted with sullen unwillingness to the degradation of the 
national faith, now regained their ascendancy, and re- 
taliated for a long series of oppressions by burning monas- 
teries and churches, by hunting down, and, in some in- 
stances, killing the bishops and clergy. At last the Poles c!SS^i%> 
resolved to offer the crown to Casimir I., a son of the late'*****^^^' 
king. He had been banished from the country, and had 
retired to a Benedictine monastery, where he had not only 
taken the monastic vows, but had received ordination. 
When, therefore, his countrymen desired to place him on 
the throne they were met by the reply of the abbot that 

^ Krasinsld, p. 171. simiki's HrformtUion in Poland, 28. 

* On a pilgrunage to the shrine * Milman's Xafo'n ChrutianUy, ii. 

of St Adalbert, whose remains had 485. Wiltsch, I. 437. 
just been removed to Gnescm. £r»> 


300 The Missmnary Histcn-y of ih& Middle Ages. ^^B 

he could not release liim from hia engagements. In this 
dilemma, appeal waa made to Pope Benedict IX., who, 
after much entreaty, at length consented to absolve Casi- 
mir from his vows, and permitted him to mairy and ascend 
the throne. The new king repaid hia benefactor by extir- 
pating such vestiges as still remained of the Slavonic 
Liturgies, and uniting the Polish Church still more closely 
with the Papal See. 

One of the dioceses over which, as we have said, 
Otho III. had given Gnesen metropolitan autliority, was 
Colberg in Eastern Pomerania'. This country had bc«a 
invaded by the Polish Duke Boleslav, and annexed to the 
Polish dominions. The first bishop, however, of Colberg, 
wlio waa a German, was able tu accomplish little or no- 
thing towards extending Christianity in his diocene, and was 
murdered in 1015, while on a journey to Russia. The Polish 
yoke was detested by the Pomeranians, and the relations 
subsisting between the two countries were similar to those 
between Charlemagne and the Saxons. Like the latter, 
the Pomeranians were ever unfurling the standard of re- 
bellion, and thus bringing on fresh invasions of their 
country, that could be averted only by a timely suhmift- 
sion to the rite of baptism, which thus became the hated 
symbol of subjugation. After a century of constant hosti- 
lities, the Polish authority was still further extended la 
Pomerania; in 1121, the Western districts, as well as the 
Eastern, were subjugated and made tributary, and the in- 
habitants were constrained to take an oath promising to 
adopt the Christian faith. The invasions of the Polish 
duke, Boleslav III., were carried on with remorseless 
cruelty ; " he was determined," says the chronicler", 

' "PommolingtukSoUTOtiunijiti*] o'fa " Ebboni* V&a, n, t. Lktluuu'l 

•oniit *el circa, morii Kutem mart; Taciti Germania, ivii, 

Inde Pommerania qotiai Pommori- • Kerbordi Yita Ottonit, Feit^ 

UDiB, idem, jiurfa vel circa man XU. 777. 

The Conversion of Poland and Pomerania. 301 

" either utterly to crash his enemies, or to drive them at chap. xit. 
the point of the sword to adopt the Christian religion." j^.^. h^l 
Stettin, the Pomeranian capital, was attacked and captured 
in the midst of a dreary winter; the whole district was 
ravaged with fire and sword, and the piles of skeletons were 
pointed out even three years afterwards by the survivors*. 
Eighteen thousand of the Pomeranian soldiers were put to 
death, eight thousand of the people with their wives and 
children were transported into Poland, and employed in 
garrisoning the frontier, after having first been forced to 
promise to abjure their idols and receive baptism. 

How to extend any knowledge of Christianity in the Bouoavmaf/t 
subject provmce afforded Boleslav considerable anxiety. <?r*<»«««Wecto. 
In vain he applied to the Polish bishops, who each and all 
declined the dangerous task. In the year 1122, however, 
a Spanish priest, named Bernard, who had been elevated 
to a bishopric at Rome, appeared at his court, and re- 
quested permission to preach the word in Pomerania. The 
Duke did not conceal the difficulties his request involved, 
but would not forbid his making the trial. Bernard him- 
self was peculiarly unfitted for the task. As a Spaniard BUhopBemara. 
he was utterly unacquainted with the Pomeranian language, 
and being of an ascetic turn, he was unable to throw him- 
self into the real requirements of the work. Accompanied, 
however, by his chaplain, and an interpreter, supplied by 
Boleslav, he repaired to the town of JuHn barefooted and 
in the garb of a mendicant. The Pomerahians, an easy, 
merry, well-conditioned race', accustomed to the splendid 

* Ihid. " Omnem in circuitu ejus 
i^ionem igni et ferro vastavit, 
adeo ut ruinas et adustiones et 
acervos cadavenim interfectonim in- 
cols nobis per di versa loca monstra- 
rt'nt post tres anoos ac si de strage 

• On the fertility of the country, 
066 Herbordi Vitcu, II. 40 ; where we 
find enumerated among articles of 

diet, "Ferine cervonim, bubalorum 
et equulorum agrestium, ursonim, 
aprorum, porcorum, omniumque fe- 
rarum copia redundat omnia provin- 
cia ; butirum de armento et lac de 
ovibuBcumadipe agnorum etarietum, 
cum habundantia mellia et tritici, 
cum canapo et papavere et cuncti 
generis legamine.' 


302 The Miatwnary HUtort) of the MiJdle Aget. 

CHAP. xtv. appearance of their own priests, regarded the missionaiy 
»n~iiai' ^'''' P'<'f'^""'i disdain. "When lie asserted tbat he had 
come aa the messenger of God, they asked how it was 
possible to believe that the great Lord of the World, glo- 
rioua in power and rich in all tcsoorccs, would send as his 
messenger a man in sucli a despicable garb, williout even 
elioea on hia feet. If the great Being had reallj desired 
their conversion, lie would have sent a more suitable 
envoy and representative. As for Bernard, if he had any 
regard for his own safety, he had better straightway return 
whence he came, and not <iiacredit the name of hia God by 
pretending to have a mission from Him, when in reality be 
only wanted relief in hia destitution. Bernard replied by 
proposing, if they would not believe his words, that a 
ruinous house should be get on lire, and he himself flung 
into the midst. " If while the house is consumed, I come 
forth unscathed," said he, " then believe that / am sent 
onto you by Him whom the fire aa well as every other 
created thing obeys." The Pomeranians, convinced that 
he was mad, urged him to leave the place ; but, instead of 
heeding the advice, Bernard struck down one of the sacred 
images, on which a riot ensned, and he was hurried on 
board a vessel, with the advice, since lie was bo eager to 
preach, to exercise hia talents in addressing the fish of the 
sea and the fowls of the air'. 
^£5^"' Bernard seeing there was no hope of success retired 
to Bamberg, where he met the bishop Otho, a Suabian of 
noble family. Otho had received a learned education, and 
had lived in Poland as the cliaplain of tlie Duke Wratislav*. 
Entrusted with various missions to the German court, dar- 
ing one of which he had been instrumental in procuring 

' EliboniB Yiia Ottanit, n. i. te, noD eat uiqui m1 unura." On 

"CJuaDiloquidem taots tilii [inedi- Bemuil's visit, aee the aubsequeot 

Cationia inest •viditM, pnedica pii- Bpeech of Wra'' ' - -' > - - 

dbus mariij et voUtilibua cceli, et Ueedom. F ' 

c»ve ne ultra fines noalros attingere III. 6. 13. 

prssuiuas, qui& aon est qui recipiaC > Ebbo, 

The Canversian of Poland and Pomerania. 303 

for his master the hand of the sister of Henry lY., he chap. xit. 
attracted the notice of the Emperor, became his secretary, ^.p. 1121. 
and was rewarded for his fidelity with the bishopric of 
Bamberg. Here he became famous not only for his mo- 
nastic austerities but for his charity and upright life, for 
the zeal with which he promoted the erection of churches 
and monasteries, and the interest he took in the education « 
of his people. An ardent reformer of ecclesiastical abuses 
he had laboured unceasingly in his diocese, and had re-* 
ceived tokens of approbation from several Popes. As soon 
then as he heard of Bernard's arrival at Bamberg, he 
welcomed him to his palace, and inquired into all the par* 
ticulars of his late mission. 

The more they conversed on the subject the more a.©. 1123. 
sure did Bernard feel that in Otho he saw one peculiarly ^ZSS^S^to 
adapted to carry out the enterprize which had so signally Pomeranian 
failed in his own hands. Again and again he urged the 
bishop on the subject, and assured him that he could not 
fail of success, if he would but consent to appear among 
the Pomeranians with becoming pomp and circumstance, 
and attended by a numerous retinue S To the solicitations 
of Bernard were soon added those of the Duke Boleslav, 
who, remembering his energetic character when his father's 
secretary, importuned him to undertake the work, engaged 
to defray all the expenses of the mission, to provide an 
escort, interpreters, and whatever else might be necessary. 
Thus pressed on all sides, Otho at length determined to 
comply, and after seeking the blessing of the Pope Calix- 
tus II., and receiving from him the appointment of Papal 
legate', devoted his energies to collecting a numerous body 
of clergy to accompany him, and procuring the requisite 

^ ^'Necesse est ut tu...a88uinpta cerwiGQ emwenmi, divUiarum gUm* 

cooperatorum et obsequentium no- am reverUi colla submittent.'' Ebbo- 

bill frequentia, sed et victus ac ves- nis Vita, ii. a. 

titus copioso apparatu, illuc tendas, ' Jaffa's Rtgut. Pont, Rom, p. 548, 

ut qui bumilitatis jugiimet effirenata Dollinger, iii. 274. 

304 The MUnomry Bistory of iHa Mtddk Agea. 

CHAP. xiT. ecclesiastical furnitnTe for sncU cliarclies an he migUt build, 

* B umT together with rich and costlj roliea, and other presents for 

gwi. .irriwt ai ti,c Pomeranian chiefs. 

These provided, with Ulric his favourite chaplain, 
seven other ecclesiastics, n.nd several attendants, he act out 
for the scene of his labours on the 25th of April, 1124. 
■ Passing through tlie friendly territory of the Duke of 
Bohemia, he arrived at Breslau on the 2nd of May, and 
after a stay of two days at Poaen, set out for Gnesen, 
where Bolealav was aw.iiting liim with several of the 
neighbouring chiefs, Otho's entrance into the towTi was 
■welcomed by a crowd of Bpectators, who flung themselves 
at liis feet and besonght his blessing. During a stay of 
seven days, the legate discussed with Boleslav the future 
plan of operations, and the Duke collected waggons to 
carry the provisions and baggage, supplied money of the 
country, attendants acquainted with the German and Sla- 
vonic languages, and instructed a captain named Paalicitis 
to take the command of a protecting escort. 

mpcouuiit On the eighth day Otho and liis retinue bade farewell 

to their entertainer, and plunged into the vast forest which 
then formed the boundary between the Polish and Pome- 
ranian territories. As yet it had only been once traversed 
by the soldiers of Boleslav on one of their marauding ex- 
peditions, and the trees they had felled marked the only 
practicable path. Into this the missionaiy party atrock, 
and with the utmost difficulty, and no little danger, suc- 
ceeded in making their way', and after six days emerged 
on tlie banks of the river Netze, where they were met by 
the Pomeranian Duke Wratisiav at the head of five hun- 
dred soldiers. While Otho and the Duke conferred in 

"' Magna qui Jem dilBciiltalc prop- propter \<xt, poluitria qiodrigM 

(er TCrpentiuin fenrumqua monsln et cam» prspedlentia, vix diebns 

diveraanun, necnon it gniom in wr emeiuo neiDore, ad ripsm Bumi- 

TamisarbonimnidiM lubeDtium, ■><•■■ nie, quod limm Pomenuiue est, om- 

t|u< giuTitn et plaoni mnaa Met- •adiinus." Hcrbonli FiM, ti. la 
UntiuiD, importuaiutem, rimolqaa 

The Conversion of Poland and Pomerania. 305 

private as to the plan to be porsaed, the ecclesiastics in ohap. xit. 
his train were thrown into no little alarm by the terrible j^Tnai 
aspect of the Pomeranian warriors, who, drawing their 
sharp knives, threatened to flaj them alive, and bury them 
in the ground up to their necks. These threats, and 
the uncertainty as to WratislaVs intentions, added to the 
rapidly deepening shades of evening, threw a gloom over 
the whole party, which, however, was dispersed in the 
morning, when they discovered that the Duke's intentions 
were peaceful, and that his troops shared his feelings. 
In a second conference full permission was formally given 
to Otho to preach in the Pomeranian dominions, and the 
missionary party, escorted as before, set out for Pyritz, 
Their path lay through a district wliich had suffered se- 
verely during the late wars with Poland, and thirty scattered 
peasants were the sole representatives of the ruined vil- 
lages. They were asked whether they were willing to be Baptitm^^^ 
baptized, and, scared by the martial retinue of the legate, 
flung themselves at his feet, and professed their entire 
willingness to submit to his wishes. Without more ado, 
the rite was conferred by Otho, who consoled himself for 
the fewness of the recipients by the reflection that thirty 
was a mystical number, being the product of the multi- 
plication of the number of the Trinity with that of the 
Decalogue*. Pyritz was reached late in the evening, 
but it was thought prudent to remain outside the walls, 
instead of entering at a time when a great religious fes- 
tival was in course of celebration, and a vast number of 
strangers had assembled to join in the revels. The night, 
therefore, was spent in the open fields, the trembling 
ecclesiastics scarcely daring to sleep, much less to kindle 

^ '' Ho8 ergo quasi primiUas Do- tatis, et Decalogum Legie in nameoro 

minicsB measis, in aream Domini sui tacite conaideranB, opus Evangelicum 

messor devotus cum gratiarum ao- mystice a se inchoatum gavlBus est." 

tione componens, baptizavit illio Herbordi Viia, II* la. 

homines 30, fidemque SanctsB Tiini- 


306 The Mi'sawnary Ui'itory of the Middle Ages. I 

OBAF. XIV. a fire or address one another in tones louder than a] 

~~j',^^^ ' whisper. 

ift^dMo As aoon aa it waa day, Paulicius, with the envoya oft 

the dnkes Boleslav and Wratislav, entered the town, and 
convened an assembly of the principal inhabitants. Re- 
minding tliem that tlieir promise to accept Christianity 
was one of the conditions of peace, they announced that 
the legate, a man of nohle birth, not a mendicant like 
Bernard, but ricli and powerful, was nigh at liand, and 
they warned tiicm not to incnr the displeasure of the 
Dukes by delaying to receive them into the town. Over- , 
awed by this threatening address, and deeming them- ^ 
selves deserted by their national gods, the people of 
Pyritz at last agreed to admit the bishop within the town. 
Accordingly a procession was formed, and Otho made 
his entrance with every sign of porap, which the long 
train of baggage-waggons, and the retinue of ecclesiastics 
and soldiers, coaH inspire. At first the people misinter- 
preted the meaning .of this display, and thought they had 
teen deceived. But Otho quickly reassured them, and 
after fixing his tent in one of the squares, attired in bis 
full pontifical robes ascended an eminence, and thus opened 
his mission : " The blessing of the Lord be upon you. 
We return you many thanks for having refreshed our 
hearts by your hearty and loving reception. Doubtless ye 
have already heard what is the object of our coming, but 
it will not be amiss to remind yon again. For the sake of 
your salvation, your happiness, your joy, we have come a 
long and weary way. And assuredly ye will he happy 
and blessed, if ye be willing to listen to oar words, and to 
acknowledge the Lord your Creator, and to serve and 
worship Him only." 

^g^a„„f Having thus announced the purport of his mission, he 

*■*" ***""* and his attendant ecclesiastics devoted themselves to the 
work of instructing the people; and having appointed a 

The Conversion of Poland and Pomerania. 307 

fast of three days, bade them purify themselves by frequent chap. xiv. 

ablution, and so prepare for the reception of baptism. ^^Zuu. 

Meanwhile large vessels^ were sunk in the ground, filled 

with water, and surrounded with curtains. Hither on the 

fourth day repaired upwards of seven thousand candidates 

for the rite, and were solemnly addressed by Otho on the 

vows they were about to make. The usual questions were 

duly asked and answered, and then the bishop and the 

rest of the clergy, standing outside the curtains, baptized 

the diflferent groups as they were successively led up. 

Everything, the biographer of the bishop assures us, was 

conducted with modesty and decorum, and nothing occurred 

to mar the solemnity of the rite*. Twenty days were 

spent at Pjritz, and during this period the missionaries 

employed themselves diligently in instructing all who 

were willing to listen to their words. The subject-matter otho*»mi9HoH- 

of their homilies is best illustrated by that of Otho's 

sermon before leaving the town. "All ye, my brethren," 

said he, "who are here present, and who* have believed 

in Christ, and have been baptized, have put on Christ; 

ye have received from Him the forgiveness of all your 

sins actual and original; ye are cleansed and pure, not 

through any deed of your own, but through the operation 

of Him into Whose name ye have been baptized ; for He 

has washed away the sins of the whole world in Hia 

blood. Beware, then, of all contamination with idolatry ; 

^ " Dolia grandia valde terrs altias 
immei^ pnecepit, itautoradoliorum 
usque ad genu hominis vel minus de 
terra prominerent, quibus aqua im- 

fletis, facilis erat in earn descensus." 
lerbordi VUa^ ii. 15. In the win- 
ter the water was warmed, " in stnpis 
calefactis et in aqua calida eodem 
nitore atque verecundise obsenratione, 
infoBsiB doliis et oortinis adhibitis, 
thure quoque et aliie odoriferis 
Bpeciebus cuncta respergentibus, ve- 
neranda baptismi confedt sacra- 

mental* Ibid, 

* ''Tribus exstructis baptisteriic, 
ita ordinavit, ut ipse solos mares 
pueros in uno baptisaret, alii autem 
sacerdotes in aliis feminu seorsum 
et yiros seorsum. Tanta quoque 
diligentia, tanta munditia et hones;* 
tate pater optimus sacraroenti opera)- 
tionem fieri edocuiti ut nihil inde- 
corum, nihil pudendum, nihil Un- 
quam quod alicui gentilium minus 
placereposiietyibiageretur.** Herbordi 
Vit€L, II. 15. Cf. also u. 19, 35. 



>rsnip , 

308 The Missionary History of the Middle Aga* 

CHAP. XIV. put yoar trust in God, wlio is your Creator, and worsnip 
*,». iiai. ""^ created thing, but rather seek to advance in faith and 
love, that His blessing may come upon you and upon your 
children, and that believing in Him, and adorning your 
faith by your works, ye may have trae life through Him 
who has called you out of darkness into His marvellona 
light. For he ye well aseured, that if, by God's help, ye 
endeavour through life to be faithful to the promises ya 
, have made this day, and to walk in holiness and purity, 

yc will not only escape eternal death, hut enjoy the hliss , 
of the kingdom of heaven for ever and ever," Otho then 
proceeded to treat of the Seven Sacraments', Baptism, 
Confirmation, Extreme Unction, the Eucharist, Penitence, 
Marriage, and Orders. The mention of marriage led him 
to observe that his hearers h;id hitherto been grievously 
tainted with polygamy. This could be no longer per- 
mitted. " If there are any amongst you," said Otho, " who 
Lave many wives, let him select the one he loves best, and 
cleave unto het only, as becometh a christened man." 
The cruel custom of infanticide* was denotmced with the 
severest penalties, and the sermon concluded with an ex.- 
hortation to respct the clergy left by the bishop, and a 
promise of another visit. 
innmbt. ^^ Cammin, whither the missionaries next directed 

their steps, resided the wife of Duke Wratislav. She had 
long been favourable to the cause of Christianity, and 
mateiially aided the bishop by her influence. Forty days 
were spent here, and the time was employed in instructing 
the people, and preparing them for baptism, which rite waa 
administered in the same way as at Fyritz, and to so many 
persons, that Otho could scarcely muster strength to supers 

1 "Tbe earliert tnce of tbii plurM Gliu &1iqiia geniiioaat, ut 

•choluUc limitatioD." Hardwick, ceterii f>dJ1vis providersnt, aliqou 

p. 311. ex eie jugulabant, pro niliilo duoai- 

' Hcrbordi Vila, ti. 16, 33. ''Si tei panicidiuiu." 

The Converaian of Poland and Pamerania^ 309 

intend the administration. Meanwhile Wratislav arrived, chap. xiv. 
and greeted the missionaries with much cordialitj, Manj ^[TlLiai! 
of his soldiers were baptized, and the Duke himself, con- 
strained by the bishop's exhortations, swore upon the 
sacred relics to put away twenty-four of his concubines, 
and to cleave to one wife. His conduct made a great 
impression on the people, and not a few followed his 
example. A church was next built, and supplied with 
books and all the necessary ecclesiastical vestments and 

The waggons, which had hitherto conveyed the baggage J^(n. 
of the missionaries, were now exchanged for boats, in which 
to navigate the inland rivers and lakes which lay between 
Cammin and Julin^ the spot selected for their next visit. 
Julin was a place strongly fortified, and devoted to the 
Slavonic superstitions. Here, it will be remembered, Berr 
nard had provoked the wrath of the inhabitants, by offering 
violence to one of the national deities, and had in consequence 
been expelled from the country. As they neared the town, 
therefore, the boatmen advised that they should cast anchor 
till the evening at some little distance, and thus avoid the 
tumult likely to be excited by entering the place in the 
broad daylight. Not far from the spot where they an- 
chored was a fort, which had been erected as a sanctuary 
and place of refuge for such as might fly thither when 
pursued by an enemy, or in any sudden emergency*. The 
boatmen advised the bishop to steal into the sacred inclo- 
sure under cover of the night, and assured him that there 
he would be quite secure. The suggestion was acted upon, 
and the night was spent in safety. 

But the momins: had no sooner dawned than an immense viountomo^ 

^ tUm at Julin, 

* In the Island of WoUin. qnam si qtiis oonfugissety lex talis 

' This appears to have been usual erat, ut quolibet hoste peraequente 

in all the Pomeranian towns. " In securus ibi oonsisteret et illtesus.** 

singulis civitatibus dux palatium ha- Herbordi Vita, il. 25. Ebbo, 11. 7. 
bebat et curtim cum sdibus, ad 


310 The. MissionaTy Hutory of the Middle AgeM. 

multitude of the townspeople surrounded the fort, 
~ threatened tlie bishop and his retinue with death, if he did 
not instantly quit the place. In vain the commander of 
the militAry escort begged them to respect the sanctity of the 
asylum, the excited throng would pay no heed to his words, 
ami with the utmost difficulty the bishop's retinue effected 
their escape from the fort, and got safely to their boats, 
having broken down the bridge in their rear to cut off the 
])ursait of the infuriated populace. It was now resolved to , 
anchor for a week on the other side of a neighbouring 
lake, and to await any change in the popular feeling ; and 
in the meantime communications were maintained between 
t)ie town and the missionaries, who proclaimed the rank 
and style of the bishop, and threatened tlic speedy vengeance 
of the Duke for tlie insult they had receivwl. Tiiis alarmed 
the people ; the leading chiefs called together an assembly, 
and after much discussion respectiog the admission of the 
bishop, it was agreed to abide by the decision of the people 
of Stettin, the oldest and wealthiest of the ' Fomeranian 
towns'. If Stettin did not decline to receive the bishop, 
neither would they. A pilot was, therefore, procured, who 
escorted the boats of the missionaries till Stettin was ia 
sight, and then left them for fear of detection. 

Night was setting in when they reached the Pomeranian 
capital, and again Otho sought a safe entrance by taking 
refuge in a fort belonging to the Duke*. In the morning 
their landing was discovered, and they explained to the 
townspeople the purport of their mission, and the desire 
of the Dukes that they should accept Christianity. But 
their overtures were rejected with scorn. " What have we 
to do with you?" was the universal cry. "We will not 
put away our national customs, and are well content with 
our present religion. Are there not thieves and robbers 

The Conversion of Poland cmd Fomerania^ 311* 

among you Christians, whom we have seen deprived of ohap. xiy. 
their feet and eyes ? Keep your own faith for yourselves, Z^^jm. 
and intermeddle not with us." After two months hadf";*««yto 
been spent in fruitless efforts to induce the people to recon- 
sider their resolution, Otho determined to send messengers 
to Boleslav, informing him of the obstinacy of the Pome- 
ranians, and asking his advice as to the course that ought 
to be pursued. His intentions transpired, and the towns- 
people filled with alarm, determined to send a counter 
embassy, promising conformity to the Duke's wishes, if he 
would promise a permanent peace, and agree to reduce the 
heavy tribute exacted from them. 

While the messengers went on their respective errands, 
Otho and his companions paid frequent visits to the town, 
set up a Cross in the market-place, and persevered, in spite 
of opposition, in preaching to, the people and exhorting 
them to abandon their errors*. At length two young men, 
sons of one of the principal chiefs, paid the bishop a visit, 
and requested information concerning the doctrines which 
he preached. To them Otho expounded, as he best could, 
the teaching of the Church respecting the immortality of 
the soul, the resurrection of the body, and the life of the 
world to come. The visit was often repeated, and at length Baptism of tw 
the young men declared their willingness to be baptized. **"*^ 
Unknown to their parents they approached the font, and 
during the eight days following remained with the mission- 
aries, who welcomed with joy the first fruits of their toils. 
Intelligence of what had occurred meanwhile reached their 
mother, and she immediately set out for the bishop's 
residence in quest of her sons. Knowing her influence 
in the town, Otho received her seated on a bank of turf in 
the open air, surrounded by his clergy, with the young 
men arrayed in their white baptismal robes seated at his 
feet. As she approached, the latter rose and on a signal 

^ Herbordi Vita, ii. 35. Ebbo, n. 8. 

312 JX« Mtaaionary History of the Middle Ages. 

€nAP. XIV. from tlie bishop, went foTth to meet her, when, to the i 
A.D. im. surprise of all present, she sank to tlie ground on her I 
knees, and in a flood of tears gave glory to God that she 
had lived to see the day of her sons' baptism. Then, 
turning to Otho, she informed him that aho had long been 
a secret Christian, and now she openly avowed the faith, 
which she had first learnt while a captive in a distant land. 
The impression made on the townspeople was profound. 
The baptism of the entire honaehold speedily followed, and 
the young men, returning with costly presents from the 
bisho]), were successful in inducing many to listen more 
favourably to hia exhortations, and did not fail to spread 
the fame of his generous liberality. 

While the excitement caused by this incident was at 
its height, the messengers returned from Giiescn, with n 
Mti^BKki- letter from Boleslav", iu which he informed the townspeople 
that he could not understand their behaviour towards his 
inend the legate. Had it not been for the intercession of 
the latter, he would hare iufiicted on them the severest 
punishment; as it was, he had determined to forgive them, 
and was willing to remit a considerable portion of the 
tribute, and to guarantee a permanent peace, on condition 
that they submitted to the instructions of their spiritttal 
teachers, otherwise they might look for his wrath and 
abiding displeasure. This letter Otho did not fail to have 
read to the people, and followed it up by renewed exhorta- 
tions to embrace the terms proposed by the Duke, and by 
way of proving their sincerity, to suffer the temples of the 
national deities to be destroyed. If they felt any scruples 
about doing this themselves, then let him and his clergy 
commence the work of destruction, and if they escaped 
unhurt, let this he a proof of the worthlessness of the 
national faith. PermiBsion at length was given, and after 
mass had been duly celebrated, Otho set out at the head 
> HerboKti FUa, a. t}. 

Thie Conversion of Poland and Pomerania. 31$ 

of his clergy, armed with clubs and axes to essay the chap. xiV. 
work of demolition, while crowds of the townspeople stpod ^^.11247 
anxiously on the watch to see what their own gods would 
do. One temple fell, and then another, and still the bishop's 
retinue were unharmed. Thereupon the multitude cried ivjftw</<w cf 
out, " What power can these gods have, who do not defend 
their own abodes? If they cannot defend themselves^ 
how can they defend or advantage us?" Hundreds of 
willing hands now joined in the work of demolition, and, in 
a very short space of time, four of the largest temples^ were 
razed to the ground, and the materials converted into fuel. 
One of these structures, dedicated to the triple-headed 
Triglav and adorned with the rarest carvings*, was stored 
with a vast number of votive offerings of considerable 
value, consisting of the spoils taken in various battles, gold 
and silver beakers, bulls' horns tipped with gold, swords^ 
knives, and sacred vessels. These the people freely offered 
for Otho's acceptance, but he caused them to be sprinkled 
with holy water, and then gave them up for general 
distribution. All he reserved for himself was the trwleTHnteheado/ 

Tngtuv toU to 

head of Triglav, which he sent to the Pope', as a memo* ^»'<- 
rial of his victory over Slavonic idolatry. Other monu- 
ments of superstition now excited his attention, among 
which were a gigantic oak and a sacred spring close 
by, which were regarded with peculiar reverence. The 
tree Otho consented to spare in compliance with the re- 
iterated solicitations of the people, on condition that they 
would agree to resort to it for the future, merely to enjoy 

* " CorUina quatuor," as they are 
called. Herbordi Vita, ii. 31. ''Est 
Vox Slavica. Apud Polonos est 
konczyna finis, fastigium ; continse 
igittir sedificia fastigata." Note in 
Pertz, XII. 793. 

• See above. Chap. I. p. 33. 

' Honorius II. The biographer 
of Otho says of the Slavonic temples, 
" Sedilia intus in circuitu extructa 

erant et raensfe, quia ibi oonciliabnla 
et conventus suos habere soliti enmt. 
Nam sive potare nve ludere tive seria 
9ua tractare vdUnt, in ecudem cedea 
eertU diebtu conveniebant et Aoi'u." 
Herbordi Vita, ii. 31. Analogous 
customs at Corinth called forth the 
Apostolic remonstrances in 1 Cor. 
yiii. 10. 

314 The Minaionary Uistory of the Middle Age*, ^^^| 

. its sliade, and not perfonn any heathen ceremonies', '^Ke^ 
like indulgence, however, lie would not extend to a black 
horse of great size, which was used for taking the Bpear- 
oracns on going out to war or on any foray*. With much 
difficulty the people were induced to allow of its removal, 
and to abstain in future from thus seeking supernatural 
direction. When the cmhlema of heathen worship had 
been duly put away, the bishop exhorted them to regard all 
Christian men as brethren, whom itwaa sinful to sell into 
slavery, maltreat, or torture ; he warned them against piracy, 
robbery, and infanticide ; and, after bislmcting them in the 
first principles of the Christian faith, admitted numbers to 
the baptismal font, with the same ceremonies that we have 
described pt Pyritz. The only man of influence who held 
out against his exhortations was the high priest, whose 
duty it was to wait upon the sacred horse. Nothing would 
induce him to forsake his old faith, and he atoned for his 
obduracy, so we are assured, by a sudden and awful death*. 
Before Otho left, he could point to a tangible memorial of 
Ilia victory over the national heathenism in a church, which 
was erected in the market-place of the town. 

Meanwhile what had taken place was not unknown at 
Julin. The townspeople had sent messengers and spies to 
the Slavonic capital, who narrowly watched and reported 
the bishop's proceedings, aJid the conduct of the people of 
Stettin. Consequently when Otho again presented himself 
at Julin', he found the populace ready and eager to receive 
baptism. The rite was performed as in other places, and 
with the consent of the chiefs it was agreed that a bishopric 
should be established here, to which Boleslav aubsetjuently 

' In Herbordi VUa, In. ii, wa puit et mortuiu eat." Herboidi TUa, 

bkva a Bimilsr account of the de- II. 33. 
atrucUfiD of a ancred nut-tree, * On tili w>; be preftched siul 

' Ibid. II. 31. 3ee klao supra, baptized at Gurz and Luban. Sea 

Cfaap. I. p. 34, n, notes io Herbordi Vila, 11, 36. 

• •■TumorB renins ftodolore ere- 

The Conversion of Poland mid Fomeranla, 

nominated one of his chaplains, Adalbert*, who had accom- chap. xiv. 
panied Otho on his tour. Having consecrated the chancels ^ ^ j^ji. 
of two churches, he left Jalin, and visited ClotkowCy 
Colberg, and Belgrade, where he was equally successful in 
inducing many to abandon their idolatry. The approach 
of winter however warned him that he must bring his 
labours to a close, and he spent the remaining period in 
visiting the places where he had achieved such rapid suc- 
cess, exhorted the infant Churches to constancy in the faith, 
and a holy life, and amid many expressions of regret, left 
the country for his own diocese, where he arrived early in 
the February of 1 125. J«. »» "25. 

Though anxious to resume his labours in the Pome- 
ranian mission-field*, Otho found the cares of his own 
diocese sufficient to claim all his attention. In the spring, 
however, of 1127^ he determined to set out again, and a.d. 1127. 
once more collected, as preliminary to his journey,, a 
number of costly presents. On this occasion he selected 
a different route. Passing through Saxony he laded his 
vessels at Halle, and dropping down the river Elbe, reached 
the town of Demmin*. The first sight that met his Qye&j 
after making his way thither with the greatest difficulty, 
was one whick must have excited painful emotions, and 

^ Ibid. II. 36. Ebbo, n. 15. One 
of the reasons given for fixing the 
see here is *'quia civitas hec in 
medituUio sita est 
quod de medio ad omnes tenninos 
terre crisma et alia, quse ab ipso 
aocipienda sunt, facilius deportari 

* On the state of the newly- 
founded Churches during his ab- 
senoe, see Ebbo, in. i, and Neander, 
VII. 23. 

' On the year see the note in 
Pertz, XII. 800, 801. Ebbo, in. 3. 1$, 
On his second visit, because the 
vine was unknown in Pomerania, 
'* epi^opus vitem illi teme deease 

nolens... cuppam surculis plenam at- 
tulit et implantari fecit, ut tellus ea 
vel sacrificio vinum procrearet . " Ebbo, 
u. 40. 

« Herbordi Vita, ni. i. On this 
occasion he resolved to defray him- 
self all his personal expenses, and not 
to burden the Duke of Poland. He 
laded his vessel at Halle with " auri 
et aigenti copia, purpura et briso e( 
pannis preciosis, et muneribus mag- 
nis et variis pro varietate person- 
arum," which conveyed the carffo by 
the Saale to the Elbe and ]£ivei, 
where fifty waggons transported it 

31G The Missionai-y Ilintory of the Middle Age». ^^^| 

cmap. XIV. convinced iiim that it would take a long time yet (orwtK 
J J i]3j^ ^ good seed Le waa anxiously sowing to take root and bear 
fruit. He found his old friend Wratialav returning from a 
successful expedition against the Leuticians, followed by a 
miserable train of captivea, doomed to all the horrors of 
slavery,— wives torn from their husbands, sisters from 
bi-otliera, children from their parents. For these wretched 
beings Otho pleaded long and earnestly. Some he per- 
suaded the Duke to restore to their homes, others he 
himself redeemed and sent away rejoicing. After a con- 
ference with Wratialav it was resolved that a diet should 
be assembled at Usedom, at which the acceptance of the 
ChriHtiaa faith should be formally proposed to the neigh- 
bouring chiefs. Thither, therefore, Otho directed hia steps, 
preaching the woivi on the way, wherever opportunity 

Whitsunday was the day fixed for the diet, and on 
the arrival of the chiefs, Wratialav addressed them in the 
presence of the bishop, and urged that they should lay 
aside their idolatrous rites, and follow the example of their 
countrymen at Stettin and Pyritz'. The points he chiefly 
dwelt upon were the disinterestedness of Otho, a man of 
wealth, a legate of the Pope, in coming so long a jonmey 
for the sole benefit of the people of Pomerania. He con- 
' trasted bis garb, retinue, and rank with that of previons 

itinerant missionaries, who had ventured to urge the claims 
of the Christian faith, and declaimed against the folly of 
Diet qf ui^iiom. any fiirther persistence in the old belief. Otho then came 
forward, and basing his discourse on the theme suggested 
by the day, preached on the first Pentecostal effusion of 
the Holy Spirit, on the various gifts then imparted to the 
early Church, on the remission of sins, and the Divine 
Mercy. His words were not lost upon his hearers. Many 
who had relapsed into idolatry confessed their sins, and 
» Habordi Vila, in. 3. 

The Converaion of Poland and Pomerania. 317 

were reconciled to the Church, others received instruction, chap. xiv. 
and subsequently the rite of baptism. The diet ended, ^^ i{^^ 
Wratislav suggested to the bishop, now that the reception 
of Christianity had been formally attested by a solemn 
assembly, that he should send forth his clergy two and 
two to the different towns and villages, and prepare the 
people for his own coming. 

Accordingly two of his clergy, Ulric and Albin, set out 
for the town of Wolgast, and were welcomed with much ffotgoMi. 
hospitality by the wife of the burgomaster^ No sooner, 
however, had Albin, who was acquainted with the Slavonic 
language, explained to her the object of their coming, than, 
in great alarm, she informed them that the people were in 
BO friendly mood, that their priests had denounced death 
as the penalty, if any emissaries of the hateful bishop 
entered the place. The reason of this unusual hostility 
subsequently trs^spired. One of the chief priests in the 
town, enraged at the decree passed at Usedom, determined 
to defeat it by stratagem*. Clad in his white asicer dotal stratoffemp/ 
robes, he concealed himself in the night-time in a neighbour- n^priau. 
ing wood, and remained there till dawn. As the day broke, 
A peasant journeying towards the town heard a voice calling 
to him from the sombre forest. Looking up, he could just 
discern in the dim light a white figure partially concealed 
by the brushwood. "Stand," said the voice, "and hearken 
to what I say. I am thy God ; I am he that clothes the 
£elds with grass, and arrays the forest with leaves; without 
jne the fruit-tree cannot yield its fruit, or the field its com, 
•or the cattle their increase. These blessings I bestow on 
them that worship me, and from them that despise me I 

^ On the hospitality of the Po- quam deferculatur; sed quilibet pa- 

meranians, see Herbordi Vita^ ii. 40. terfamilias domum habet eeoreum 

Every head of a family had a room mandam et honestam, tantum refeoh 

especially reserved for the roception tioni vacantem." 

of guests at any time — " Mensa ' Herbordi VitOf m. 3. 
-eorum nmiquam disarmatur) nun« 

318 The Miasionnry History of the MuMle ^gea, ^^^M 

cuAP. XIV. take tliem away. Tell the people of Wolgast, therdc^ 
ta 1137^ '''^* '■'^^7 tl'i'ik "ot of aerving any other God but me, for 
no other can profit them, and warn them that they suffer 
not these preachers who are coming to iheir to^vn to live." 
"Witli these words the figure vanished into the depths of 
the wood. 
luifid. Trembling with alarm, the peasant staggered into the 

town, and announced to the people what had occurred. 
'The excitement was intense. Again and again he was 
conalrained to tell the tale to eager listeners, amongst 
whom, at length, stole in the priest himself. Pretending 
to disbelieve the tale, he bade the man repeat afresh every 
detail, and, when he saw the people were sufficiently 
moved, "Is not this," he burst forth, "what I have been 
telling you all the year long? What have we to do 
with any other god ? Is not our own god justly aagry 
with us? How can we, after all his ^nefits, ungrate- 
fully desert him for another? If we would not have him 
in righteous anger strike us dead, let us put to death 
these men, who would seduce us from our faith." Such 
was the tale which had roused all Wolgast against the 
missionaries. The woman, however, though at great risk, 
concealed her visitors for two days, till Otho made his 
appearance with a large body of troops and some of the 
chiefs from Usedom. Overawed by their appearance, 
and that of the members of the diet, the people did not 
venture to oppose his entrance, and he was enabled to opea 
his mission as in other towns. But some of his clergy, 
ridiculing the alarming news of the hostility of the inhabit- 
ants which had been spread by Ulric and his companions, 
strayed carelessly into the town to view the idol temples, 
and were followed by a hostile mob, who threatened ven- 
sumtiftud geance if they proceeded further. Some, therefore, made 
oav^t their way back to the bishop's quarters, but one, undeterred 

by danger, rushed into a temple which was dedicated to 

T%e Convenum of Poland and Pomeranxa. 319 

Gerovit, the god of war, and, arming himself with the sacred chap, xiv, 
shield which hung there^ and which no one might touch on A.D.1127. 
penalty of death, came forth amongst the people, who gave 
way on every side at this daring instance of impiety. A 
commotion ensued, but the heathen party found it useless 
to struggle against the wellknown determination of the 
Dukes; and, before he left, Otho had laid the founddtion of 
another church, and administered baptism to considerable 
numbers. 1 

From Wolgast the bishop proceeded to Gtitzkow, where gwaow. 
he found messengers from Albert, the Margrave of BUren, 
offering him any assistance he might require, and a larger 
military escort, if he deemed it necessary. This, however, 
was wisely declined. Gtttzkow was the site of one of the 
most splendid of the Slavonic temples, which the people 
repeatedly importuned the bishop to spare, or, at least, to 
convert into a Christian church. But Otho did not deem 
it an occasion for yielding. He feared the proximity of so 
prominent a memorial of their old superstitions would 
choke any seed he might sow, and therefore declared it 
must be razed to the ground. The people at length 
consented, and the bishop determined to reward their 
obedience by erecting a church of unusual size and splen- 
dour, and by dedicating it with an amount of pomp and 
ceremony which should far eclipse the glory of the pagan 
ritual. The foundations were laid, and at the consecration 
he preached so eloquently on the duty of dedicating the 
heart to God, and the utter uselessness of temples of wood 
and stone, if men did not devote themselves to works of 
mercy, forgiveness, and love, and avoid all rapine, fraud, 
and slave-dealing, that Mizlav, the governor of the district, Muum^ihego- 
who had already been baptized at the diet of Usedom, *<» «v«*w. 

1 Herbordi Vita, in. 6. Compare great temple of Mezioo. IVeecott^ 
the account of the huae cyliDdrical p> 9I3« 
drum made of serpentr skms in the 

320 The Missionary JUslonj of the Middle Aget. 

GiiAp. xiT. agreed to release all the prisoncra lie held in coniiiicnieiit 
aZ iiST^ ^^"^ debt. In reply to t!ic bishop's exhortation to remember 
the words of the Lord's Prayer, "forgive ws our debt*, <u 
ie« forgive our debtors" he exclaimed, " Here then, in the 
name of the Lord Jesus, I give these men their liberty, 
that, according to thy words, my sins may be forgiven, and 
that dedication of the heart, of which thou hast spoken, 
may be fulfilled in me'." Shortly afterwards an accident 
revealed the existence of a noble Danish youth, in one of 
his subterranean cells, who was detained there as a secmily 
for a debt of five hundred pounds which his father owed 
the governor. Otho hardly ventured openly to require 
another and so great a sacrifice from his new convert, but 
suggested to some of his clergy that they should intimate 
to him, how acceptable to himself, and much more to their 
common Lord, would be such a proof of obedience and 
mercy. It was a hard struggle, but at last the governor 
consented ; the young man, laden with fetters, waa brought 
forth from his cell, and in the presence of large number?, 
who could not restrain their tears when they beheld hia 
forlorn condition, was led to the altar of the newly erected 
church, where the governor solemnly pronounced his free- 
dom, and his own hope, that as he had forgiven his father 
that debt, so his sins might be forgiven him at the last day. 
The example of one of so much influence was not lost 
upon the people, and many, according to tlieir measure, 
endeavoured to prove the aiucerity of their faith by works 
of mercy and justice. 
tUlm^^^ In the midst of such grateful signs of success, Otho was 

nfiMauv. called to defend his Pomeranian converts from a threatened 
invasion of Boleslav. Though they had accepted a nominal 
profession of Christianity, their hatred of the Polish yoke, 
and the exactions it entailed, was as keen as ever. Inter- 
preting the late relaxation of tlie tribute as a sigD of 
' Horbordi, Vita, UL 9. 

The Conversion of Poland and Pomerania. 321 

weakness, they began, in many places, to reconstruct their chap. xir-. 
forts, to make common cause with the heathen party, and ^^ 2127.' 
fan the flame of disaffection. Boleslav invaded the country 
with a large army, and would have quelled the movement 
with remorseless vigour, had not Otho interposed, and at 
the head of a large body of clergy repaired to Stettin, 
represented strongly the fidelity of Wratislav, and thus 
appeased the Duke's anger. His influence with the Po- 
meranians was thus greatly increased, and he had his 
reward in the peace and prosperity of his newly founded 

One place alone withstood all his efforts. The island Themando/ 
of Riigen, situated about a day's voyage from Usedom, 
was, as we have said, the Mona of the Baltic Slavonians, 
and hither all the lingering fanaticism of the native religion 
fled as to its last refuge. The bishop, indeed, would have 
gladly flung himself upon the island, and perished, if need 
be, in preaching to its benighted inhabitants; but one 
only of his clergy was found willing to share with him the 
dangerous enterprise, and repeated storms prevented their 
effecting a landing. At last the Pomeranian chiefs abso- 
lutely forbade his exposing himself to certain death, and 
much against his will he was forced to comply. He now 
determined to divide his followers, and to send them into 
different parts of the Pomeranian territory, while he himself 
selected Stettin for another visit. Here the heathen faction Anuher vutt to 
had again acquired their old ascendancy, and the uncer- 
tainty as to the way he would be received so discouraged 
his clergy, that none would volunteer to follow him. He 
determined, therefore, to set out alone, and stole away, 
after engaging in earnest prayer, without disclosing his 
intentions to any one. In the morning he was found 
missing, and then some of his clergy, ashamed of their 
own cowardice and alarmed for his safety, hurried in quest 
of him, and persuaded him to enter the place with them. 


322 27(e Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

OKAF. XIV. Tiicir presence waa sorely needed to rouse the spirits of the 
An.'ilST. '^^™' converts. Irritated at the succeBS which had attended 
the bishop's efforts, the pagan party, whose influence was 
unbounded with the lower orders, had succeeded in arousing 
a great commotion. A pestilence had broken out, und 
this was readily interpreted by the priests as a sign of the 
xniiiii' anger of tlie national gods. An assault was directed 
uifiuntria. against the church wiiich Otho had erected, and it waa on 
the point of being razed to the ground, when one of itiu 
ringleaders in the movement was struck by a sudden Hi, 
Lis hand stiffened, and his club fell. On his recovery lie 
perijuaded his fellow- townsmen, after this proof of the 
power of the Christian's God, to spare the church, ami 
erect an altar to one of the national deities by the side of 
the Ciiristiati altar, that so the joint protection of bolh 
might be secured'. 
oihar^iicn Sucli was the state of affairs when the bishop and hia 

party entered the town. The incident juat related had 
somewhat calmed the popular excitement, and now aid 
came in another unexpected shape. During his previous 
visit Otho had baptized one of the most intluentiul chiefs, 
who, in a subsequent piratical expedition against the Danes, 
had been taken prisoner, and thrown into confinement'. 
One night, so his story ran, having fallen asleep after 
earnest prayer for release, he dreamt that bishop Otbo 
appeared to him, and promised him a speedy liberation. 
On awaking he found the door of his cell unclosed, and 
taking advantage of this unlooked-for opportunity, Iw 
darted forth, escaped to the shore, and finding a boat, 

1 " Fnutm, o civea. nidmur ; Deui cotiBtituamuB, nt eoa omne« porilcr 

Cbtislimioniiii fortii est, et nusO^* \\ eoltuJo, illuiu el Ulus pariter h«ha- 

■ nobis cjp(.-lli noa putcnt. Mihi aniua prupitiiiB," Uerbonli rifo, 

aut«m coudilium videlur, ut ilium m. lA. 

hkbevuuH, ut tameti antiquM deo« ' Herbordi Vita, III. ij. £bbc\ 

noBtroa uon dimitUmua, et jiiiit» ni. i. 

The Conversion of Poland and Pomerania^ 323 

succeeded In once more reaching Stettin. He could ascribe chap. xiv. 
his deliverance to nothing less than miracuk>us inter- ^^^ 
position, and therefore hung up the boat at the gates 
of the town, and recounted to the people the story of 
hls~ dream and his escape, dwelling much on the mani- 
fest power of the Christian's God. His tale coming 
so soon after the late mysterious failure in the attack 
upon the church, made a deep impression on the sus- 
ceptible minds of the people of Stettin, and predisposed 
many in favour of the bishop, who had now entered the 

But the heathen party determined to make one last vMemtamek 

1 «• 1 • unon him Ifp 

effort to rouse the popular feeung against the authors of J^Jj;****^ 
their own disgrace, and surrounding the church, whither 
the bishop and his clergy had repaired, threatened them 
with instant death. Had the bishop's courage now failed 
him, he would, in all probability, have fallen a victim to 
their fury. But he, undeterred, ordered the Cross to be 
uplifted, l^nd at the head of his clergy chanting Psalms, 
"went forth to meet his enemies. Half in awe and half in 
admiration of his courage, the mob desisted from the 
attack, and agreed that the bishop's life should be spared. 
WItstack, the chief who had escaped from captivity in cottmge<ifthe 
Kiigen, now redoubled his efforts to procure a favourable 
hearing for the missionaries, and persuaded the bishop to 
repair on the following Sunday to the market-place, and 
there boldly address the people from the steps where the 
magistrates were accustomed to make their proclamations. 
Otho complied with his suggestion, and had just concluded 
his sermon, when a heathen priest, blowing a trumpet, called 
on the people to make an end of the enemy of their gods. 
This was the most critical moment in Otho's life. The 
lances were already poised to pierce him through, when, 
again, the undaunted composure with which he confronted 
his adversaries, struck the bystanders with mysterious awe, 


S24 Tlie Missionartj Uislory of the Middle Affss. 

OSAP. XIV. and induced them to stay tlieir hands. Otho seized thtf 
*.B- 1137. faTourabl? moment, and advancing with his clergy to tiiB 
church, flung down the altar which the heathen party had 
erected, and commenced the immediate repair of the edifice. 
A change now came over tlie feelings of the people. An 
Fiirm/iimww- assembly was summoned, and the acceptance or rejection 
»•■•'/ of the faith was formally proposed. After a long discussion, 

which lasted from uioming until midnight, it was resolved 
to offer no further opjjosition to the establiahmeut of Chris- 
tianity. Witstack informed the bishop of this resolution, 
and he, overjoyed at the favourable turn aflairs had taken, 
received back all who had apostatized from the faith, and 
■baptized all who were willing to receive that rite. Hie 
uniformly kind and conciliating diRpoaition, joined to the 
readiness with which he redeemed nnmeroua captives from 
the horrors of slaveiy, won for him the popular resjwct, 
which was not lessened when lie once more interceded 
for the people with Boleslav, and succeeded in averting 
onother threatened invasion. News of what qccurred at 
Stettin soon reached Jul in, and, on his second >-iait, Otho 
found himself able to consolidate his previous success, and 
secure the adherence of the wavering. From Julin he set 
A.o, nas- out on a final visit to the Cimrchcs he had founded in 
Pomerauia, and in the following year returned to Germany 
to attend the imperial diet, and thence repaired to his 
diocese of Bamberg. Though unable to revisit the scene 
of his labours, be did not forget the Churches he had 
founded. One of the last acta of his life evinced the 
interest he took in the welfare of his converts. Hearing 
that a number of Pomeranian Christians had been carried 
into captivity by a horde of heathen invaders, he bought 
Tip a quantity of valuable cloth at Ilallc, and sent it into 
Pomerania, with orders tliat part should be distributed ' 
among the chiefs to conciliate their goodwill in behalf of i 
the native Christians, and part sold and applied to the | 

The Canverston of Poland and Pomerania^ 325 

ransom of the captives. Thus, as well as in other ways, chap. xnr. 
he continued, so far as he was able, to superintend the ^^71im! 
Pomeranian Church until the year 1139, when he departed 
this life amidst the universal regret of all ranks in his 
diocese, to whom he had endeared himself by his uniform 
kindness and conciliatory habits \ 

^ Herbordi Vita, m. 33 and 35, Mrhere we liave the sermon preached at 
his funeral. Neander, YIL 41. 



K.D. 1050—1410. 

" Nai|ue enim nui 
flxpellere, quam 

■ uarornm Mtinet oaltoi publics icBgionfa bocta 

'x vaoaro,"— Saio GBAUHATicoa. 

Previous to the efforts ia Pomemnia, which have formed 
' the subject of the laat Chapter, attempts had been made to 
win over other tribes belonging to the great Slavonic fiimily 
to the Christian fold. In the countries bordering on the 
Elbe, the Oder, and the Saule, dwelt the Wenda. Hemmed 
in, on the one side, by the German Empire, on the other, 
by the Scandinavian Vikings, insatiably addicted to plun- 
der, restless and impatient of control, they resented all 
efforts to curb their independent spirit. The clergy who 
came amongst them, being little acquainted with the Sla- 
vonic language, were regarded as the political agents of the 
German Emperors, and their work was too often identified 
with a design to perpetuate their national bondage'. Under 
these circumstances, it is not Buq)rising that such scanty 
seeds of knowledge iw were sown amongst them fell on the 
stoniest ground, and having no dcptli of earth in which to 
strike root, speedily withered away*. Onee and again, per- 
liapa, a few monks, or an individual bishop, might acquire 

' Adam. Bmn. in. 14. ' Neander, V. 44J. il 

Conversion of Wendland, Prusstay and Lithuania. 327 

a knowledge of the Slavonic tongue, but their efforts, though chap. xt. 
blessed with comparative success, were inappreciable amidst j^a.93e-968! 
the general ignorance. 

With the year 9»36, however, there dawned a somewhat 
brighter epoch. The Emperor Otho I., anxious for the 

conversion of his Wendish subjects, founded bishoprics* ^towSS 6 
amongst them, which he made subordinate to the metropo- ^''**^* 
litan see of Magdeburg. For these posts he endeavoured 
to select men who had been tried in other fields of mis- 
sionary labour, and Boso, bishop of Merseburg, one of his 
chaplains, learnt the Slavonic tongue, and even preached 
in it, finding his reward in the conversion of not a few 
of his hearers. He also translated some of the liturgical 
forms into the Slavonian dialect, but failed to make even 
the "KyrieEleison" intelligible to the people, who, caught 
by a somewhat similar jingle of sounds, changed it into 
Ukrivolsa, or " the alder stands in the hedge*." 

The partial success, however, of such prelates was soon Partial mecw. 
rendered abortive by the cruel oppressions to which the 
Wends were subjected, and the persistency of the German 
clergy in levying ecclesiastical dues. A fresh rebellion, 
therefore, alternated with every fresh conquest achieved by 
the German empire, and ceaseless efforts were made to 
throw off a foreign yoke. Thus in 983 a Slavonic chief, 
Mistewoi, though he had embraced Christianity, and was 
attached to the Emperor's court, was so exasperated by 
personal injuries, that, summoning his countrymen to Re- 
thre, the centre and home of the Slavonic idolatry, he 
unfurled the banner of rebellion, and wasted Northern Ger- 
many with fire and sword, razing to the ground every 
church and monastery that came in his way'. His grand- Ootuchaik. 
son Gottschalk, though he, in like manner, had received a 

* AtHavelburg in 946, Aldenburg Dollinger, m. a8. Hardwick, 127. 
in 948, Brandenburg in 949, Misnia * Thietmar, Chron. Pertz,v. 755, 

ui 9^5f &t Cizi, Meissen, and Meree- where see Lappenberg^s note, 
buig in 968. Helmold. Chron. i. la. * Helmold. Chron, I. 16. 

32S The Mmionorj/ Ih'gtory of the Middle Ages, i 

;iiAP. sv, Christian training at Luneburg, Btung to the qnick a 
B 936— 9M. '^''^^' murder oi' his father, the. Wendish prince Udo, flew 
lo arms, gathered round liim the Wendish yoQth, and 
spread havoc over tlamburg and Holstein. But one day, 
as he surveyed a district formerly covered with churches, 
but now lying waste and desolate, he ia said to have been 
filled with remorge, and to have vowed to make atonement 
for the evil he had done, by propagating the faith he had 
learnt in hia earlier years. 
n 10*7. Under his auspices arose, in 1047, a great Wcndiah 

kingdom, into which he invited b. large staff of ecclesiastics 
from Bremen, and even expounded the Scriptures himself 
to his subjects, or interpreted to them in their own tongue 
H'lZ''''' B,'''' '''" ™*"''^* "'" '^^ foreign clergy. At this period, the palace 
"^ of Albrecht', archbishop of Bremen, would appear to have 

been a harbour of refuge for ecclesiastics of all grades, 
whom the distractions of the times had driven from their 
dioceses. Here they were sure of a welcome, and in return 
for the kindness and hospitality of the arehbisiiop, were 
ready to go forth at his bidding into such parts of the mia- 
aion-field as promised the slightest hope of success. The 
good-will of Gottschalk naturally encouraged many to dif- 
fiise a knowledge of Christianity amongst his subjects; but 
though several churches and mission -stations were erected, 
the results of their exertions were only too speedily oblite- 
rated. The heathen party, who would never forgive theit 
. king for favouring a hostile faith, and allying himself with 
the German princes, at last rose in fury, stoned many of 
the clergy, murdered Ebbo the priest of Liitzen at the altar, 
and their king Gottschalk himself*. In this persecution 
perished one of the last representatives of the earlier Irish 
missionaries, in tiie person of John bishop of Mecklen- 
burg. Leaving Ireland, he had travelled into Saxony, 

Conversion of Wendlandj Prussiay and Lithtmnia. 329 

and been hospitably received by the archbishop of Bre- chap. xr. 
men*. By the latter he had been induced to undertake "j^, 
a share in the Slavonic mission, and was recommended /a^«/Af«f*- 
to Gottschalk, who stationed him at Mecklenburg. His 
labours are said to have been blessed with unusual success, 
but he fell a martyr to his zeal. After being cruelly beaten 
with clubs, he was carried about as a show through the 
chief Slavonic towns, and at Rethre, when he would not 
deny the faith, suffered the loss of his hands and feet, and 
afterwards was beheaded. The body was flung into the 
street, and the head, fixed on a pole, was carried in triumph 
to the temple of Radegast, and there ofiered as an atone- 
ment to the ofiended deity ^. This murder of Gottschalk 
and many of the clergy was the signal for a general revolt, 
in the midst of which nearly every vestige of the mission 
was swept away, and during the rule of Cruko, a chief de- 
term inately hostile to Christianity, the old idolatry regained 
its former ascendancy. 

After an interval, however, of somewhat more than Re-ntabnoimtni 
fifty years, the Wendish Christian kingdom was re-estab- «»w*^- 
lished under a son of Gottschalk. But the period of its 
independence had passed away. Year after year it became, 
in consequence of its own internal dissensions, an easier 
prey to the princes of Germany ; and, at length, Henry the 
Lion and Albert the Bear invaded the country, and while 1125— uea. 
the latter founded the Margravate of Brandenburg, the for- 
mer vanquished the Obotrites, and colonised the devastated 
districts with German settlers, who, assisted by foreign 
clergy, reorganised the Wendish sees. Amidst the ceaseless 
din of arms, the form of one true missionary is discernible, 
who strove to wield other weapons than those of the military 
oppressor, and to soften the hearts of the vanquished Wends. 

* Lanlgan, rn. 318. iv. 6. Adam. ■ Helmold. 1. 11. Moreover, **iii 

Brem. m. 50. Hitt, Arch, Brtm, derUionem Salvatoris nostri etiam 
p. 93. oruces a paganis tnincati sunt." 

330 The Mi»simary Ilislory of the Middle Af/ts. 

CQiP. XT. This was Vicelin. Bom at Qucmheim, on the banks 
~ .,„~ " of the Weaer, he had been brouglit up nt the flourishing 
1135—1163. gchool of Paderborn, whence he had been removed, to take 
charge of an educational establiahmcnt at Bremen, and 
after succeeding there, had studied for three years at the 
University of Paris'. Receiving orders, and attracted by 
intelligence of the need of missionary zeal in the Wendish 
kingdom, he betook himself, in the year 1125, to the arch- 
bishop of Bremen, who commissioned him to preach to the 
Slavonians. Hia first efforts at Lubeck were cut short by 
npf...nwr/n-oii political disturbances'; afterwards, at the request of the 
inhabitants, he was stationed in the border-town of Fal- 
dera, or, as it was afterwards called, Newmilnster, as being 
a convenient outposi for evangelizing the district? north of 
the Elbe. The neighbouring country lay waste and deso- 
late, under the repeated ravages of war; and the impoveiv 
ished inhabitants, despairing of aid and protection, had 
relapsed into their old idolatries. Vicelin, however, in the 
spirit of SeverinuB, settled down amongst them, and 80 
won the liearts of many by his zeal, that a number of lay- 
men and ecclesiastics rallied round him, and formed them- 
selves into a fraternity*, vowing to devote their lives to 
prayer, charity, and good works, to visit the sick, relieve 
the poor, and especially labour for the conversion of the 
Wends. For nine years this pioue band toiled on amidst 
eveiy kind of obstacle; and when the province of Holstein 
LoiiMirt. was visited, in 1134, by the Emperor Lothaire 11. they 
could point to many proofs that their exertions Lad not 
been thrown away; and Lothaire was so gratified by the 

pmt«r lucoB et Peaatea, qttibui igri 

ncl » healliHn reaction. "Ido- 

ctiltura rcinvaliiit, ita ut BadigastDeuBObolritarum." <Kn»i. 
. ovefl, at<[ue hommt Aisamm- Slar. xviii. 
uiiolaretitur, t^riBiinni etiuD 
igebuitur, eviioenbaDtur, al 

Conversion of WendUmd^ Prussia^ and Lithuania. 331 

snccess that had been achieved, that he committed to Yi- chap. xt. 
oelin the superintendence of the Churches of Lubeck and li! 
Segeberg*, and encouraged him with no little earnestness uas— ilea. 
to persevere in his good work. 

But it was only by slow and painful stages that the ^^Jl**^**^ 
Wendish mission was to gain a secure footing. On the a.d. 1187. 
death of Lothaire, in 1137, the Wends rose again in rebel- 
lion against their German rulers, fell upon the churches 
and monasteries, and expelled every herald of the Cross 
from the country. Vicelin was constrained to fall back 
upon Faldera, and there, " persecuted, but not forsaken," 
" cast down, but not destroyed," he contrived for several 
years to animate the faith of his little flock. A brighter 
day dawned, when Adolph, count of Holstein, succeeded 
in partially restoring the German supremacy. His church 
at Segeberg was now restored to him; but in view of the 
too probable distractions, he removed the monastery he had 
established to Hogelsdorf, where, assisted by Dittmar, a 
canon of Bremen, he presided over the little society, and 
on the occurrence of a grievous famine was enabled, by his 
welcome charity, to conciliate the affections of many who 
crowded round the gates of the monastery'. 

Meanwhile the wave of German conquest swept again 
over the districts whence it had been obliged to recede 
during the late rebellion, and the archbiship of Bremen 
found himself able to re-establish the ruined sees. Vicelin, a.d. ii48. 
therefore, in 1148, was nominated to the see of Oldenburg, SrHS*^** ** 
and m spite of the anxieties consequent on a misunder- 
standing between the archbishop and Henry the Lion 
respecting the prerogative of investiture, he continued to 
set an eminent example of devotion to the true objects of 
missionary labour*. The worship of the god Prone, which 

^ Chron. Slav. cap. xviii. Nean- hibente Duce, et quamvis temporalia 

der, Yii. 46. nun meflsait, spiritalia tamen eis 

* Sue Neander, Yii. 47. ratione sui officii aeminavit." Chron, 

' "Decimas non recipiebat, pro* Slav, cap. zxil. 

332 TKe Missionary Ilistori/ of the Middle Ages, 

prevailed especially at Oldenburg, received a permanent 
~ check, a churcli waa erected, and a conBiderable number of 
the people received the faith, over whom Vicelin continued 
to preside till his death, in the year 1154. Shortly after- 
wards a larger number of German coloni-ita were introduced 
into the country, who displaced the original inhabitants, 
consolidated still further the influence of the German 
Empire, and consequently of, at least, a nominal form of 

About this time the island of RUf^n, wbich we havft 
already described as one of the chief fortressea of Slavonic 
heathenism, was opened up to Christianity and civilization. 
Ever since the conversion of the Pomeraniana by bishop 
Otho, sangiiinaiy feuds had arisen between tlie new con- 
verts and the pagan islanders. Resenting the apostasy of 
Stettin and Julin, they had menaced tbem again and again 
with the severest punishment, and in the terror of Otho's 
companions, when he proposed to visit the island, we saw 
a proof of their bitter zeal for their pagan creed. After 
frequent engagements the Danes at length took up the 
quarrel, and Waldemar, king of Denmark, assisted by the 
chiefs of Pomerania and of the Obotritea, succeeded in 
subjugating the island. The destruction of paganism was 
now possible, and bishop Absalom of Roeskilde, who, like 
Thangbrand of famous memory, appears to have united the 
ecclesiastical and military functions, undertook to found a 
Christian Church. After a long siege, the capital, Arcona, 
was captured, and finding it impossible to withstand the 
Danish arms, the inhabitants agreed to renounce their 
heathenism, and permit the introduction of Christianity, 
according to the usage of the Danish Church. 

The first care of Absalom was the destruction of the 
gigantic image of Svantovit, of whose temple Arcona was 
the seat. A vaat crowd surrounded the sacred inclosure, 
expecting that a sudden death would be the inevitable 

Conversion of Wendland, Pruasia^ and lAihwmia. 333 

penalty of the party charged with the destruction of the chap. xv. 
image. The latter, undeterred by any superstitious fears, ^[^^Tueai 
entered the temple, and removed the ragged^ purple 
curtains suspended before the shrine. Then with axes 
they plied the feet of the enormous image, which appears 
to have been fastened to the platform on which it stood« 
After a few blows it fell with a crash to the groimd, and at 
the same moment, according to the common Mediseval 
Delief, the demon which haunted the temple was seen 
suddenly to dart from the shrine in the form of a black 
animal, and then as suddenly disappeared. The removal 
of the prostrate image was rendered difficult by reason of 
the awe wherewith even now it was regarded, and which 
deterred any native of the island from even touching it. 
At length certain captives and foreigners were induced to 
make the dangerous experiment*; ropes were fastened to 
the image, and amidst some lamentations, but far more 
mockery and laughter, it was dragged into the Danish 
camp, hewn to pieces, and converted into fuel for cooking 
the soldiers' pVo visions. Other temples were then attacked. Destruction of 
and other images destroyed, amongst which was one' with 
seven heads and of such size that Absalom standing on its feet 
could scarcely reach the chin of the image with an axe he 
carried in his hand ; another with five heads ; a third with 
four. All these stood in temples contiguous to that sacred 
to Svantovit, and all shared the same fate. This done, 
the foimdations were laid of several Christian churches, 

^ " Frequenfl sedem imq)ura cir- 
cumpendebat, nitore quidem "prm- 
dita, Bed situ tarn putris, ut tactum 
ferre non posset." Saxo Grammati' 
CU8, Lib. XIV. 

' "Oppidani simulacro urbe ege- 
reDdo funes injicere jusai, cum id 
pristins religidnis metn per seipsos 
exequi non auderent, captivis exte- 
risque quspstum in urbe petentibus, 
ut iilud ejicerent imperabant, igno- 

bilium hominum capita divinA inB 
potissimum objectimda ducentes.'* 

' ''Factum quercu simulacrum, 
quod Rugisvithum vocabant, ab ora- 
ni parte magno cum deformitatis 
ludibrio spectandum patebat. Nam 
hirundioes, qusB sub oris ejus linea- 
mentis nidos molits fuerant, in 
ejusdem pectus crebras tteroorum 
sordes congeaserant.*' Ibid, 

334 The Missionary Hintori/ of iki Middle Ages. 

wliich were served by eccleaiastica sent over by Abaatom 
~ from Denmark, and sustained at his own cost. The di»- 
tribution of these clergy in different parts of tbe island, 
added to tlie exemption of the people from ecclesiastical 
dues, considerably facilitated the reco.ptiou of this Mon&of 
the North within the advancing circle of Christendom. 

Along the Eastern coast of the Baltic, and extending to 
the Gulf of Finland, dwelt the Licflandera, a branch of the 
Slavonic family, though couaiJerably intermixed with the 
Ugtian race of Finns. Grove-worship and tree-worahip, 
the practice of magic and sorcery, the immolation of human 
victims prevailed amongst them as elsewhere, and tliey 
apiiear to have been sunk in the grossest ignorance and 
barbarism. Commercial relations with their Western neigh- 
bours first ojiened up their country to the exertions of the 
missionary, and, about the year 1186, there sailed to the 
DUna, in one of the merchant-ships of Bremen, a venerable 
priest, named Meinhard, who had been trained in one of 
Vicelin's monasteries at Segeberg, Obtaining permission 
from the Knasian chief Vladimir of Plozk, to preach the 
Gospel, he founded the first Livonian Church at Tzkoll, 
on the DUna, where the Bremen merchants, bad alreiidy 
erected a fort for the protection of their trade'. Meinhard 
found himself able to conciliate tiie good-will of the rude 
people by aiding them wiien attacked on one occasion by 
a hostile army, and instructing them how to erect a larger 
fort for their more permanent defence. Grateful for these 
benefits, not a few professed themselves ready to listen to 
the doctrines of the Gospel, and even to receive baptism. 
i„ Repairing to Bremen, he announced to Hartwig, the 
archbishop, the result of his exertions, and was appointed 
to the see of YxkuU. But on his return to his diocese he 
found bow greatly he bad been deceived. No sooner had 
, 1— ;. DolLoger, 

Conversion of Wendlandj Prussia, and Lithuania. 335 

their immediate wants been relieved than the fickle multi- chap. xv. 
tude relapsed into their old heathen rites, and the utmost ^^^35. 
efforts of Meinhard were fruitlessly spent in attempting to 
induce them to forsake their heathen errors. Meanwhile, 
Theodoric, a Cistercian monk, came to his aid, and began 
to cultivate some land in the neighbourhood of Yxkull. 
The superiority of his crops so provoked the jealousy ot jeaumnjftht 
the Lieflanders that they determined to offer him in sacri- 
fice to the gods*. Fortunately for the successful agricul- 
turist, it was thought expedient to ascertain the will of 
Heaven before resorting to such extreme measures. The 
sacred horse was thrice led by the attendant priest over the 
rows of spears, and each time the omen was in favour of 
sparing his life. But an eclipse of the sun, which took a.d. 1191. 
place shortly afterwards, exposed him to similar peril, and 
he was accused of exercising sinister influences on tlie orb 
of day". This, added to the success of his agricultural 
labours, rendered his stay in the country more and more 
hazardous, and he was obliged to fly, while Meinhard, after 
much fruitless labour, died at Yxkull, in 1196. 

He was succeeded by Berthold, abbot of a Cistercian b^tOow. 
monastery in Lower Saxony. He thought to conciliate 
his fickle flock by a distribution of provisions and numerous 
presents, but he was equally unsuccessful in procuring any 
lasting results. When his stock of presents was exhausted 
a revulsion of feeling ensued, and, like Bernard at Wol- 
gast, he was despised as a beggarly stranger, and bidden 
to leave the country unless he wished to be flung into the 
Diina'. In 1198, Berthold returned at the head of an army 
of Crusaders, whom Pope Innocent IH. had summoned to 

^ " Livones Diis suia immolare pro- 
ponunty eo quod fertilior segea ipsius 
Bit in agris, eorumque seget^s inun- 
datione pluviae perirent." Orig, Li- 
ven, cap. 10. 

* *' A paganis pluriina passiu est 
Tite pericula dioentibus ipsum solem 

comedere." Orig. Livonia. 

' " Ipsum in Holmenis coemeterii 
consecratione alii in ecclesia concre« 
mare ; alii occidere ; alii in Duna sub- 
mergere oonoertabant ; egestatem 
adventus sui causam esse impropera- 
baat." Orig, LivonUg, u. a. 

33G The Miaawnary History of the Middle Ageg. 

(KAP XV Ilia aiil from the neighbouring countries. On hia arrival 
iViiBL ''^^ hade the Lieflandera at once enrrender, and not provoke 
a uselesa contest. They undeterred bade him dismiss his 
forces, and enter peacefully on the duties of his diocese, 
and advised him to try and compel those, who had received 
Christianity, to remain faithful thereto, and induce others 
»■ to adopt it by good words instead of violent blows. There- 

upon a battle ensued, in which Berthold fell ; but the rude 
pagans, unable to cope with a disciplined force, were 
defeated, and promised obedience to tlie demands of their 
conquerors, consenting in not a few instances to receive 
baptism. But the Crusaders had no sooner departed, than, 
as might naturally be expected, a reaction followed, the 
heathen party rose and wreaked their vengeance with 
terrible effect on the new converts and such clergy as had 
^ i>. 1198. been left amongst them. Many also of those who bad 
consented to be baptized now flung themselves into the 
DUna, and strove to efface the effects of their baptism by 
washing in its waters'. 
i.D The successor of Berthold was Albert von Apeldem, 

li9»-iaM. of Bremen. He sailed up the Duna with a fleet of twenty- 
ApMrrn. three ships, and a numerons army of Crusaders, and 
laid the foundations of the town of Biga, whither, as 
being a more secure locality, the bishopric of YxkuU wa» 
transferred. His efforts, however, to secure any perma- 
nent results were not more successful than those of his 
two predecessors, and, harassed by the incursions of 
neighbouring pagan tribes, he determined to establish a 
permanent military force, at once to defend his own diocese 
and overawe the Lieflanders into a reception of Christianity. 
Accordingly he established, with tlie concurrence of the 
Emperor Otho IV., and the approbation of the Pope, the 

1 "Dunte flumlDiB nqoa «e par- remnrrmia n^ua fiaminit, H Jtdan 
funitunt, dioentes ; Hie jam baplti- ttterptam potl Saxona rendtnle* 
matii aquan mm ifta ChrUtianilaU tranmiiuimm." Orty. Livon. IL 8. 

Conversum of Wendlandy Prussia^ and Lithuanta. 337 

knightly Order of the Sword. Placed under the special chap. xv. 
protection of the Virgin Mary, the members of this Order 


bound themselves to hear mass frequently, to abstain from }^'^^' 
marriage, to lead a sober and chaste life, and to fight *«»'^- 
against the heathen, and in return for these services they 
were to have and to enjoy whatever lands they might wrest 
with their good swords* from their pagan adversaries. 
Remorseless war was now waged against the heathen 
Leiflanders for upwards of twenty years. In vain they 
courted alliance with other tribes, and strove to resist 
their oppressors. Castle after castle was erected in their 
land, under the protection of which German colonists, in 
ever-increasing numbers, took up their residence and ex- 
tended German influences. From Kiga, as a starting point, 
Albert von Apeldern directed the arms of his Crusaders 
against Esthonia, and into the neighbouring territories of 
Semgallen and Courland. Aided by Waldemar II., king 
of Denmark, he succeeded in imposing a nominal form of 
Christianity on the war-wasted districts, and the bishoprics 
of Revel, Dorpat, and Pernau were so many ecclesiastical 
fortresses strengthening the power of the Order of the 
Sword, and securing the fruits of their victories. 

To make up for the absence of a vernacular literature, Miraeu-Piay 

, , ' athiga. 

curious methods were adopted for diffusing a glimmering 
knowledge of Christianity amongst the rude and half- 
civilized people of Livonia. Thus, at Riga, in the year 
1204, a Miracle-Play was performed, representing scenes 
from the Old and New Testaments'; and an attempt was 
made to enlist the sympathy of the eye with events which 
the uninstructed ear of the pagans were unable to compre- 
hend. While the exploits of Gideon, David, and Herod 
were visibly enacted before the wondering gaze of the 

* From their great swords th^ ' Originea Livonice, pp. iii sq. 

were called Ensiferi; their habit Fabricii Zujc ^ran^. p. 468. Gieseler^ 
was a white cloak with two swords, Ui. 4 78. 
Gules in Sautoir and a red Star. 


338 .The ifieaiottary Hietory of the Middle Ages. 

. specfatora, interpreters, from time to time, explained the 
"nieaniug of tlie dramatical representations. But tbcy do 
not appeiu' to have been uniformly suecessful in theii 
endeavours " fo point tlie moral and adorn the tale." On one 
occasiou', the spectators interpreting tlie scenes more liter- 
eX]y than their instructors intended, fled in ten'or at the eight 
of the Midianites attacked by Gideon's army, and imagined 
that the next assault would be directed ngainst themselves. 
During the followiug winter, Archbishop Andreas, of Lund, 
who had come into the country with the allied army of the 
Danes, set an example which many of his clergy wouhl 
have done well to follow, by lecturing to the people, jii 
their own tongue, on the Book of Psalms ; and proofs were 
uot wanting that, whenever an attempt was made in a meet 
and becoming spirit, the Leiflanders were not unwilling to 
listen to the words of those who addressed them in a 
language suitable to the faith they sought to propagate. 

Sleanwhile, in a country closely bordering on Livonia, 
armies of Crusaders succeeded by similar methods in forcing 
an entrance, which had long been persistently denied to 
the heralds of the Cross. This was Prussia, at this time 
inhabited chiefly by Slaves, with a Lithuanian and German 
admixture, and divided into eleven petty independent stales'. 
Nowhere, perhaps, was the Slavonic Paganism more deeply 
rooted; nowhere bad the Slavonic priesthood more undis- 
puted sway. Uesides a number of inferior divinities, and 
the elements of nature*, three gods were held in particular 

^ "Iste Butem luduB quasi pne- 
ambulurii, pntludium et pi»E«igium 
(Tut futururum iQHlatuiu. Ham in 
eoilcm tuilo enmt bella utpote Daiid, 
Gidmnii, Jlcrodit, Ernt et iloctrhia 
Veteria et Novi TeHtamenti quia 
nimiruin per bella plurimo, qum 
Bequuutur, tonvertenda urat gen- 
t[litas, et per doctriuam VeterJB et 
Novi TestiHDcnti ernt inetruenda. 
qualiter ad verum paciflcum et ad 

vit&Di perveniat lempitemun." Orij. 

' Peter da DoBburg, ChronioM 
Prattia, p. ;). Mniim Sylvius dt 
Statu Eiiropa, cap, XX[X. 

' " Oiunem creaturam pro Deo 
coluerunt, sive S->lem, Luiiam, et 
atollua, t^iQitrua, votstUlo, qiiadni- 

Efdin etiam, use jus lui bufoncm. 
[abiierunt etiam lucoa, conipus et 
aquu Bacnu, Bic ijuod Eeujre, aut 

Conversion of Wendland, Prussia^ and Lithuania. 339 

veneration, Percunos, the god of thunder ; Potrimpos, the chap. xt. 
god of com and fruits ; PicuUos, the god of the infernal ^^^.1230, 
regions. The face of the first was expressive of extreme 
anger, his head was wreathed with a crown of flames ; the 
second was represented by a beardless youth, and wore a 
chaplet of green leaves and ears of com ; the face of the 
third was pale, the beard snow-white, the eyes looked 
downwards on the ground\ Every town and village had a 
larger or smaller temple ; but the sanctuary of the nation 
was at Romove, where also were the sacred oaks, and the 
veiled statues of the gods. Here, also, resided the chief in/ii^wo/*** 
pontiff, who was held in such veneration, that, not only««*y- 
Jiimself or any of his connections, but a herald bearing his 
staff or other insignia was accounted sacred'. The other 
members of the hierarchy were required to live in celibacy, 
and possessed unbounded influence over the people, of 
whom, at particular seasons, they exacted human sacrifices, 
especially in honour of PicuUos and Potrimpos. Every 
native of the country was permitted to have three wives, who 
were regarded as slaves, and on the death of their husbands 
were expected to ascend the funeral pile or otherwise put 
an end to their lives. Infanticide', especially that of female in/anueide. 
children, was common, so much so that all the daughters 
in a family, save one, were invariably put to death. 
Children also that were deformed, aged persons, and all 
whose recovery was doubtful, were put out of the way ; and 
male and female slaves were burnt with the corpse of their 
masters, as also his horses, hounds, hawks, and armour \ 

mgroB colere, vel piscari ausi non 
fuerant in eUdem/' Peter de Du8- 
burg, p. 79. 

* Hartknoch's Dissertations, vn. 
' Hartknoch, Dissert, vi. 

• In the Origines Lit'onice^ p. 31, 
we have an instance of fifty women 
hanging themselves on the death of 
their husbands. 

^ ** Cum nobilibuB mortuis aima, 
equi, eervi et andlbe, vestes, cant:rfl 
venatici, aves rapaces, et alia quse 
spectant ad militiam urerentur. Cum 
ignobilibus comburebatur id quod 
ftd officium epectabat.*' Chronicon 
PrussicBf p. 80. On serpent worship 
in Prussia^ see Hartknoch, Dissert, 


340 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. ly. The opening of tlie thirfeenth century saw tlie Fniasiaiu 
\g ^^ Btill fanatically addicted to tliia orgautsed syateni of pagan- 
ism, and Bucii mlBsionartea aa attempted their conversioa 
AiiiMm bUKp expiated their temerity with their lives. One of the earliest 
and most eminent of these was Adalhert, bishop of Prague, 
who sailed to Dantzic in the year 997, escorted by some 
soldiers lent him by Boleslav I„ duke of Poland. Hia 
landing was not opposed, and impmdently dismissing the 
vessel with her crew, he rowed in a little boat, acconipajiied 
only by a priest named Benedict, and one of his own 
pupils, to the mouth of the river Pregel. On attempting, 
however, to land, the natives fell upon them with clubs, 
and Adalbert, struck, with an oar while chanting the Psalter, 
fell stunned to the bottom of the boat. With much diffi- 
culty tliey made their way to the opposite bank, and landed 
in the territory' of Saniland. Here they encountered the 
chief of one of the vilSagea, who summoned the inhabitants, 
and bade the missionaries explain the object of their visit. 
Adalbert complied, and told them who he was, and whence 
he had come. On this hia hearers exclaimed, "Away with 
such fellows from our land ; these are they wJio cause 
our crops to fail, our trees t(.> decay, our herds to sicken. 
Depart from us, or expect instant death'." Therefoi« 
Adalbert and his companions left to make their way to 
the coast. The bishop himself was inclined to propose 
their lingering in the country, and thought if they suffered 
their hair to grow, and laying aside their clerical garb' 
took to working with their own hands, they might hope 

' Bninonia Vita S. Adedbrrti, eonini effecti, f.milisrius eo h«biU- 

Perti, Scri/it. Tl. p. 60S. mus oolloquimur et cunviniaui : 

' " HiibitUB corporum et horror labontntlo quoque propiiia nuutibiu, 

vcstium, ut video, pagania animia victiim quenmuB wl inBtir ApoMo- 

DOD pamm nocet. Unile, ni placet, lonim. Interea, proapereDto inue- 

veatimenU mutemiu clEiicalia, pea- ncordia SolvKtoria, fit aliqutd hac 

deritibus cnpillig surgere Binemus ; art« ac fraucle, ut opinio ge f*llat; 

tonue barbie comaa prodire peniiit- evaagelizantli occasio ut« leniL" 

tomus: forsan non ogniti m«liuB IbiJ. 
habemus ialDt«m openiri; simile* 

Conversion of Wendlandy Prussuiy and LHhuania. 34t 

to calm the suspicions of the people, and be enabled in chap. xv. 
time to take more decisive steps. But such ideas were not ^^^7, 
destined to be realized. Plunging into a thick wood thej 
pursued their journey, and, halting to take some refresh- 
ment, fell asleep, and woke to find themselves surrounded 
by a troop of the natives, who clamoured for their lives. 
The bishop had barely time to oxhort his companions to ^^^^^^^ 
steadfastness, when seven lances were plunged into his 

Another attempt to carry the Word of Life into this Bnmo. 
dangerous region was made by Bruno, chaplain of the a.d. 100s. 
Emperor Otho III. Instigated, it is said, to undertake the 
mission by the sight at Home of a picture of St Boniface, 
the great apostle of Germany, he procured a commission 
from Silvester II., empowering him to preach to the hea- 
then Prussians, and was consecrated a regionary bishop at 
Magdeburg. With eighteen companions he entered Prussia, 
in the year 1008, and before twelve months had expired, 
he had shared, together with all his retinue, the fate of 
the bishop of Prague. After the death of Bruno a period 
of nearly two centuries elapsed, during which the national 
repugnance to Christianity was still further intensified by 
the long wars with Poland. At length, in 1207, Gottfried, a.d.1207. 
a Polish abbot, with one of his monks, penetrated into ^^^'^^^f^ 
the country, and had succeeded in achieving a faint amount 
of success, when his companion fell a victim to the hostility 
of the people, and he himself was obliged to give up in 

Three years afterwards, Christian, a Pomeranian monk, ▲.D.1210. 
from a monastery near Dantzic, accompanied by several iSSkSMJ/toi. 
brethren, and accredited with the express authority of 
Innocent III., arrived with the determination of making 
another attempt. For a space of four years he was enabled 
to prosecute his task in peace, and then set out for Rome, 
accompanied by two converted chiefs, the firstfruits of his 

342 The Missionary nhtory of the Middle Ageti 


itAp. XT. zeal. The Pope received them conlially, and conte 
I2j^_ ' upon Cbriatian the episcopate over the new community'. 
He also wrote to various Cistercian abbots in tlie country, 
desiring them to aid instead of impeding the efforts of the 
new bishop, and to the Polish and Pomeranian dukes, 
inveighing strongly against the oppressive burdens they 
had laid upon the Prussian converts, which only tended to 
irritate the people, and prejudice them against the Gospel. 
Thus accredited. Christian once more returned to his 

rmreacom. dioccsc. But the suspicions of the heathen party had been 
aroused, and the new converts themselves groaned under the 
taxes and imposta exacted from tlicm by the authorities 
of Poland and Pomcrania. The consequence was a general 
reaction. The Pnisaians rose in fury, destroyed nearly 
three hundred churches and chapels, and put many Chris- 
tians to the sword". Otiier agencies were now invoked by 

., 1319. Bishop Christian, and the " Order of Knights Brethren of 
Dobrin," formed on the model of that which we have already 
encountered in Livonia, were bidden to coerce the people 
into the reception of Christianity. But they failed to achieve 
the task assigned them, and then it was that the famous 
" Order of Teutonic Knights," united with the "Brethren 
of the Sword" in Livonia, concentrated their energies on this 

"jn/Ttif*- European Crusade. Originally instituted for the purpose 
of succouring German pilgrims in the Holy Land, the 
"Order of Teutonic Knights," now that the old Cmsadea 
had become unpopular, enrolled numbers of eager adven- 
turers determined to expel the last remains of heathenism 
from the face of Europe. After the union of the two 
Orders had been duly solemnized at Rome, in the presence 

' laSB. of the Pope, in the year 1238, they entered the Prussian 
territory, and for a space of nearly fifty years continued a 
series of remorseless wars against the wretched inhabitants- 

Conversion of Wendland^ Prussia, and Ltthuanta. 343 

Slowly but surely they made their way into the very heart chap. xr. 
of the country, and secured their conquests by erecting ^,,.1288. 
castles, under the shadow of which rose the towns, of 
Culm, Thorn, Marienwerder, and Elbing, which they 
peopled with German colonists. 

The authority of the Order knew scarcely any bounds. fjyjJSJ^^ 
Themselves the faithful vassals of the Pope, they exacted 
the same implicit obedience, alike from the German immi- 
grant, or colonist, and the converted Prussians. Baptism 
was made the one condition of admission to the enjoy- 
ment of any rights, individual or social \ The baptized 
proselyte might regard himself as a freeman, might boast 
that, in some sense, he was a man. The Prussian who 
still persisted, in spite of being conquered, to adhere 
to his old superstitions, forfeited all claim to personal 
freedom, and was as much the property of his master 
as his horse or his hound. In 1243 the conquered lands EccMatticai 
were divided by the Pope into three bishoprics. Culm, 
Pomerania, and Ermeland, each of which was again di- 
vided into three parts, one being subject to the bishop, 
and the other two to the brethren of the Order'. With 
this subdivision there gradually sprang up a number of 
churches and monasteries, and the Prussians began to dis- 
continue many of their heathen customs, such as sacrifice 
to idols, infanticide, the practice of polygamy, and the 
burning of their dead. In return for these concessions, a 
greater degree of personal liberty was guaranteed to them, 
the Polish laws were introduced, and the Popes, who, to the 
utmost of their power, befriended the new converts, enjoined 
an equable distribution of the country into parishes, im- 
pressed upon the clergy the duty of instructing the people, 
and on the knights a due regard to tlie gentler precepts of 
the Gospel. In 1251 schools began to be erected, though 
numbers of the Prussian children were sent for instruction 

^ Milman's Latin ChrUtiantty, v. 404. ^ DoUinger, ni. 282. 

344 Tlte Missionary Histort/ of the Middle Ages. 

cirAp XV into GermnDj, and especially to Magdeburg', and numeroiu 
~ 7a6o. Dominican monks laboured for the more effectual conversion 
of the people. 

Paganism, however, waa not yet extinct, In 1260 the 
knights were defeated by the Litliuaniana, and eight of 
the oivJer, who were taken prisoners, were burnt alive in 
honour of the gods. This was the signal for another rising, 
and tlie Pruasiana wasted with fire and sword far and wide, 
murdered the clergy, and destroyed the nionaaferies and 
churclics. The knights thereu[>on retaliated, the favoarable 
terms granted to the Prussians in 1249 were cancelled, 
and a sanguinary war, which lasted for twenty-two years, 
and in which the knights were aided by armies of Crusaders 
sent them by the Popes, closed the struggle between the 
•-6 1283 rival faitlis. Many of the chiefs were deprived of their 
freedom, and reduced to the condition of serfs, and the bulk 
of the people, in sheer despair, consented to recognize the 
sovereignty of tlie Order. Thus dominant, the knights 
maintained their supremacy both in Church and atat« ; the 
bishops were dependent on them, and in most cases were 
selected from amongst themselves, and were even prohibited 
from pronouncing censures on any member of the Order, or 
interfering in their administration of affairs. 
iiiAKOBia. The only province of much im^jortance now remaining 

unreclaimed from heathenism was that of Lithuania, whose 
rebellion against the Teutonic knights we have just men- 
tioned. Tlie same gross form of polytheism prevailed 
here, that so long held their Prussian kinsmen in its dark 
bondage, and assumed even a more degraded form. Not 
only the heavenly bodies, and the God of Thunder, but 
even serpents* and lizards were regarded with veneration, 

1 DolliDger, III. 1S4. E&rdwick, pentem habuit, cui cibum dedit, ae 

aji. _ Bacrificium fecit, in fteno jaceoti." 

' "Primi qiiOB adiit ei Lituanii jEneaa Sylvius de Utatu £aiiipa, 

aerpentea cnlebant, pater fiimiliaa cap. XXVI. p. 418. 
auuoi quiaque in au^ulo domue ser- 

Conversion of Wendland^ Prussia^ and Lithtiania. 346 

and approached with human sacrifices*. Mindove, a native chap, xv 
chieftain, is said to have embraced the Christian faith asA.D.1888. 
early as 1252 ; and Vitus, a Dominican monk, dispatched 
by Pope Innocent IV., attempted to fan the spark into a 
flame, but met with little encouragement. From this time 
till the year 1386, not a ray of light appears to have pene- 
trated the daikness of their heathenism. In this year, 
however, one of the Lithuanian chiefs Jagal', whose 
predatory incursions had hitherto been the terror of the 
Poles, proposed to the latter to espouse the young queen 
Hedwige, and thus unite the two countries, agreeing at 
the same time to introduce Christianity amongst his own 
people. The arrangement was accepted, and the Lithu- 
anian chief was baptized at Cracow, and assumed the 
name of Vladislav. Thence, accompanied by his queen, 
and many Polish ecclesiastics, he repaired to Wilna, where 
a decree of the diet formally accepted Christianity as the 
national faith*. Under the superintendence of the arch- 
bishop of Gnesen, and the Polish clergy headed by Va- 
sillo, a Franciscan monk, and the first bishop of the new 
see of Wilna, the more public rites of heathenism were 
abolished. The idols • were destroyed, the groves cut 
down, the sacred fires extinguished*, the holy serpents 
and lizards killed, the Lithuanians at first looking on 
with horror, and then acquiescing complacently in the 
destruction of the objects of their former veneration. In 

^ "Dracones adorant cum volu- 
cribuB, quibuB etiam vivos litant ho^ 
minee, quos a mercatoribus emunt, 
diligenter omnino probatos, ne ma- 
culam in corpore habeant." Adam 
Brem. de Situ Danice, DoUinger, lu. 

• Fabricii Lux Evangeliif p. 455. 

• Dollinger, in. a 86. Hwdwick, 

p. 335. 

• " Post ho8 gentem repent, qu8B 
sacrum colebat ignem, eumque per- 
petuum appellabat. Sacerdotes tem- 

pi! materiam ne deficeret ministra- 
bant, hoB super vita eegrotantium 
amici consulebant, illi noctu ad 
ignem accedebant, mane vero con- 
Rulentibus responsa dantes, umbram 
segroti apud ignem sacrum se vidisse 
aiebant. Quse cum se calefaceret, 
signa vel mortis vel vits ostentasset, 
victurum segrotum fades ostensa 
igni, contra si dorsum ostentasset, 
morituram portendit." ^neas Syl- 
vius dc Statu EuropcBy cap. xxvi. 

346 The Missionary KUfory lyf the MtiiUe Aget.^^tM 

cniP XT. promoting the change, no one was more conspicuons tliCT 
»"- 1388. '''^ grand-tlufec himself. He iiilerpreted to the people in 
the native language, the meaning of the Lord's Prayer, 
the Creed, and other formalariea, which they could never 
have leanil from the Polish clergy. Thus slenderly in- 
Btnicted, "and attracted," says DslHnger, "by the present " 
of a white woollen garment'," the people were either con- , 
ducted in troops to the banks of the rivers, and there ' 
baptized, or sprinkled in large numbers at once, receiving i 
the game Christian name of Paul or Peter, 
m U13. About thirty years afterwards, a Lithuanian priest 

named Withold, commnnicated aach seeds of truth, aa his 
own superticial acqunint&nce with the faith enabled him, 
to the Samaites, wlio have been regarded as more or less 
identical wiih the barbarous Sanioeids, who now dwell in 
the cold and dreary regions of the Arctic circle'. Their 
conversion had been already sought by Prussian priests, 
while the power of the Teutonic knights was at its height, 
but the results had been barely perceptible. The exer- 
tions of Withold, supported by the influence of the grand- 
duke Jagal, were more successful, the town of Womie, or 
Micdniki, was built, and here Withold fixed his episcopal 

' Dbllinger, in. 186. 1.I35, Christianitr did not beonnK 

' HiirJwick. p. 3.16. Among Iha tho popular religion UU the ifith 

LappH, tbnugh auccesaful miMioiia and rytb centimes. 

luul been inaii^pirated ub eul; u 



A.D. 1200— UOO. 

'* Multos equites video ire ad sanctam terrain ultramarinam, et putare ipsam 
acqutrere per vim armorum, et in fine omnes consumuDtur, quin ve* 
niaitit ad id, quod putant ; node videtur mihi, quod acqaisitio illius 
Banctee terree non debeat fieri, nisi eodem modo quo Tu et Tui Apostoli 
earn acquibistis, scilicet amore et orationibus et effusione lacrymanim 
et sanguinis." — Eatmundus Lullus. 

Among the letters of the great Apostle of Germany to oaap. xvi. 
numerous friends in England, is one addressed to the limitation «/ 
abbess Eadburga, in which he dissuades her from a pil-**'^^ 
grimage to Rome because of the constant incursions of the 
Saracens \ Meagre, doubtless, were the tidings the ardent 
missionary received respecting the limitation of the Church 
in the distant East, but nearer home events had occurred, 
calculated to excite in his mind deep musings as to the 
designs of Providence. Bursting from its home in the 
Arabian deserts, the wave of Mahometanism had swept on 
unchecked over Syria and Egypt, over Persia and Northern 
Africa', nor stopping here, had inundated the length and 
breadth of Spain, save only a little Gothic kingdom in 
the inaccessible fastnesses of Asturia. Restless even here, 
the Moslem warriors had crossed the Pyrenees, and the 

1 Ep. xxxiT. A.D. 733. in 707, Spain in 71 t, and after 

^ The Saracens conquered Jem- being checked by Charles Martel in 

B%]em in 637, Syria in 639, Egypt 732, threatened the interior of Italy 

in 640, Persia in 651, North Afnca in 734. 

MS Tie Mimomary History (^ On IKddle Agt*. \ 

K XTL kwotA of ChaHea Mule] ftlone bad nTcd Ihe Fnnkiik 

Chardhw from the f«te already imdergone hv tfao^ of 
Aagtutineandof Cjprian. Stnoge, indeed, and ^ad most 
have been the reSections of the early pioneets of Chrigltin 
civiltKation among the Teutonic nations, when tber heaxA 
that Cbnrchcs which Apostles had planted had been swept 
away before the austere inoDothetsm of Arabia, that fiom 
cities where a Paol or an Apollos had rawn and planted, 
there now went up to heaven the cij, "God la Odc, and 
Allah is His prophet." Little coald these gimple-mindol I 
men anderstand, that this sudden revolntion waa no less a ' 
judgment on the decrepit Eaatem Churches, for their dis- , 
aniuD and moral cormption*, than a means deatined<iij the 
hands of Proridence to minister, and that not ineffectuBllT, 
to the ultimate civilization of Europe. 
^!^%u'an- ^* ^"^^ "'''' indeed, fall within our plan to trace the 
ctrMin progress of the Saracenic conquests, but ou the history of 
Mediaeval Missions they undoubtedly exercised a potent 
influence. For a time they seemed to change the very 
spirit of Christianity, taught it to forget of "what spirit" 
it was, and to imagine that the legitimate weapons of its 
warfare were not "spiritual" but "camalV The gradual 
rise of this new phase of thought and feeling, was nowhere 
more perceptible than in the Iberian Peninsula, where after 
their repulse by the Bword of Charles Martel, the Saracens 
settled down in great numbers, and speedily attained a 
higher degree of civilization than in almost any other part 
of the world'. 
i.ip, esa. Till the year 850, the Spanish Church could not fairly 

complain of intolerance or persecution, on the part of the 
Saracen conquerors. Christians rose to high positions in 

' See the qaotation from Prideaui * See UUnUui'i Zah'n C^rutioni/y^ 

in SUnlty'i Eatttm Church, p. 160. II. 4q. 
HanJwick's MaidU Aga, p. 34 and ' Freaoott'i Ferdinand and /to- 

Missions to the Saracens and the Mongols. 349 

the court of Cordova, and even ecclesiastics and monks ohap. xyl 
found ample scope for their acquaintance with Arabic and ^^ ^^ 
Latin, as interpreters during negotiations with Christian 
princes. Intermarriages even were by no means uncom- 
mon, and produced their usual results, the husband con- 
verting the wife, or the wife the husband ^ Before long, jjjj^-'**" 
however, there arose rivalry and suspicion. The Christian 
could, indeed, worship God without let or hindrance, but 
felt aggrieved at having to pay a monthly tax for the 
privilege. He could bury his dead with the customary 
rites, but not without the frequent risk of insult and abuse, 
which it was dangerous to avenge, seeing that the Moslem 
law had declared death the penalty of striking one of the 
faithful, or blaspheming the prophet. Under these cir- 
cumstances, the great majority of the Spanish Christians 
deemed it their duty to abstain from all acts of violence, 
to cultivate the friendship of those in power, and to keep 
within the limits of that liberty of conscience which was 
conceded to them. 

But there were not wanting those who took a different spMio/into- 
view of the course they ought to pursue. " Whoso is ashamed 
of me before men, of htm will I be ashamed before the angels 
of God^y^ was a text very frequently in their mouths, and 
one which they often quoted against a half-hearted policy, 
and any concessions to the " infidel." They were wont to 
taunt their '* weaker brethren" with being afraid to make 
the sign of the Cross, or to speak of Christ as God in the 
presence of the unbelievers. If they did mention Him, 
it was insinuated that they degraded His attributes, by 
speaking of Him merely as the Word and the Spirit. 
" Spotted leopards" was their favourite term of reproach for 
such weak Christians. When they heard the evening cry 
from the mosque, " God is One, and Allah is His prophet," 
they crossed themselves on the forehead, and breathed 

1 Neander, v. 462. Kurtz, 315. * St Matt. viii. 38. 

350 T&e Minumary Hi'slory of the Mi^U Agta. 

*'' '^'' forth with a sigh the words of the Pealmist, " Keep ml 
B50, »iiff ailence, God, J»r, lo, thine enemiea matx a tuauh, 
and the^ that hate 7'hee have lifted up tlietr head^." Bat 
about the middle of the ninth eentnry, it became cleir that 
the pent-up animosities and jealousies of the rival pitititi 
' could not be much longer restrained. A spark only wu 

needed to kindle the flame. A priest, named Perfectn.i, 
was, on one occasion, on his way lo Cordova to pnrcha^ 
some necessaries fur his convent, when he fell in with .» 
party of Moslems. Their recpective religious tenets becanw 
the Buliject of couversatjon, and wheu the monk waa asked 
his opinion respecting " the Prophet," he, with some nii- 
willingness, informed liis enraged hearers, that he regarded 
him as no other than one of the false prophets, whose 
appearance auyured the ppctdy cominf; of the Last IVtv. 
An outbreak of religious ])hrenz/ was the natural result of 
this plain-spoken avowal, in the midst of which Perfeetus 
and several others were put to death. This was the signal 
for the greatest excitement. Multitudes came forth, and, 
urged on by the exhortations of their monastic teachers, 
rushed to the Moslem tribunals, blasphemed the Prophet, 
and paid the penalty of their rashness by sutfering a 
violent death'. Tiie rage for martyrdom now became a 
passion. With the utmost difficulty the wiser section 
succeeded in inducing their brethren to curb their en- 
thusiasm, and recognise a difference between such rashness 
and the calm self-possession of the early Christian martyrs. 
For a time their counsels jircvailed ; peace was restored, 
and the Spanish Church reposed in the enjoyment of their 
religious freedom. 
"i-iH fl/ iJut such a state of things could not last, and when the 
Spaniards began to assail their invaders, and emerging 
from their native fastnesses in Asturia pushed their con- 

. Missions to the Saracens and the Mongols, S51 

quests slowly but surely, first to the Douro, and then to chap. xvi. 
the Tagus\ the long pent-up sources of rcjligious animosity T^^Tsso! 
burst forth into undisguised hatred, and whetted only too 
keenly the swords of the Spanish Christian and the 
Arabian Infidel*. We can imagine, then, the effect, when a.d.1086. 
stories began to circulate, throughout the length and 
breadth of Europe, of the cruelties practised on the Chris- 
tian pilgrims by the Moslems, especially during the supre- 
macy of the barbarous Seljukians. It only needed the 
frenzied hermit Peter to sound the tocsin of war, and 
thousands were ready to go forth and avenge the insulted 
symbol of their Faith, and rescue the Holy City from the 
band of the Infidel. Deeper and deeper, as years rolled 
on, the crusading spirit' penetrated into the very heart 
of society, animating the solitary monk no less than the 
follower of Godfrey, the peaceful burgher no less than the 
mailed soldier. Before the fiery propagandism of the 
Crusades, the gentler spirit of true missionary enterprise 
fled away. From time to time, however, proofs were not 
wholly wanting, on the one hand, of the great results, 
which might perhaps have been produced, had a holy 
life and true zeal more generally characterized the cham- 
pions of the Cross in their dealings with their Moslem 
foes ; and, on the other, of the origin of missions to the 
more distant East, in consequence of the knowledge ac- 
quired by the Crusaders of lands hitherto almost unknown. 

Let us fii*st speak of a few instances of missionary 
zeal for the conversion of the Saracens. 

In the year 1219 the champions of the Cross, number- FraneUo/ 
ing two hundred thousand Franks, were encamped under <^jj^ o< ^««<- 
the walls of Damietta\ It was the tenth year of the 

1 Prescott's Ferdinand and Isa- third nSo, fourth 1217, fifth I2?8, 

bdla, I. 287. sixth 1248. Kurtz, p. 375. 

* Buckle'/* Civilizaiion, ii. 14. * Gibbon, v. 496. 
' Fii-st Crusade 1096, second 1 146, 

352 The Miseumary HUtory of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. XVI. Franciscan ere, and the founder of the Franciscan order 
"i u. 1319. ""^^ '" *''^ camp. He hud just returned from tltc second 
general Chapter, and had seen &vo thousand luendicaiiis 
marching in long procession from t)»e Porzioncula to Pe- 
rugia'. The canlinal Ugolino had quailed before the stem 
and menacing words in which the "Spouse of Poverty" 
had rebuked his attempt to weaken the allegiance of bit 
followers by tempting proffers of mitres, and even of the 
purple. To turn their tlioughts into other channels, the 
"General Minister" proposed, as an object worthy of their 
ambition, the spiritual conquest of the world, and had 
reserved for himself the seat of war between the champions 
of the Cross and of the Crescent. To quell the unutteTahlc 
confusion of the Christian camp itself would have been 
worthy of all his efforts, but he burnt witli an aidoiir, 
which nothing pould quench, to go alone and unattended 
into the Moslem camps, and attempt the conversion of the 
s^^i^"^ Soldan himself. After spending many hours in rapt de- 
'*"*■ votion, he went forth in the squalid robe of a mendicant, 

and crossed the boundary between the two camps chanting 
the words of the Psalmist, "Though I walk through the 
valleif of the sliadow of death, I will f&ir no evil; for Thou 
art with me." Apprehended by the Saracen outposts, he 
was carried to the tent of their leader and asked the reason 
of his coming. " I am sent," he replied, "not of man, but 
of God, to shew thee the way of salvation." The Soldan, 
we are assured by an eye-witness, received the brave 
monk witli respect, and not only pei'mitted him for several 
days to preach before himself and his officers, but listened 
to his words with attention, and sent him back to the 
Christian camp, saying, " Pray for me, that God may en- 
lighten nie to hold fast that faith -whieh is most acceptable 
in His sight." Other authorities* inform us that, when 

Missions to the Saracens and the Mongols* 353 

asked by the Saltan to remain in his tent, the intrepid chap. xyi. 
preacher replied, " Yes, I will remain, if thou and thy a.d. laio. 
people will become converts for the love of the Saviour 
my Master. If thou art unwilling, kindle a furnace*, and 
I and thy priests will enter it together; and let God deter- 
mine whether the true faith is on thy side, or on mine." 
The Imauns trembled, and the Champion of the Crescent 
allowed that none of his priests would be willing to face 
such an ordeal. "Only promise, then," replied the other, 
"to become a Christian, and I will enter the fire alone. If 
I come forth unharmed, acknowledge Christ; but even 
should I be burnt, conclude not that my faith is false, but 
that on account of my sins I am unworthy to receive this 
honour." The Sultan courteously declined the proposal 
for fear of an uproar, and dismissed the enthusiastic monk 
with ample presents. The eloquent author of Essays in 
Ecclesiastical Biography remarks, that the fact that " the 
head of the missionary was neither bartered for a gold 
besant by the soldiers, nor amputated by the scimitar of 
their leader, may be explained either by the Oriental 
reverence for supposed insanity, or by the universal rever- 
ence for self-denying courage'." For ourselves we should 
be far more inclined to ascribe it to the latter reason ; the 
more so as the Bishop of Acco, then present with the 
army, assures us that the Saracens were far from unwilling 
to listen to the preaching of the followers of St Francis, 
so long as they confined their exhortations to the doctrines 

Dotes with Sir J. Stephen, I. 126. 
" The appeal to a judgment of God," 
says Neander, " is undoubtedly in 
the spirit of Francis, and the Sultan 
might perhaps have returned such 
an answer to it. At all events, the 
agreement of the accounts in the 
essential point vouches for the truth 
of the fact lyin,' at the bottom." 

* Compare the story of Bernard 
the Spanish missionary in Pomera- 

nia, chapter ziv, and that of Bishop 
Poppo, Chapter xi. 

* For a somewhat similar instance 
of the '* magnetic power of earnest^ 
ness and simplicity" seethe account 
of the dispute between an heathen 
philosopher and an aged bishop at 
the council of Nicsa, Stanley's EoMt- 
em Church, 115. Another in the 
life of St Francis Xavier is given in 
Grant's BinnpUm LectureSf p. 'syi. 


854 The Missionary ITUtory of the Middle Agea. 

[. of the Gospel, and did not, in a spirit utterly alien ^A 
that of the greatest of Christian misaionariea, as displayed 
in a certain memorable interview on Mara' Hill, resort to 
the languago of coarse abuse and fanatical declamation'. 

The spirit of the Apostle of the Gentiles, rare at all 
times, must have been especially rare at this period, and, 
therefore, it la truly cheering to come across the record of 
one, who even now had not forgotten that there waa a voice 
more potent in appealing to the hearts of men than the 
fire, the carthqniike, or the storm. Such an one invites 
our notice in the person of the once famous, now almost 

'■ forgotten Raymund Lull, whose life and labours mark 
an firji in tlie missionary history of the Middle Ages. 

This celebrated man was born of noble parents at Palma, 
the capital of Majorca, about the year 1236'. His father 
had served with great distinction in the army of Don James, 
king of Arragon, and the boy was at an early age intro- 
duced to the court, where he rose to the post of seneschal*. 
The traditions of his youth present him to us as gifted 
with great mental accomplishments, as an ardent cultivator 

t of poetry, but addicled to sensual pleasures. He married, 
but tliis did not restrain him from gratifying unlawful 
passions, and the theme of his poetical effusions was seldom 
any other than the joys of lawless love. " I see, O Lord," 
he says in his Contemplations, " that trees bring forth every 

' " Saraccni autem omn«i Tratreii 
nimoreB Um Hiu lie CliHsti fide 
et evfingeUca doctrinii prsdiciuitcfl 
libenter audiunt, qtiousquc Maho* 
meto, tanqiiam audaci et perfido, 
pivdicalj'ine sua manifcte contn- 
dicunt. Ei tunc i 

proteBCTft pmnB trucidanteB, de ci- 
vitatiUuB mill GipelluDt." J. de 
Yitry, in the f/iil. Ocridtnl. c 3], 
quoU^ in Neander. vit. 81. 

' Vita B. Raymandi Ltdti Mart. 
Ada Sanctorum, Juae 3a, p. 644. 



Wadding, J nnolet Franeuear. IT. 
412 (ed. 1731). A 1U( of hit tKoi* 
occupies dearly five folio page* in 
Wailding. Humboli]( (Conuit, a. 

619, ed. Bohn) dsacribea him u "at 
once a pUlonophical lysteniatiier, 
and an analytic ehemiat, a ikilfal 
jcceasf ul propagator 

^Kaymuaduji, Seneacallua mcnwi 
reguo Majoricarum." In Uis Acta 
SS. we have an elaborate eiouniu 
OD the duties of this office. 

Missions to the Saracens and the Mongols. 355 

year flowers and fruit, each after their kind, whence man- chap. xti. 
kind derive pleasure and profit But this it was not with ^^ i^ 
me, sinful man that I am ; for thirty years I brought forth 
no fruit in this world, I cumbered the ground, nay, was 
noxious and hurtful to my friends and neighbours \'' But 
when he had reached his thirtieth year, there arose within 
him a mighty struggle, the spirit and the flesh, his lower, 
and his higher nature strove with one another. The story 
of St Augustine under the fig-tree at Milan was re-enacted 
at Palma. One day, as the Seneschal was sitting on his a.d. 1265. 
couch and composing an erotic song, there suddenly ap- 
peared to him the image of Christ hanging on the cross. 
So deep was the impression made that he could write no 
more. Some days passed away, and he was again similarly 
engaged, when once more the same Divine Image pre- j^"''"''^ 
sented itself, and he was fain before that spectacle of Divine 
Self-sacrifice to lay aside his pen. This time* the effect 
was not so transitory; again and again it seemed to return, 
and he could not resist the thought, that there was a special 
message meant for himself, that the Saviour of men was 
thus inviting him to conquer his lower passions, and to de- 
vote himself entirely to His service. But then arose the 
doubt, how can I, defiled with impurity, rise and enter on 

^ "Video, Domine, quod arbores 
omni anDO producant flores et fruc- 
tu8, per quoa luetificantur et susten- 
tantur homines ; sed non est ita de 
me peccatore, quia triginta annis 
non fui in hoc mundo fructuosuR, 
immo fui nocivuB meis et meis ami- 
c\b : igitur, cum arbor, quae est sine 
intellectu et ratione, sit fructuosior 
quam ego fuerim, valde yerecundor 
et me reputo valde culpabilem." 
KayrounduR Lull us, Lib. Contempt. 
in Dtum, ix. 257, ed. 1740. And 
again, "Tibi Domine Deus, ago 
multas gratias tuus servus et tuus 
subditus, quia video magnam differ- 
entiam esse inter opera, qussolebam 
£Acere in mea juventute, et ea, qus 

facio nunc in declinatione meaB se- 
nectutis ; non, sicut tua omnia mea 
opera erant in peccatis et in socie- 
tate viliorum, ita nunc spero per 
tuam gratiam, quod mea opera et 
mes considerationes et mea desideria 
sint ad dandam gloriam et laudem 
tua gloriosa essentia divina." Lib» 
ContempL cvi. 30. 

* Or, as it seems, the vision ap- 
peared oftener, "tertio et quarto 
successive diebus interpositis aliqui- 
bus, Salvator, in fonna semper qua 
primitus, apparet." Aeta SiS. An- 
other version of the story of his con- 
version is given in the Vita Secunda 
ActaSS. June 30, p. 669, and Wad- 
ding, IV. 413. 


356 The Muaionarif IlUtorij of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP, xTi. a holier life? Niglit afler niglit lie lay awake, a prey 
».!>. 1385. doubt and despondency. At lengtli occurred the thought, 
"Ciiriat ia meek, and full of compassion and tender mercy, 
lie invitea all to come to Ilira, and whosoever comcth to 
Ilim, He will in no wise cast out. Sinful as thou art, 
ppradventure He will accept thee, if thou wilt come to 
Him." 'With that thought came consolation; he concluded 
that he was indeed invited to forsake the world, and follow 
his Saviour, and he resolved to give up all for His sake 
As this resolution gained hold upon him, he began to feel 
that he was walking in the right path ; old things began 
to pass away; powers long dormant, ordwarfcd and stunted 
by devotion to lower aims, put forth greater activify ; tlie 
flower at the bottom of the long sunlesa cavern had caught 
the quickening ray, and was beginning to expand into tlie 
fulness of its bloom. 
wS'X'ui^' After long contemplation, he came to the conclusion 

53^;;^^ that he could not devote his energies to a higher work, 
than that of proclaiming the message of the Cross to the 
Saracens, His thoughts would naturally take sneh a di- 
rection. The Balearic Isles had long been in the possession 
of the Saracens ; his father had served in the wars and 
shared the triumphs of the king of Arragon over the Ma- 
hometans', and had been rewarded for his bravery by the 
grant of a portion of Majorca. It occurred to his son, that 
possibly the Sword of the Spirit might conquer foes, whom 
i.D. 1388. the carnal weapons of the knighta had failed to win over 
to the Christian fold. But then arose another difficulty. 
How could be, a layman, and uninstructed, enter on such 
a work ? Thereupon it again occurred to him that, at least, 
a beginning might be made by composing a volume which 
should demonstrate the truth of Christianity, and convince 
the warriors of the Crescent of their errors. But even if 
sttch a book were composed, of what avail would it be in 
* Id the Jew 1119. Aaa SS. June 30, p. 644. 


Missiona to the Saracens a/nd the Mongols* 357 

the hands of the Saracens, who understood no other chap. xvi. 
language but Arabic? As he pondered over this, he ^^ jQee] 
was filled with the idea of calling upon the Pope and /dWjgoWfw- 
the monarchs of Christendom, instead of spending blood ^oCSJSJJ** 
and treasure in bootless martial expeditions against the 
Saracens, to join in founding monasteries and schools, 
where men might learn the language of their foes, and so 
be enabled to go forth and preach the Word to some pur- 
pose. Full of such thoughts, he repaired on the next day 
to a neighbouring church, and poured forth his whole soul 
to God, beseeching Him if He did, indeed, inspire these 
thoughts, to enable him to carry them out, and to give him 
strength and courage to dedicate himself to the work^ 

This was in the month of July, 1 266. But though old ^J^^^ 
things were passing away, all -things had not yet become -'^''W- 
new with him. Old passions rose and struggled afresh for 
the masteiy, and so far succeeded in thwarting and baffling 
higher aspirations, that for three months his great design 
was laid aside ^. The fourth of October came, the festival 
of St Francis of Assisi. Lull went to the Franciscan 
Church at Palma, and heard from the lips of the preacher, 
the tale of the " Spouse of Poverty ;" how the son of Pietro 
Bemadone di Mericoni, once foremost in all deeds of arms, 
gayest at the gay festival, was taken prisoner at Perugia, 
and brought by disease to the very gates of the grave; 
how thus he learnt to weigh the things of time and sense 
in the balances of eternity, and recovering, came forth to 
live no more for himself, but for his Lord; how he ex- 
changed his gay apparel for the garb of the mendicant, 
visited the sick, tended the leprous, and, renouncing the 

* Vita Prima, p. 662. " Domi- retur." 

nam Jesum Christum devote, flens * ** Com nimis enet adhnc imbu* 

Urgiter exoravit, quatenus hspc tut vita et lascivia seculari, in pr»- 

prsedicta tua, quee ipne misericor- dictia tribus negotib penequendis... 

diter in8piraverat cordi suo, ad efiPec- satiR fuit tepidua et remiflsuB." VUa 

torn aibi pladtum perducere digoa- Prima, p. 661. 

358 Hit Miaaionary History of Oia Middle Aga 


CHAP, XVI. world, acliieved the victory that overcomcth it. The wi 
ID 136S. "f '''^ preacher rekindled the resoltitiotifi of tlic listening 
Seneschal. He now made up his mind once and for ever, 
sold all his property save a scanty sustenance for Iiis wife 
and children', assumed the coarse garb of a mendicant, 
made pilgrimages to various churches in the island, and 
prayed for grace and assistance in the work he had resolved 
to undertake, 
finimnnui* At ouc timc hc thought of repairing to Paris, and 

>*' there, by close and diligent scientific study, training him- 

self for the controversy with the Saracen. But the advice 
of his kinsman, the Dominican, Haymund de Pennafortc', 
dissuaded him, and he remained at Majorca. He next 
proceeded to purchase a Saracen slave, and entered on the 
study of Arabic, with which he was occupied for a period 
of upwards of nine years. A tragic incident interrupted 
his studies. On one occasion the Saracen blasphemed 
Christ. Lull in his indignation struck him violently on 
the face. The Moslem stung to the quick attempted his 
life, and wonnded him severely, for which he was flung 
into prison, and there committed suicide'. Still Lull 
persevered in his resolution, and retired for eight days to 
/dM^fVAn a mountain to engage in prayer and meditation. While 
o«»™i'»- thns employed, the idea occurred to him, of composing a 
work which should contain a strict and formal demon- 
stration of all the Christian doctrines, of such cogency that 
the Moslem doctors could not fail to acknowledge their 
truth, and to embrace the faith'. With such force did 

' "'nbi, Dnmine DcuB, offcro me ' He hod a few jetxa before p«r- 

tt meftm uiorem et meu proleB et Buaded Thotntit Aquinas Co com|w*e 
omnift qu£e powiilco ; et quonium Lib work in four volum™ Ob the 
&dco te hiimiiiHsti per opui BscnGcii, Calhdic Faith, or Sumauiry agaiiat 
pUceat Tibi Te humiliBre ad accep- tki Gent'ila. S«<; Hue, [. 144. Jiune- 
tanduni omnia. nu» tibi do etoBero. aoii's Lfgrndt, 410. 

* Vila Prima, p. dfit. 
' " Rogit BayiDunduS religioKii 
st lecularea njiieDtea, at videant, ai 

Missions to the Saracens and the Mongols. 359 

this thought take possession of his mind, that he could chap. xti. 
regard it in no other light than a divine revelation, ^^,1300. 
and having traced the outline of such a work, which he 
called the Ars Major sive Oeneralisj he returned to the 
spot where the idea had first burst upon him, and re- 
mained there for four months, developing the argument, 
and praying for the divine blessing on his work\ The 
treatise he conceived, while in one sense intended for the 
special work of convincing the Moslems, was to include 
'' a universal art of acquisition, demonstration, confutation," 
" to cover the whole field of knowledge, and supersede 
the inadequate methods of previous schoolmen'." 

When it was completed, he had an interview with the 
king of Majorca, published the first book of his "Method," 
and lectured upon it in public. At length he persuaded a.d. 1275. 
the king, who had heard of his zeal, to found and endow 
a monastery in Majorca, where thirteen Franciscan monks 
should be instructed in the Arabic language, and trained 
to become able disputants among the Moslems'. 

The success of his request to the king encouraged him 
to hope that the great Head of Christendom might evince 
a similar interest in his plans. He therefore undertook 
a journey to Rome, hoping to obtain from Honorius IV. 
the approbation of his treatise, and aid in founding mis- 

rationes, quae ipse facit contra Sara- 
cenos approbando fidem Catholicam 
habeant veritatem, quia si forte ali- 
quis Bolveret rationes, qiiSB per Sa- 
racenos contra fidem Catholicam 
opponuntur, cum tamen ipd ra- 
tiones, quae fiunt pro eadem, solvere 
non valerent, fortificati Saraceni 
valde literati et sapientes se facerent 
Cliristianos." Introduction to the 
SecesBaria demonstratio articulorum 

* And holding interviewi. accord- 
ing to one biographer, with a cer- 
tain mysterious Shepherd, ''quem 
ipse nunquam viderat alias, neque de 

ipso audiverat quenquam loqui.'* 
Vita Prima, 663. 

* For his ideas, *^de veriore modo 
qui possit haberi in diflputatione de 
Fide, " see Zt6. de Contempl. in Deum, 


' " Quantumcunque aspiciam et 
inquiram, fere nullum invenio, qui 
vadat ad Martyrium pro amore Tui, 
sicut Tu, Domine, fecisti pro amore 
nostri : igitur ration abile mihi vide- 
retur ordinationem fieri, quod essent 
Religiosi, qui addiscerent diveraas 
linguas et ir«)nt ad moriendum pro 
tuo amore.** Lib. Contempl. in Deum, 
cap. ox. 18, Tom. iz. 146. 

360 The Missionary ITislori/ of the Middle Ages, 

'. XVI, Bionary echools and colleges in Tariooa parts of Europe. 

gg_ On liia arrival he found the Papal chfiir vacant, and all 
men busied wilh one thing, the election of a successor. 
He waited for calmer times, but impediments were always 
thrown in his way, and his plans received little encou- 
ragement. The heads of the Christian world " cared for 
Doue of these things," Meanwhile he repaired to Paria, 
lectured on his Are Genei-alis in the University, and com- 
posed another treatise on the discovery of truth. And, 
at length, tired of seeking aid for his plans in which no 
one took much interest, he deteimined to set forth him- 
, self, and attempt alone and single handed, the propagutioa 
of the faith among the Moslems in Afi'ica*. 

For this purpose he betook himself to Genoa, and 
finding a ship on the point of sailing fur the Africiin coast, 
engaged for liis passage thither. At Genoa the story of 
his life was not unknown; men had heard with wonder 
of the marvellous change that had come over the once gay 

87. and dissolute Seneschal, and now it was whispered that he 
had devised an entirely new method for the conversion of the 
" infidel," and was about to set out alone for the barbarous 
shores of Africa. The expectations of the Genoese were 
raised to the highest pitch, and the utmost interest was 
taken in his project. The ship was lying in the harbour, 
the missionary's books had been conveyed on board, and 
everything was ready for the voyage. But at this junc- 
ture a change came over Lim ; he was overwhelmed with 
terror at the thought of what might befal him in the country 
whither lie was going. The idea of enduring torture or life- 
long imprisonment presented itself with such force, that 
he could not control hia emotions'. His books were recalled, 

' "Ad eiperiendum, utrum ip*s > Deo, FJlii Dei Incunstionein, rwc- 

taltem nnlua in oliqio pnsgct profl- Dcn Divinikrum Feratinkruin in mm- 

cere apud ipsni, Cjnfereado cum sa- ma unitate ewentie BentiBeimaia 

pUntibuB eonim, aic maoifesUuido Triniutem." Vila Prima, p. 663. 

eiadem, •ecundum Artem libi datMn * Vita Prina, p. 664. " England 

Missions to the Saracens and the Mongols. 361 

and the ship sailed without him. No sooner had he re- chap xvl 
ceived tidings that this was the case, than he was seized ^p 1287. 
with the keenest remorse. The thought that he had proved 
a traitor to the great cause, that he had slighted a divine 
call to a special work, that he had given a handle to all 
scoffers at religion, threw him into a violent fever. While 
he was yet suffering the greatest bodily and mental pros- 
tration, he heard that another ship was lying in. the harbour 
ready to sail for Tunis. Weak as he was, he implored his 
friends that his books might again be put on boards and he 
suffered to essay the voyage. He was conveyed to the ship, 
but his friends convinced that he could not outlive the 
voyage, insisted on his being again landed. He returned 
to his bed, and his troubled mind found no peace, and his 
bodily sufferings no alleviation. Soon another ship being 
announced as ready to sail, he determined, at all risks, to 
be put on board, and the vessel had hardly lost sight of the 
land before he felt himself a different man^ ; his conscience 
no more rebuked him for cowardice, peace of mind returned, 
his body was attuned once more to its wonted vigour, and, 
to the surprise of all, he seemed to have regained perfect 

He reached Tunis at the close of the year 1291, or ad. 
the beginning of 1292. His first step was to invite thelf^^^ 


has disappeared, and with it, aU my inciperent navigare, Raymundas 

peace, '^ writes Henry Martyn, in his Bospitatem conscientise, quam sub 

diary, as the shores of Cornwall re- nubilatione supradicta se crediderat 

ceded from view on the voyage to amisisse, subito Istus in Domino, 

India. *' Would I go back ? O no Sancti Spiritus illustratione miseri- 

-but how can I be supported I my oordi, recuperavit, una cum sui cor- 


faith fails. I find, by experience, I poris languidi sospitate : in tantum, 

am as weak aa water. O my dear quod ipse infra dies paucissimoB, 

friends in England, when we spoke mirantiDU8canctis...etiamfiemetipBo, 

with exaltation of the missions to sensit se in adeo bono statu mentis 

the heathen, whilst in the midst of et corporis, sicut anieafuerat in tota 

health and joy and hope, what an prseterita vita sua." Vita Prima, 

imperfect idea did we form of the p. 664. See Neander's AfemoriaU, 

sufferings by which it must be ac- p. 517. Wadding, Ann€Ua Fraiu 

oomplished. " Life, p. 121. ciic. an. 1187. 
i " Gum nautce, de portu exeontes, 

362 The Missionary IHstiyry of the Middle Af/es, 

CHAP. XVI Maliometan literati to a conference. He announced fhat 
he had diligently studied the arguments which supported 

1391, or lasi not only the Christian but the Mahometan religion, that h« 
was anxious for the fullest and freest discussion, and wad 
willing, if they Bucceeded in convincing him by fair arga- 
ment, to espouse their belief. The I tnauns eagerly responded 
to the challenge, and flocking to the place of conference in 
great numbers, exhausted their whole store of ar<;amenti 
in tlie hope of winning him over to the religion of the 
Prophet. After a lengthened discussion, the missionary ad- 

Mu pmchine. vaiiced the following propositions': "Every wise man moat 
acknowledge that to be the true religion, which ascribed 
the greatest perfection to the Supreme Btiug, and not only 
conveyed the worthiest conception of all Ilis attributes, 
His goodness, power, wisdom, and glory, but demonstrated 
the harmony and equality existing between them. Now 
their religion was defective in acknowledging only two 
active principles in the Deity, His will and His wisdom, 
whilst it left His goodness and greatness inoperative, aa 
though they were indolent qualities, and not called forth 
into active exercise. But the Cliristian faith could not be 
charged with this defect. In its doctrine of the Trinity it 
conveys the highest conception of the Deity, as the Father, 
the Son, and the Holy Spirit, in one most simple essence 
and nature". In that of the incarnation of the Son, it 
evinces the harmony that exists between God's goodness 

' On the Lullian Art, see M»a- 
rioe'H Moral and Mttaphylical Pkilo- 
Kphii (Mtdhei-at), pp. 144—146. 

' " Appsrebit vubig, ai placet, ra- 
tioTii>l)ilixeime per eandem Artcm, 
qui>d ill Filti Dei Incnmatione. per 
participAtioiieni uiiionis Crenlorii et 
Creaturoi in una persona ChruU, 
prima et summa causa cum suo ef- 
lectu ration ubiliKsi me concordat, et 
oimvenit: et quvd etiam maxime ot 
DobUiasimo hoc apparet in ojusdem 

BnaJiter niw Laminea fecit Deua Im- 
nedictuB." Vila Prima, p.(>fi^. Com- 
pare alM LUi. de Contaupl. tit Dnm, 

LtV. 15—18 KOd CLXZXVL 6. 

Missions to the Saracens and the Mongols. 363 

and His greatness, and In the person of Christ displays the chap. xti. 
true union of the Creator and the creature*; while in His '^, 
Passion which He underwent out of His great love for man, ia9l,ori292. 
it sets forth the Divine harmony of Infinite Goodness and 
Condescension, even the condescension of Him, Who for us 
men, and for our salvation, and restitution to our primeval 
state of perfection, underwent those sufferings, and lived 
and died for man." 

This argument, whatever else was thought of It, was 
deemed worthy of drawing down persecution on the head 
of its author. A learned Imaun pointed out to the king 
the danger likely to beset the law of Mahomet, if such a 
zealous propagandist was allowed to disseminate his opin- 
ions, and therefore suggested that he should be put to 
death. Eaymund therefore was thrown into prison, and 
was only saved from death by the intercession of a less pre- 
judiced counsellor, who reminded his sovereign that a pro- 
fessor of their own faith would be held in high honour, if 
he imitated the self-devotion of the prisoner, in propagating 
their doctrines among the Christians. Let him then be 
fairly dealt with, and let them do as they would be done 
by. This timely intervention saved him, and the sentence of 
death was commuted to banishment from the country. The 
ship which had conveyed him to Tunis was on the point of 
returning to Genoa; he was placed therefore on board, and 
warned that if he ever made his way into the country again 
he would assuredly be stoned to death. But Baymund, 

^ ''Quantani signiRcationem dant 
de tua Bonitate, Doroine, Lex Judse- 
orurn et Lex Saracenorum, tantam 
aigpiificationemdat dc ipsa LexChris- 
tianorum et adhuc multo roajorem ; 
et quia Judspi et Saraceni negant 
Te a88um{»isse bumanam naturam, 
qnam Cbristiani Te assumpsisse af- 
firmant, Christiani attribuunt tuas 
Deitati plus bonitatis, quam Judaei 
et Saraceni, quoniam confitendo Te 

esse Deum et Hominem IMbi attri- 
buunt Natunun divinam et naturam 
angclicam quantum ad animam, et 
naturam humanam quantum ad cor- 
pus et animam rationalem: igitur 
quia Lex Christianorum significat 
in Te plus Bonitatis, quam aliie leges, 
signifioatseipsam esse veram, et leges 
sibi contrarias esse falsas, et sigmfi- 
cando hoc significat Te esse verum 
Deum et Hominem simuL" Ibid, 

364 7%e ilissionary Illslvry of the Middlt Ages, 


CHAP. xTi, trnwilling to give up the liopes of a lifetime', manage 
"Zs. return to Tunia unawares, ami for tliree months concealed 

1291, or laea. himself in tlie neigh boiirliood of tlie harbour, and employed 
hia time in composing another scientific work. But finding 
no second opportunity for free discussion, he sailed for 
Naples, and there remained several years teaching and 
lecturing on his new Method, till hearing of the elevation 
of Cceleatine V. to the Papal Chair, lie betook himself to 
Rome, hoping to obtain that assistance in establishing Ids 
favourite plan of missionary colleges, which he had vainly 
besought before. Ctnlestine's reign was brief, and Ids 
successor, Boniface Vlll., cared little for missionary enter- 
i.o. ■ Finding his journey to Kome likely to lead to no prac- 

393— I30e. ^^^^ result, he resolved to travel from place to place, and 
preach wherever he might have opportunity. After en- 
deavouring, therefore, to convince the Alahometans and 
Jews in Majorca of their errors, he sailed for Cyprus, and 
thence, attended only by a single companion, penetrated 
into Armenia, and strove to reclaim the various Oriental 
sects to the orthodox faith'. Ten years having been 
spent in these occupations, he returned and lectured in 
several of the universities of Italy and France, and then 
, in 1307 made his way once more to Bugia in Northern 
Africa, and standing up publicly, proclaimed in the Arabic 
language that Christianity was the only true faith, that 
the religion of the Prophet was false, and he was ready 
to prove this to the satisfaction of all, A commotion en- 

' "Disposnerat ririM famoiiB re- 
putotionis et ulioa quamplurlmos ad 
Dnplumum, ijuim toto atiimn affcula, 
bat deUucere ad perTectum lumen 
fidei orthodois." Vila S. LtdlL 

' DuringhMslaj in Komp hecoin. 
poaed a treaCiie having fat iM object 
to demansCraU iucontrovertibly tha 

See Ncander'a JUtmoriaU of Ckrit- 

tian Life, p. 518. 

* "AccBsail ad rfgem Cypri »(- 
fectu multo Bupplicaii* ei, qitateniu 
quoadam infiileUn atqua Bctiiamati- 
COS, videlicet J acobinon, Neetorinoa, 
Mammiuaa (Maronicu t) ad auam 
pnndicationem necnon dlsputkUonam 
■r«," Iln£ 

Missions to the Saracens and the Mongols. 365 

sued, and not a few hands were lifted to stone him to chap. xti. 
death. The mufti rescued him, and expostulated with~~i3^Y. 
him on his madness in thus exposing himself to imminent 
peril. " Death has no terrors/' he replied, " for a sincere 
servant of Christ, who is labouring to bring souls to a 
knowledge of the truth." Thereupon the Moslem, who 
was well versed in the Arabian philosophy, challenged 
him for his proofs of the superiority of his religion to * 

that of the prophet. Eaymund fell back on his favourite 
arguments, and dilated on the harmony that existed in 
the Christian doctrine of the Trinity. But, as before, his 
arguments only brought upon him persecution. He was 
flung into a dungeon, and for half a year remained a close 
prisoner, befriended only by some merchants of Genoa and 
Spain. Meanwhile riches, wives, high place and power 
were offered him if he would consent to abjure his faith \ 
To all such temptations he replied, " And I will promise 
you wealth, and honour, and everlasting life, if ye will 
forsake your false creed, and believe in the Lord Jesus 
Christ." He also proposed that both parties should com- 
pose a written defence of their respective tenets, and was 
engaged in fulfilling his part of the engagement, when a 
sudden command of the king directed that he should be 
sent out of the country. 

During the voyage a storm arose, and the vessel was 
driven on a point of the coast not far from Pisa. Here 
he was received with all the respect that became so emi- 
nent a champion of the faith. Though upwards of seventy, 
his old ardour was not abated, the same high aspirations 
still animated him. "Once," he writes ^ "I was fairly 
rich ; once I had a wife and children ; once I tasted freely 
the pleasures of this life. But all these things I gladly 

^ " Promittebant ei uxores, ho- ad ann. 1293. *'Nuno senex sum, 

nores, domum et pecuniam copio- nunc pauper sum, in eodem propo- 

sam." Vita Prima, c»p. lY. Bitosum, in eodem usque ad mortem 

' Wadding, Annales, Y. p. 317, mansurus, si Dominus ipse dabit." 

3(J6 T}(e Missionary/ Uistort/ of ihe Middle Ages. 


lAP, ivi. resigned itiat I miglit spread abroad a knowledge ol 
.1308. truth. I studied Arabic, and several timea went forth to 
preach the Gospel to the Saracens ; I have been in priaooa; 
I have been scourged; for years I liave striven to jicrsuada 
the princes of Christendom to befriend the common good 
of all men. Now, though old and poor, I do not despair, 
I am ready, if it be God's will, to persevere even unto 
' death," Full of his old ardour, and in keeping willi the 

epirit of the age, he conceived the idea of founding a new 
order of Bpiritual knights', who should be ready to em- 
bark, at a moment's notice, to war against the Saracens, 
and attempt the recovery of the Holy Sepulchre, Pioua 
Doblemeii and ladies at Genoa offered to contribute for this 
object, the sum of thirty thousand guilders, and thus encou- 
raged lie set out for Avignon to lay his scheme before 
Clement V. The same fate befell this appeal that had 
attended all the rest, and he found occupation in attacking 
as a teacher at Paris the opinions of Averroes. While 
here, he heard that a general council was to be summoned 
at Vienne'. A General Council might favour what Popes 
had scarcely deigned to notice. He repaired therefore 
to Vienne, and proposed that missionary colleges should 
be established in various parts of Europe; that the, dif- 
ferent orders of spiritual knights should be consolidated, 
with a view to another effort to recover the Holy Land; 
and, lastly, that men duly qualified should be invited to 
combat the opinions of Averroes'. The first of these pro- 
positions was favourably received, and the Council passed 

A.D. 1311. 


■ "Cum Sanctum Sepulchnira et 
itinctK t«rra ultramiriiio, Domine, 
videktur debere acquirere per pne. 
dicaUoncm melius, quam per TUn ar- 
morum, progrediintur sniicti equilei 
religioa ot muiUBiit se Bigno Cruds, 
et imploant se gratia Sancti Sptritui, 
et eaut pnedican ioMelibuc veriCa- 
tem tus Pawioiiu, et eOundaDt pro 

lorum, et totum aanguiuein sui cor- 
poria, Bicul Tq fedati pro aoiore ip- 
■onim." Lib. Conttmpl, in Jicum, 

' Wadding's AniiaU, VI. tpg, ad 

' Vita Prima, cap. IV. 

Missions to the Saracens and the Mongols. 367 

a decree, that professorships of the Oriental languages chap. xti. 
should be endowed in the universities of Paris, Salamanca, ^^ ^3^^ 
and Oxford, and in all cities where the Papal court re- 
sided \ 

Thus at last he had lived to see some portion of the 
labours of his life brought to fruition. When the delibe- 
rations of the Council were over, it might have been thought 
he would have been willing to enjoy the rest he had so well 
deserved. But such was not his wish. " As the needle'," 
he says in his Contemplations^ " naturally turns to the 
North, when it is touched by the magnet, so is it fitting, 
O Lord, that Thy servant should turn to love and praise 
and serve Thee, seeing that out of love to him. Thou wast 
willing to endure such grievous pangs and sufferings*.*' 
Or, as he says again, " Men are wont to die, Lord, 
from old age, the failure of natural warmth and excess of 
cold ; but thus, if it be Thy will. Thy servant would not 
wish to die ; he^ would prefer to die in the glow of love, 
even as Thou wast willing to die for him*." Animated a.d. 1814. 
by these sentiments he crossed over once more to Bugia croueawr 
on the 14th of August, 1314, and for nearly a year 
laboured secretly among a little circle of converts, whom 
during previous visits he had won over to the Christian 
faith. To them he continued to expatiate on the theme 
of which he never seemed to tire, the inherent superiority 
of the Christian religion to that of the Jews and the Ma- 
hometans. "If the latter," he still argued, "according 

* On the Btory of his visit to Eng- 
IftDd and the curious legend of his 
writing a work on Alchemy at St 
Catharine^s Hospital, Loudon, see 
Strype's StoWj I. 352 (ed. 1753). 
Wadding, vi. 236. 

* In his treatise Ftnix dea U$ Ma- 
ravUlat del Orbes, published in 1286, 
he again alludes to the use of the 
manner's compass. See Humboldt's 
Coimot, IL 630 n. 

' Lib. de Coniempl. cxxix. 19. 

* Vita Secundaf cap. IV. Lib, de 
Contempl, cxxx. 27. "Homines 
morientes pne senectute, Domine, 
moriuntur per defectum caloris 
natuValis et per excessum calorie; 
et ideo tuus sctvus et subditus, si 
tibi placerety Don vellet mori tali 
morte immo vellet mori pne calore 
Amorisy quia Tu voluisti mori taU 

3G8 The Misgionary Sistary of ike Middle Ages. 

on\p. XVI. to tlieir law, afErra that God loved man IjeciHise He cre- 
*,[>. 1314. ated him, endowed him with noble facoltiea, and pours 
Hia henefita upon him, then the Christians according to 
their law affirm tlie same. But inasmuch as the CIiri»- 
liatis believe more than this, and atBrm that God so loved 
man that He was willing to become man, to enduie 
poverty, ignominy, torture, and death for his sake, which 
tlie Jews and Saraecns do not teach concerning Him, 
therefore is the religion of the Christiana which thus reve&ls 
a I-ove beyond all other love, superior to that of those 
which reveals it only in an inferior degree'," 

On the "length, and breadth, and depth, and height" 
of this Love, a Love "which passcth knowledge," be 
never ceases to expatiate in bis Contemplations, and maw 
it was tlie one Ihemc of his earnest eonvci'sc with his little 
AD, 1315. flock. At length, longing for the crown of martyrdom he 
jom."™^*^' came forth from bis seclusion, and presenting himself 
openly to the people, proclaimed that be was the same 
man they had once expelled from the town, and threat- 
ened them with divine wrath if they still persisted in 
their errors. The consequences can be easily anticipated. 
Filled with fury the jiopulace seized him, and on the 30th 
of June, 1315, dragged him outside the town, and there 
by command of the king stoned bim to death. A few 
faithful merchants of Majorca succeeded in obtaining per- 
mission to remove the body, from under the pile of stones 
that covered it, and conveyed it for interment to their 
native land. 
«*"*«■'"(*< Out of the Crusades, however, the fanaticism of which is 
oitvniada. agreeably relieved by this episode of the gentler spirit of 
Eaymund Lull, arose other efforts to bear the banner of the 
Cross into the lands of the East. The Eastern Church, as 
we have already remarked, had long since ceased to be 

' Lib. de Conlanpl. cLXUVi. i6, and compare cnauvn. 13. 

Missions to the Saracens and the Mongols, 369 

aggressive or creative ; such missionary zeal as still existed, chap, xvl 
was found amongst a sect excluded from her pale, and ^.d. eoo-iooo. 
known as Nestorians or Chaldoan Christians. At iaxBifr^!^!^ 
finding protection and toleration in Persia, they not only 'PSuSi^. 
won over the Persian Church to their tenets, but extended 
their spiritual dominion beyond the Tigris to Bactriana and 
India, and in the sixth and seventh centuries could count 
up their missionary stations along the pepper coast of Mala- 
bar^, in the island of Ceylon, in the valleys of Imaus, and 
in the track of the wandering Tartar. Timotheus, one of 
the most distinguished of their patriarchs, who had the 
power of holding synods, electing metroplitans, bishops, 
and clergy, sent forth in the ninth century, from the monasj- 
tery of Bethabe, in Mesopotamia, hosts of missionaries, who 
roved in the neighbourhood of the Caspian sea, and even 
penetrated into China, where a well-known inscription in 
the Chinese and Syrian tongue, purporting to belong to the 
year 781, relates that a Nestorian missionary labom-ed there 
with success, as far back as the year 635*. Whatever 
amount of confidence may be placed in travellers of this 
period, certain it is that the Nestorian schools, especially 
those at Bagdad, Edessa, Nisibis, and Dschondisapur in 
Khusistan', "exercised a very matked influence on the 
geographical diffusion of knowledge," gave the first im- 
pulse to scientific and medical investigations*, and scattered 
the seeds of civilization far into the distant East. The suc-^ 
cessful efforts, towards the close of the tenth century, of 

* Neale'a Eastern CliurcJi, I. 146. 
Wiltscb, I. 490. Stanley's Eattem 
Church, p. 6. In the ninth century 
the Christians of S. Thomas attracted 
the notice of our Alfred. Pauli's 
Alfredf p. 147. 

* First discovered by the Jesuit 
missionaries in 1625. Its genuine- 
ness, however, is disputed. Smith's 
Gibbon^ VI. 50 n. Neander, v. 133. 
Hard wick, Middle Ages, 29 n. 

' Humboldt^s Cosmos, ii. 578, ed, 

* ''The school of Edessa, a pro- 
totype of the Benedictine schools of 
Monte Cassino and Salerno, gaver 
the first impulse to a scientific inves* 
tigation of remedial agents, yielded 
from the mineral and vegetable king- 
doms." Cosmos, n, ^"jg. SeeAsse- 
man, Bihlioih, OrienUUis, torn. ni« 
part ii. 75, 76. Wiltsch, i. 486. 


270 The Missionary Higtory of l/ic MuMe Ages. 
CHAP. XTi. the Nestorian primate of Mam in Chorasan, amongat 


~ people of Tartary, who sent to the city of ("araconim in 
tlie kingdom of Kerait two priests, together with deacona 
and ecclesiastical vessels, and baptized many thousands of 
the people, gave rise to those vague rumours, current in 
Western Europe in the tliirleenth century, of a jrowerful 
Christian empire in Tartary, governed by a raysterioua line 
of sacerdotal kings'. 

These vague rumonrg were before long exchanged for 
something more certain. In the year 1202, an internal 
revolution extinguished the dynasty of these sacerdotal 
monarchs, placed the well-known Chinghis Khan upon the 
throne, and hurled the Mongol armies against the terrified 
soldiers of the West. More dreadful even than the Sara- 
cens, they conquered Russia, invaded Poland, overran 
Hungary, and threatened Germany and the ahorea of the 
Baltic*. The Western Pontiff trembled at their coming, 
and in the year 1245, sent two embassies, one to charge 
these sanguinary warriors to desist from their desolating 
inroads, the other to attempt to win them over to Christi- 
anity. The first embassy, consisting of four Dominican 
monks, headed by one named Ascelin*, sought the com- 
mander-in-chief of the Mongol forces in Persia. Ignorant 
of the language and manners of these tribes, they provoked 
their suspicions by refusing to comply with Oriental cus- 
toms, and after vainly endeavouring to impress on the mind 
of the Great Khan, the awful might aud majesty of the 
Pope, were dismissed with directions to inform their master, 
that it was the will of Heaven that the Great Khan should 
be lord of the whole world, and if any wished to make their 
submission, they must remain on their own soil, nor vainly 
oppose the resistless course of the Mongol hosts. The other 

^ Nrander, vil. 63. Asseman, II. * Gibbon, VI. ng. 

444. Hantwick, p, 140. Gieaeler, ' Hakluyt's Vogagtt, I. 37 ; No- 

ItL 4S1. •nder, VU. 66. 

Missions to the Saracens and the Mongols. 371 

embassy \ consisting of Franciscans, headed bj an Italian, chap. xti. 

Johannes de Piano Carpini, next arrived in Tartary, after ZdASM, 

making their way, amidst every species of hardship, throagh 

Russia. Their leader, who had travelled much, and held 

high office in his order, was better acquainted with the forms 

of Oriental etiquette ; he made the usual prostrations', but, ptoSTS^nt 

though admitted to an audience with the successor of Oktai- 

khan^, failed in making any impression on his mind, or 

inducing him to lean more to them than to the numerous 

Nestorian envoys at his court. Filled with the idea that 

the Mongol conquests would come to an end, unless the gods 

of foreign countries were propitiated, the Mongol chief gave 

a patient hearing to Catholic, Nestorian, Buddhist, and Ma* 

hometan missionaries, and listened, like Vladimir of Russia, 

to their several arguments. 

In the year 1253, Louis the Ninth of France, then ^.d. 1253. 
staying, during the Crusade, in the island of Cyprus, en- 
couraged by the exaggerated accounts of the willingness of 
the Mongol chiefs to receive the Christian faith, sent thither 
another Franciscan, William de Rubruquis*. He pene- if<w*«i<sf 

WiUiam de 

trated even as far as the Mongol capital of Caracorum, and Rybruquit. 
soon perceived how illusive were the hopes of expecting 
any permanent impression. The toleration of the Khan 
was unbounded ; Nestorians prayed for him, and blest his 
cups one day, Mahometans the next, and Buddhists the 
third*. A pretended monk, a weaver from Armenia, was 

^ Hue, I. 163. thence to Soldya, where Rubruqoui 

' *'It being given U8 to under- organized his caravan of eight oo- 

stand that we must bestow giftes vered carts, two of which were to 

upon them, we caused certaine skinnes serve for beds, and five saddle-horses, 

of be vers and other beastes to be Besides his companion, Bartholomew 

bought, which was given upon alms of Cremona, his party consisted of an 

to succour us by the way." Hak- interpreter, a guide and a servant." 

luyt, L 63. For a singularly accurate description 

' See Hue, I. 175, where he gives of Tartar manners in the fifteenth 

the answer of the Khan to the em- century, see the account of Friar Bi- 

bassy of the Pope. cold, quoted in Hue, I. 114. 

^ iNTeander, vii. 69. Hakluyt, L ' Hue, I. 931, where also be cites 

71. Hue, I. 207. "Their route many instances of the superstitions 

was from Acre to Constantinople, of the Khan. 


372 The Missionary HUtory of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. XYi. inatallcd in Iiigli favour, as nccredited with a direct revela- 
1 D. 1258. *io" fr""'™ Iicijven, while side by side with the single Chris- 
tian cliiirch, were two Mahometan mosques, and twelve 
idol temples. Rabroqiiis, however, succeeded in baptizing 
about fiixty persons, and celebrated mass on Easter Bay to 
a large number of recipients. lie then applied for permis- 
Bion to reside in the country, and was closely interrogated 
as to his object in coming so far from his own land. "To 
make known to the Mongol nation the Word of God," waa 
his reply. "What word?" inquired the officers of tlie 
court; "had it anything to reveal respecting the future? 
Could it insure success to the nation?" "The word of 
God ia this," replied the Franciscan: " Unto whomaoevcr 
God has given much, of him shall be much required; onto 
whom less has been entrusted, of him shall less be re- 
quired ; and he, to whom most is entrusted, he is also 
loved most'. Now, on the Khan, God had bestowed power, 
and might, and dominion over many nations. His idols 
had conferred nothing upon him; all that he had came 
from the one God, who setteth up one nation and putteth 
down another; let him be assured, then, that if he loved 
God, nothing wonld be wanting to him, whereas if he did 
otherwise, let him know that he would be called to the 
strictest account hereafter, for all that had been entrusted to 
rj"""''^"'^ him." " And who does not love God ?" asked one of the 
"" officers, and a Mahometan. " He who loves God, kecpeth 

His commandments ; he that loveth Him not, kecpeth not 
His commandments," was the reply of Kubruquis. " But 
what were God's commandments?" pursued his inquirera: 
" had the missionary ascended into heaven, and discovered 
what they were?" "He had not," Kubruquis answered: 
"but One had come dowu from heaven, and revealed God's 
will. His will and commandments were recorded in a 
certain Look, and by their works it was known whetlier 
' Keftnder, yii. 71. 

. Missuma to the Saracens and the Mongols^ 37S 

men observed them or not." ** Did not, then, the Great chap, xyl 
Khan keep Hia commandments?** inquired the court- ^ ^ 1353^ 
officers. Rubruquis parried the subtle question : '^ It was 
his wish to lay before the Khan, all the commandments 
of God, and then, he could judge for himself whether he 
kept them or not.** 

On the followin*^ day, it was announced as the will o{ inurvuwyrith 

the KhoH. 

the Khan, since the professors of so many religions were 
scattered throughout his kingdom, each of whom declared 
his own religion was the only true one, that a conference 
should be held, at which the advocates of each religion 
should hand in a written defence of their tenets* On the 
Eve of Whit-Sunday, they repaired to the place of con- 
ference ; three secretaries of the Khan, a Christian, a Maho- 
metan, and a Buddhist were appointed umpires, and procla- 
mation was made that, if either party injured the other, or 
excited a disturbance, he would suffer death. It had been 
arranged by Eubruquis and the Nestorians, that he should 
speak first, and since three of the rival parties were agreed 
on the existence of One God, that they should make this a 
common standing-point in disputing with the Buddhist ad- 
vocated Accordingly Eubruquis commenced the discussion 
by trying to prove, in opposition to polytheism, the neces- 
sity of recognising One Almighty God, the Author and 
Creator of all things. The Buddhist asked, " If there was 
only one God, how could the existence of evil be accounted 
for?*' Eubruquis replied by asking for a definition of 
evil. What is evil ? Till that was settled, it was idle to 
inquire into its origin. Thereupon the discussion reverted 
to its original channel. When it came to the turn of the 
Mahometans, they, if we may believe Eubruquis, disclaimed 
all dealings with idolatry, they acknowledged only one 
God, to whom they offered prayer, and whose law they 

1 Hue, I. 135* 

374 The ^^ssionar^/ IHstory of the Middle Ages. ^H 

eBdeavoureiJ to keep, niitl had no wish to dispute wiUi 
Christians, who were Mouotheiats like tiiemaelves. 
I On the next i&j, the Franciscan was admitted to an 
andience, and the Khan made known to him his decision. 
"We Mongols," said he, "believe there is only one God, 
in whose hands arc the issuea of life and death, and to 
whom our hearts are wholly directed." "May God's grace 
enable yon to do so," replied Rubruquia; "for without that 
it cannot be done." The Khan somewhat puzzled, asked 
through an interpreter, the meaning of the reply, and then 
proceeded, " God has given many fingers to the hand, even 
BO hath be appointed many ways whereby man may servo 
him. To the Christians he baa given the Sacred Books, 
but they do not observe what is written therein, or keep 
one of its chief precepts, not to censure or revile others." 
"True," said Rubruquis; "and I fold thee at the first, I 
had no wish to dispute with any man," "God," continued 
the Mongol chief, "has given you the Sacred Books; ye 
do not observe what is written therein; to us He has given 
diviners and astrologers ; we do observe what they tell us, 
and we try to live in peace with one another." This 
concluded the discussion, and the Khan made known to 
the missionary his desire that he would leave the country, 
and convey his reply to the letter of Louis tJie Ninth'. 

Five years after this interview, the principal seat of 
the Mongol empire was transferred to China', where, while 
Christianity was tolerated and even respected, the religion 
of the state itself underwent a change. The one article 
of belief among the simple pastoral tribes of Mongolia, was 
the existence of one Almighty Being, and His Son the 
Khan, to whom He had assigned all the kingdoms of the 
earth, and whom all men were bound to obey. While 
thus there was room for the most comprehensive toleration, 
' The reply is given at length in Hue, I. 540. 

Missions to the Saracens and the Mongols^ 375 

there was room also for every kind of superstition, and chap, xvl 
the desire to bring the one Supreme, living apart in awftd 


isolation, into nearer communion with his feeble worshipper, 1268—1280. 
to bridge over the awful chasm between them, predisposed 
the people for a composite religion of Buddhism and Lama- 
ism\ and the first grand Lama was appointed in the year 
1260. Still, in a spirit strangely alien from that of the 
pontiflfa of the West, "the Son of Heaven'* entertained a 
respect for all religions, and not least for Christianity. He 
gladly welcomed Christian merchants and travellers, and 
Marco Polo ascribes to Kublai-Khan the saying, " There 
are four great prophets, who are reverenced by the different 
classes of mankind. The Christians regard Jesus Christ 
as their God ; the Saracens, Mahomet ; the Jews, Moses ; 
the idolaters, Sakya-Muni Burchan the most eminent 
among their idols. I do honour and respect all the four*." 
The authority for this assertion, Marco Polo, was sent 
to the court of Kublai, in 1274, in company with two a.d. 1274. 
learned Dominican monks, who had been commissioned 
by Gregory X. to visit the Mongol chief; and he relates 
another story which reflects credit on the tolerant spirit of 

^ Hardwick*8 Christ and other 
Masters, ii. A pp. 7, ill. p. 89. MieL- 
die AgeSf p. 235. Hue, I. 329. 

* Travels of Marco Polo, p. 167. 
ed. Bohn, 1854. His reaaons for 
not adopting Cbristianitj he relates 
to two Chnstian ambassadors to 
the Pope: "Wherefore," said he, 
"should I become a Christian! You 
yourselves must perceive that the 
Christians of these countries are ig- 
norant, inefficient persons, who do 
not possess the faculty of performing 
anything (miraculous) ; whereas you 
see the idolaters can do whatever 
they wiU. When I sit at table the 
cups that were in the middle of the 
hall come to me filled with wine and 
other beverage, spontaneously and 
without being touched by human 
hand, and I (kink from them. They 

have the power of controlling bad 
weather, and obliging it to retire to 
any quarter of tiie heavens, with 
many other wonderful gifts of that 
nature. You are witnesses that their 
idols have faculty of speech, and 
predict to them whatever is re- 
quired... Return you to your pon- 
tiff^ and request of him in my name 
to send hither a hundred persons 
well skilled in your law, who being 
confronted with the idolaters, shall 
have power to coerce them, and 
showing that they themselves are 
endow^ with similar art, but which 
they refrain from exercising, because 
it is derived from the agency of evil 
spirits, shall compel them to desist 
from practices of such a nature in 
their presence." See also Hue, I. 


376 The Missionary Ilislori/ of the Middle Agfs. 

cHap. svi. the Khan. A Clitiatlan, proLaWy a Nestorian, rebelled 
4 0. i374_ against him, and, at the head of a numerous body of his 
fcUow-beiievcra, advanced to encounter him in battle, pre- 
ceded by a banner inscribed with a Crosa. He waa easily 
overcome, and the Jewa and Saracena did not fail to jeer 
against the Christian faith. " Here," said they, " is a 
proof of the weakness of Christ, He could not give e%'en 
bis own votaries a victory." " It is true," replied Kublai, 
to whom the Christians reported theae jeering remarks; 
"the rebel did hope for aid from the Christian's God, but 
He, as a good and righteous Being, would not uphold His 
*.!>, ima. cause'." In the year 1292, appeared at Pekin a Franciscan 
S^jm'"™" nionk, named John de Monte Corvino, and for a period of 
eleven years he kept aiive, alone and single-handed, the 
Hickering spark of Cliriatianity in the Tartar kingdom, 
A.D. 1303. In 1303 he was joined by another Franciscan brother, 
Arnold of Cologne. Together they struggled on, amidst 
the constant impedimenta thrown in their way by their 
inveterate enemies, the Nestorians, though from the Khan 
they received much kindness, and were permitted to carry on 
tkeir work. In the spirit of a wise missionary, John de 
Corvino gave earnest attention to the translation of the 
Scriptures into the Tartar language, the education of the 
young, and the training of a native ministry. He trans- 
lated the New Testament and the Psalma, and made asc 
of them in preaching. Purchasing at one time a hundred 
and fifty boys, between the ages of seven and eleven, he 
baptized them, and taught them Psalmody. Successful in 
building 'a church, he introduced his choral service, and 
attracted the attendance of many, for whose instruction, 
be set up six pictures representing Scripture characters, 
LimiM nmu. Selected from the Old and New Teataments, and under- 
neath he inscribed explanations in Latin, Persian, and 
Tartar. A Christian merchant, whom be had met in 
1 TravtU of Marco Polo, p. 166, 

Misaions to the Saracens and the Mongols. 377 

Persia, gave him a site for another church, which was chap. xvi. 
near the palace of the Khan, who took much pleasure in a.d. 1803. 
listening to the chanting of the choir ; a chief also, de- 
scended from the sacerdotal kings, was persuaded to 
exchange the Nestorian for the Catholic Church, and 
receiving ordination, assisted Monte Corvino by inducing 
many to embrace the Christian faiths But he was not 
destined to achieve any permanent success: though he 
always retained the good-will of the Khan, and was ad- 
vanced by the Pope to the archbishopric of Cambalu, and 
was aided by seven other Franciscans, yet, on his death, 
in 1330, every vestige of his work was obliterated, his a-d. 1830. 
successor, though nominated by John XXII., never entered 
on his diocese, and in 1369, a change of dynasty caused * 
the expulsion of every Latin Christian from the Empire*. 

* Neander, vii. 79. 516. Gieseler, iv. 259, 160. Hard- 

• Asaeman, Bibl, Orient ra. 2, wick, 235, 337. 



A.D. 1400—1520. 

"Dicendom (juod Infide^ium (loidsm rent, qiii nunqiiam «UM«ppnnit 
lidem: et tulea tiuIIo modn sunt ad fldcra pompellttull, ut tpsi crMlout 
quia credere vuluntetis est: lunt tunen compelleadi ■ fidelibiu, ai 
adsit fftcultai, ut fidem aon impediuit." 

Tbohas AqoiSiA. 

CHAP. xTii. From these tentative missions into the regions of the 
TiaMoiim furtlicst East, we now return, and for the last time, to 
Europe, Here, though with the compulsory conversion 
of Litliuania and Prussia, the reign of lieatlienism mny 
be said to have closed, there were still two races, whose 
obstinate adherence to the tradition of their fathers, was 
a continual annoyance to the champions of Chrisfcndom. 
The followers of the prophet and the descendants of Abra- 
ham, the former still occupying a corner in the south of 
Spain, the latter scattered through the various European 
kingdoms, still remained a standing proof that the circle 
of European Christendom was not cooiplete. To induce 
the Moslem and the Jew to receive the Christian faith, 
was now the earnest effort of the Spanish Church. 

The spirit whereby it was characterised may be anti- 
cipated, from what has already been said on the effect, 
which the fanaticism of the Crusades had exerted on Eu- 
ropean thought and feeling. But the edge of religious 

Compuhory Conversion of the Jews and Moors. 379 

animosity had been still further sharpened bj the conflict chap, xvil 
of the Church with the earliest form of free thought. 'i^^ 
From the East the sect of the Boffomiles or Massilians m^-iaoo. 

The BoQOHtUn 

had found its way into Europe, and especially into Lom-<»"-M««»««»^. 
bardy and Southern France. Determinately opposed to 
the rigid Church-system now universally prevailing, they 
rejected many ceremonies, especially the baptism of in- 
fants, which they exchanged for a baptism of the Spirit, 
administered by laying on of hands and prayer, forbade 
matrimony, and in some places even animal food. Under 
the various names of Bulgri, Paterini, Popelicani, Cathari, 
Albigenses*, they developed their doctrines, which were 
all more or less tinged with a Manichasan dualism, and, by 
their persistent efforts to attain a higher degree of holi- 
ness than was generally to be found among many mem- 
bers of the Church, won for themselves an extraordinary 
degree of popularity, fn the south of France, and espe- 
cially in the territory of the Count of Toulouse, the whole 
country flocked to listen to their preachers, and even the 
barons*, startled for once amidst their gaiety and dissi- 
pation, not only enrolled themselves in their ranks, but 
even prayed to be admitted into the most ascetic class 
known as the Perfecti. 

In the same neighbourhood they were quickly sue- ^JSSSJ**^ 
ceeded by the followers of another and a purer sect, which, 
while entirely free from any Manichaean tinge', and more 
attached to the central truths of the Christian faith, were 
equally opposed to the corruptions of the Medioeval 
Church. These were the Waldenses or Vaudois. Bent a.d. 1170. 
on a radical reformation of the Church, or rather an ex- 
altation of its spirit and practice, they insisted on the 

^ Gieseler, m. 393, 4, and notes. ' MtAiluiid'a Facts and ZhcumetUs, 

Smith's Gibbon, VII, 58*1. Mait- pp. 178 sq. Gieseler, ill. 411. Sir 

land's Facts and Documents, gi n, J. Stephen's Lectures on the History 

* Gieseler, iii. 401 n. of France, I. 118. 

380 The. Misshnary Hislort/ of the Middle %es. 

CHAP. xTii. personnl study of the Holy Scrijiturea, circulated Romaunt 
~ n. 1170. versions of the GoBpels and other parts of the Bible, and 
cEairued to pei-form the functions of the priestly office'. 
Aa these and other similar bodies began to propound tlieir 
tenets, the teiTor of tlie ecclesiastical autlioritics knew no 
bounds. Ill vain councils were Buramoned', in vain de- 
nunciation followed denunciation, in vain men like St 
».D. laoa. Bernard strove to reclaim the teachers of these strange 
doctrines to the Church, in vain Papal legates' wandered 
barefoot from place to place, and conferred with them ou 
the points in dispute. The cliurches, especially in Soutliem 
France, were deserted, the clergy despised and ridiculed, 
and the whole countr}' ovon'ua with the adherents of these 
new opinions. 
i.u. 1308. 1"he elevation of Innocent III. to the papal throne was 

^^1^'* the signal for sterner measures. The murder, in 1208, of 
a Papal legate, which was falsely ascribed to Count Eay- 
niond of Toulouse, kindled the flames of the first Albi- 
gensian crusade', and the patron of St Dominic placed the 
sword in the hands of Simon de Montfort, who bathed the 
banner of the Cross " in a carnage from which the wolves 
of Komulus and the eagles of Csesar would have turned 
away with loathing'." For thirty years the dreadful con- 
test continued, and the wretched remnants of these maa- 
sactes escaped only to fall into the still more ruthless 
hands of the Inquisition, an institution which the Council 
i V. 1339. of Toulouse' called into operation in 1229. 

When therefore the fanaticism of the Crusades was 

> Gieseler, Ui. 41(1. U&nlwick, 

' \iaazi,Ilfj<it.Font.Rom.3\i\yi, 

' Tha CistercianB, Peter of Caa- 
telnaii, and Itooul. Giuseler, l][. 
434, Hardwiuk, 301) ». 

* Gie3cler,m.4i6. Hardsell. 5og. 

• Sir J. Stephen'i Etay on b'cct. 

Bi<ioraphg, I. 113. 

Gieaeler, III. 4.11. Kurtz, 44.1- 
Hnrdwiolt, 310. One and the sama 
BcuteDce vaa prnnounced ou Ca- 
tliari and Waldenses, on Petrol>ru- 
siana, Amotdista and Fratricellj. 
^'epe^Lea'^uidcm habeotes divflraaB,'* 
nroti! Inaocentlll, " Bed caudag ad 
iaviuem ooUigataa." 

Compulsory Conversion of the Jews and Moors. 381 

thus further inflamed by the antagonism of reforming sects chap. xvii. 
at home, it is not to be wondered that the rational spirit ^^ 1229, 
of proselytism was quenched and forgotten. The days 
of Boniface and Anskar were gone by, and when the 
Church made her final eflfort to christianize the* Moslem 
and the Jew, her weapons were no longer those of her 
purer missionary age, or in harmony with the Faith she 
sought to propagate. 

i. Let us first turn our attention to the Jews. Scattered >■ 7v/«r*- 
as the unfortunate race of Israel was throughout every **«*"• 
kingdom of Europe, in Spain, from their numbers and 
their wealth, they had attained a very considerable degree 
of influence. During the palmy days of the Saracenic 
supremacy they had enjoyed an ample toleration*. Not 
only were they admitted to high civil offices, and suffered 
to accumulate* wealth, but in the schools of Cordova and 
Toledo, of Barcelona and Granada, they rivalled their 
Saracenic masters in the intensity of their application to 
every branch of learning. In speculative philosophy and 
Talmudic lore, in mathematics, astronomy, and especially 
the science of medicine, they made astonishing progress, 
and for four centuries, from the tenth to the thirteenth, 
enjoyed a peaceful toleration. But when the Saracen 
dominion began to wane, and the Spanish Christians 
slowly but surely pushed their conquests from the moun- 
tains of Asturia to the Douro and the Tagus, and after- 
wards still further consolidated their conquests, the Jews 
began to experience a perceptible change from the state of 
tranquillity, to which they had so long been accustomed. 

But long before, there had been signs of an approach- 
ing storm*. Dark stories began to circulate in Spain, as in 
other parts of Europe, concerning the hostility of this 

^ Prescott's Ferdinand and Isa- • Thus at Toledo, in i io8, a riot 

heUa^ I. 351 (ed. 1838). Lindo^s broke out and the streets streamed 
Jew% in Spain and PortugaX, p. 40. with Jewish blood. Lindo, p. 69. 

382 'riic Minsionary History of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. XVII. atranjri; people to the Christian fiiitb. It waa whispered 

^ „ 1239_ that they poiaoued the wells, stole the consecrated wafers to 
pierce them with needles, that they crucified children at their 
Passover festival, aud even used their entrails for magical 
rites. Such tales were eagerly devoured by the common 
people, until at length a child could not be missed without 
some foul p!ay being susjiected on the part of the Jews'. 
These stories were spread about in every part of Europe. 
In vain pious monks protested against such accusations; 
in vain Bernard of Clairvaux warned the champions of tlie 
Cross against staining their hands with the massacre of the 
people, "who were scattered among all nations as living 

x.p.iue. memorials of Christ's passion';" in vain the better Popes 
lifted up Iheir voices against the spirit of the times, and 
demanded for the outcast race a due measure of toleration. 
Ferocious enthusiasts like Kudolf and Peter of Clnny were 
listened to with far greater eagerness by excited moha, and 

i.i. 1M9. in almost every part of Europe the most inhuman perse- 
cutions were set on foot*. 

''nSjM '*"* ^^^ violence meted out to this unfortunate race in 

other parts of Europe, was concentrated and intensified in 
the Spanish peninsula, where the wealth they had accn- 
mulated during long years of peaceful toleration, excited 
the cupidity and avarice of the natives of Arragon and 
Castile, and thus fanned the flames that fanaticism had 
kindled. At length, in 1391, the popular fury broke out 
into open violence, tlie houses of the Jews were broken 
into, their property plundered, and five thousand massacred 
without distinction of age or sex'. From this storm of 
persecution the Jews sought refiige in a real or feigned 
conversion. Thirty-five thousand are reported by enthusi- 

' Oieieler, IV, a6o. KBander, TIL Epidemict qf lie Mid6It Ago, pp. 
48 », 10. 11. 

■ ' Robertaon's CkurA Hitlorv, n. 

* Giewkr, 17. 960. Hecker'a 

Compubort/ Conversion of the Jews and Moors, 383 

astic chroniclers to have been converted through the eloquent chap, xtil 
preaching of Vincent Ferrier, a Dominican of Valencia*. But I^jtajji] 
the condition of the converts was one of extremest peril. 
In some instances they might even be admitted to ecclesi- 
astical preferment, their daughters might be courted to 
repair the decayed fortunes of the Spanish nobility, but 
the slumbering fanaticism was ever ready to burst forth 
for the slightest cause. Meanwhile, those who continued 
steadfast to the faith of their fathers felt, especially in the 
early part of the fifteenth century, the weight of the ^^ 
severest legislative penalties. They were not only debarred 1400-1416.' 
from all free intercourse with Christians, they were not 
only confined within certain limits in their respective cities, 
but the J were ordered to wear a red badge on the left shoul- 
der, and were forbidden to exercise the profession of vintner 
or grocer, tavemer or apothecary, physician or nurse*. 

But these measures did not satisfy the populace ; com- inertouedhot- 
plaints against their "abominable ceremonies" were mul-"* '' 
tiplied, and many petitions were laid before Ferdinand 
and Isabella, begging that the heresy might be extirpated. 
A Dominican prior of the monastery of St Paul in Seville, a.d. 1478. 
and the Papal Nuncio at the court of Castile, took the 
lead in these petitions, and suggested that, for the speedier 
conversion of the Jews, the assistance of the Holy Office 
should be invited. Her better feelings induced Isabella to 
hesitate before introducing so frightful an engine of cruelty; 
but she had promised her confessor, the infamous Tor- 
quemada, that should she ever come to the throne, " she 
would devote herself to the extirpation of heresy, for the 
glory of God, and the exaltation of the Catholic faith'." 

^ Hard wick, 34' *»• I^ Cftstro^s > Preacott's Ferdinand and I$a- 

Hist/nj of tht Jewt in Spain, p. 95. helloy i. 363. For many iiiBtaooet 

On the memorable diaputatioii at of the complete subeenrienoe of tha 

Tortosa in 14 14, see Lindo, pp. 209 Spanish sovereigns to the derey, see 

^215. Bucklo'a ffitioty of OivUizaiton, u, 

* Lindo, pp. 122, 127, 130. II. 

384 The Mtsaionary Jlislnry of the Middle Ages. 

chj»p. xvu. After resisting, therefore, for some time the importtmitiea 
i.B. U7B- ^^ ^"''' '^'6''Sy« ^^ reluctantly consented to request a Bull 
for the introduction of the Holy Office, and in compliance 
therewith, Sixtus IV. invested, in 1478, three ecclesiastics 
with the necessary powers. 
/illtStt"™ "' Again, however, Isabella interposed, and hegged that 
more lenient measures might iirat be tried. Accordingly 
the Cardinal Mendoza drew up a catechism', containing an 
explanation of the chief articles of the Christian faith, and 
the clergy were instructed to be unremitting in their exer- 
tions to reclaim the benighted Israelites from their errors, 
and induce them to flee for refuge to the bosom of the true 
Church. How far their eflbrts were successful we have 
no means of judging. They were continued for a space of 
■two years, and the report then sent in was not favourable. 
Accordingly the Inquisitors were directed to carry out tho 
duties of their office, and the benign work commenced at 
Seville, on the second of January, 1481. On the sixth 
of the same month six suffered at the stake ; seventeen 
more shared their fate in March ; and before the fourth 
of Se])teml)er 298 persons liad figured in the autos-da-fS at 
i.D. i48e. In 1483, Sixtus IV. promulgated another brief, nominat- 

V^^uf ing Torque mada Inquisitor-General of Castile and Arragon, 
«™i, and empowering him to organize afresh the Holy Office at 

Seville. During hia supremacy, which lasted twenty years, 
" no less than 10,220 persons (chiefly Jews) were burnt, 
6,860 condemned and burnt in effigy as absent or dead, 
and 97,321 reconciled by various other penances." But the 

' See tho Diipvialio Judrri aim portal of the house where the iiitjui- 

Chriilianodt Fide Chriiliana, in Ad- Sitors met is curious: " Eauiyt JM- 

•elm's H'ontj, pp. SH^SJ3, and the mine; jurfico raiuam tuam; mpiU 

Pugio Fidei, by a Spaniah Domini- no&i» vulpa." ■ PrMcott, I. 365- 
can, Kuymood Martini, of the 13th * Prmcott, Firdtnand and Ita- 

eentary, directed (t) agninst the Ma- htUa, I. jSa Kurtz, 467. Lindo, 

bometAng. (i) the JewB, p. 153. 

' The Latin inscription over tiia 

Compulsory Conversion of the Jews and Moors. 385 

inquisitors themselves grew tired at last, of their ineffectual chap. xvii. 
efforts to bring about the work of conversion. They might ^d. 1483. 
succeed here and there in persuading a few to abjure their 
errors, but by far the greater number adhered to their 
ancestral faith. Finding torture, whether of the rack or 
the stake, ineffectual, they suggested that every unbaptized 
Israelite should be forthwith and for ever, expelled from the 
country. In vain the unhappy people tried to propitiate 
their persecutors by offering to contribute thirty thousand 
ducats iowards the Moorish war. Torquemada rushed into 
the apartment where the sovereigns were debating on the 
offer, and holding up a crucifix, exclaimed, "Judas Iscariot 
sold his Master for thirty pieces of silver. Your highnesses 
would sell him anew for thirty thousand. Here He is, take 
Him and barter Him away," ilinging the crucifix, as he 
said the words, upon the table. The sovereigns rejected ^•'*- ^*®^' 
the offer of the Jews, and on the thirtieth of March, *wi«. 
1492, signed a decree, ordering every unbaptized Jew, of 
whatever age, sex, or condition, to leave the country before 
the end of the following July, and to forbear to return on 
pain of instant death, and confiscation of property; they 
might convert their effects into bills of exchange, but 
on no pretence whatever, might they carry out of the 
country, either gold or silver*. 

The feelings of the wretched people can be better 5j^''*'~** 
imagined than described. They had resorted to many 
expedients for the purpose of not offending the prejudices 
of their brother men. They had hoped that, at least, steady 
loyalty might have exempted them from persecution such 
as this. But it was not to be. The land which they had 
inhabited, since the days of the Arian Visigoths and the 
times of the first Saracenic invaders, where^hey had risen to 
position and opulence, where their forefathers from genera- 
tion to generation had prospered, none making them afraid, 

1 The edict is given in full in Lindo, 177. 


886 The Missionary UtsUfry of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. xra. this land must now be left, forthwith and for ever. And 
*.!.. una. it was wliiltt they were bowed down by a misfortune like 
this, and the prospect of Still more gricToua misfortunes 
soon to come, while they found that wellnigh every clause 
in the edict which promised the slightest alleviation of their 
woeti, was a dead letter, that the Spanish clergy redoubled 
their efforts to induce them to abjure their errors. In every 
synagogue, in every public square and market-place, they 
might be heard declaiming against the awfulnesa of the 
Jewish heresy, and expounding the articles of the faith. 
Bat wherever they went they were confronted by the 
Jewish rabbins, who bidding their brethren remember the 
tale of Egj-pt, and the passage of the Red Sea, exhorted 
them now to put their trust in the God of Abraham, Isaac, 
and Jacob, and not fear the wrath of man ; and while they 
thus strove to nerve ttem for coming trials, the richer 
classes enforced tlieir exhortations by liberal contributions 
to the wants of their poorer brethren. 
rht Fxodio. At length the day for their departure came, and mul- 

titudes might be seen flocking towards the different routes 
that led into the kingdom of Portugal, or the sea-coast on 
the South. Men, women, and children, the siek, the weak, 
and the helpless, some on horses, some on mules, the 
greater part on foot, commenced tlieir sad and weary jour- 
ney'. Even the Spaniards could not refrain from tears. 
But the relentless Ton^uemada forbade all sympathy, or 
succour, under the severest ecclesiastical penalties. Those, 
and they were by far the largest proportion, who passed 
through the kingdom of Portugal, paid a cruzado a head 
for the privilege of this route to tiie African coast. At 
Cadiz and Santa Maria, a Spanisli fleet was lying ready to 
transport them tto the Barbary shore. Landing at Ercilla, 
they made their way thence to Fez, where a number of 

' Prrscott's Ferdinand and Udbclla, n. 139. Lindo, J85. 

Compulsory Conversion of the Jews and Moors* 387 


tlieir countrymen resided. Thej had not proceeded far, chap, xvil 
before the children of the desert swooped down upon them, ][]7x4ML 
pillaged them of whatever gold thej had secreted in their 
garments, or in the lining of their saddles, perpetrated 
every excess that lust could dictate on their wives and 
daughters, and massacred many in cold blood, Reduced 
to the last extremity, they tried to keep themselves from 
starvation by feeding on the tufts of grass that relieved 
here and there the arid monotony of the desert ; and when 
this last resource failed, broken in spirits, hungry, and 
emaciated, numbers crawled back to Ercilla, and in the 
hope of being allowed to return to Spain, consented to be 
baptized. So many were they that sought this alleviation 
of their sufferings, that the officiating priests were fain to 
sprinkle the holy drops from the hyssop on numbers at 
once. Thus writes a chronicler of the period : " The cala- 
mities of these poor blind creatures proved, in the end, an 
excellent remedy that God made use of to unseal their 
eyes, which they now opened to the vain promises of the 
rabbins, so that renouncing their ancient heresies, they 
became faithful followers of the Cross M*' 

Many of the wretched exiles, however, directed their 
steps towards Italy, others passed into Turkey, while others 
found their way into France and England. But even thus 
they were not secure. In Portugal, John II. issued an 
edict that all Jewish children, of fourteen years of age and 
under, should be taken from their parents and baptized ; 
and an edict of the next reign ordered that all adults, who 
refused baptism, should be expelled from the country ; and 
similar enactments were issued in France and Italy". 

ii. The same year that witnessed the signing of the "• ^^-'^^w'"*- 

1 Prescott, n. 231. The nuoiber * See Prescott, I. 375.. Hal- 

thus expelled is estimated by De lam's Middle Ages, II. 368. Tur- 

Castro at 170,000, Religious IntoU ner's History of England, II. 114 — 

erance in Spain, p. ^S- See, how- 120. 

ever, Buckle's Civilization, 11. 1 9 n. 


388 The Missionary History of the Middh Ayes. 

CHAP. iTii. disastrous edict for the expulsion of the Jews, witnessed 
i.B, U93. also tte fall of Graaada. The fortunca of the Western ' 
yycm- Caliphate, like those of the Eastern, had dwindled from 
the highest pitch of prosperity to gradual but sure decay. 
For upwards of two centuries, the champions of the Cres- 
cent driven by successive conquests into the narrow king-, 
dom of Granada, had defied all the efforts of the Christian 
warriors to wreat from them their last stronghold. But, 
in 1492, the fall of Granada restored the entire country to 
the Spanish arms. A treaty, however, unusually gentle in 
its terms, guaranteed to the Jloslems the uninterrupted en- 
joyment of their ancient laws and religion, and for nearly 
eight years they continued to iind that its provisions were 
not a dead letter, and experienced the reward of their capi- 
tulation in a peaceful repose'. 
rrav Ftnando Duriug this period the archbishop of Granada, Fray 
'""" Fernando de Talavera, a man of gentle and tolerant dis- 
position, made earnest endeavours to win over the subject 
Moslems to the Christian faith. In a spirit very different 
from that of Torquemada, he strove to accomplish this by 
rational and befitting means. Though advanced in years, 
he commenced the study of Arabic, and commanded his 
clergy to copy his example. lie drew up an Arabic Voca- 
bulary, Grammar, and Catechism, translated the Liturgy, 
with selections from the Gospels, and did not hesitate to 
promise before long an Arabic Version of the entire Bible. 
These rational and prudent methods for enlightening tlie 
understandings of the people he desired to convert, recom- 
mended, as they were, by the sincerity and purity of his 
own life, gained at least the respectful attention of many 
of the Moslems, and not a few are said to have joined the 
ranks of the Christians'. 

Such a work would be necessarily slow ; but it was far 

CompuUory Conversion of the Jews and Moor 6, 389 

too slow for the great body of the Spanish ecclesiastics, chap. xvii. 
They had witnessed the excellent effects of the expulsion ^[TiioaL 
of the Jews from the coiintiy, and they now suggested maaHifaetum 
that, in a similar manner, the alternative should be pro- eecUtiatuet. 
posed to the stiffnecked Islamite, of instant conversion or 
banishment into Africa. For the present, however, such 
expedients found little favour with the Spanish sovereigns, 
who determined to remain faithfdl to the terms of the 
capitulation, and, beyond certain temporal advantages, pro- 
posed no other stimulant to the conversion of their Moslem 

But, in the year 1499, the Spanish court visited Gra- a.d. 1499. 
nada, and in its train followed the famous archbishop of nent, AtSL^^ 
Toledo, Ximenes de Cisneros. In the teeth of the most 
uncompromising opposition, he had just carried out his 
great scheme of monastic reform, and his stem religious 
enthusiasm at once suggested that more active measures 
should be employed for Christianizing the kingdom of 
Granada. No sooner, therefore, had the sovereigns left 
the city, than, in defiance of their earnest exhortation to 
caution and prudence, he invited the Islamite doctors to a 
conference, and after expounding with his usual energy 
and eloquence the chief articles of the Christian faith, he 
pressed their immediate acceptance on his hearers. Not 
content with this,''he enforced his exhortations with liberal 
presents of costly robes, and induced upwards of four thou- 
sand to profess at least an outward acquiescence in the 
truths that he had taught, and on them the archbishop 
lavished freely the ample revenues of his estates, which 
felt for several years the drain to which they were now 

But with many these proceedings found no favour. ^*ij«i«»»m« 
Amongst these was a noble Moor, named Zegri, a man of 
intelligence and learning, on whom Ximenes wasted all 

1 Prwoott, n. 513. 

390 The Missionary History (yf the. Middle Ageji. ' 

. hia eloquence and his prornUcs of reward, in vain efibrU' 
' to induce him to abjure hia errors. At length, in despair 
of other means, he handed him over to the tender merctefl- 
of an officer named Leon, " a lion," says the panning^ 
historian, " by nature as well aa by name," with the re- 
quest tliat he would take euch means as should conruioo 
his prisoner of the error of liis ways'. A few day^' im- 
prisonment in irons, and without food, brought about the. 
desired change ; and when Zegri again stood before th« 
archbishop, lie not only assured him that he had scen^ 
Allah in a vision, bidding him submit to baptism, but, 
added jocosely, that if this lion were turned loose among 
the people, there would not in a few days be left a singls 
Mussulman within the walls of Granada'. 

Active measures having thus succeeded in one instance, 
they were tried in others, and before long, the astonished 
Moslems beheld all the copies of the Koran that Xlmeues 
could procure, and all the Arabic works, which had the 
least connexion with religion, publicly burnt in one of the 
great squares of Granada. Neither the most exquisite 
chirography, nor the moat sumptuous binding, could exempt 
a single volume from the flames; and the author of the 
" Complutcusian Polyglot" fondly hoped in this way, not 
only to exterminate Mahometanism, but even the very 
characters in which its teaching was rtcorded'. These 
highhanded proceedings, so directly contrary to the earnest 
exhortations of the Spanish sovereigns, created no little 
alarm among the Spanish clergy, and many were the 
appeals addressed to the archbishop, imploring him to 
stay his hand. But for all such representations be had 

^ PrCToott, n. sij. Prescott, ii. 516. 

* "Thus," excUlmi the devout ' Concle {El {failente, p. 4} eati. 
Fen-eru, "did Providanoe »v»il mata the nuoibrr of booJu deatrojed 
Itaelfof tbed*rkn«sDrtbeduDge«a, M 80,000, Roblea at 1,005,00a, Go- 
to pour on the beDighted miad of the mez at Pnacott bicUiica to 
Infidel, the light of the true. faith." Conde'a ettimate, u. $16 n. 

Compulsory Conversion of the Jetos and Moors. 391 

one answer ; " a tamer policy might indeed suit in temporal chap. xvii. 
matters, but not those in which the interests of the soul ^^Tlwoi 
were at stake; that the unbeliever, if he could not heobtunae^t^ 
drawn, should be driven into the way of salvation ; and 
that it was not time to stay the hand, when the ruins 
of Mahometanism were tottering to their foundations\" 
But he was soon made to &el that such expedients could 
only be resorted to at a heavy cost. The patience of the xueofau 
Moors lost all bounds, and the archbishop found himself *'^' 
besieged in his own palace by a furious mob. His de- 
liverance was due entirely to the interposition of the 
venerable archbishop of Granada. He, at the imminent risk 
of his life, went forth alone and unarmed into the midst 
of the tumult, and calmed the rage of the people, who 
no sooner saw their old friend than they crowded round 
him, flung themselves at his feet, and kissed the hem of 
his robe. His efforts, combined with those of the Count 
of Tendilla, the Gt)vemor, who left his wife and two 
children as hostages with the Moslems, to assure them 
that their feelings should not again be violated, induced 
the infuriated populace to lay aside their weapons and 
return to their homes. The news of this untoward in- 
surrection quickly reached Seville, and was received by the 
sovereigns with every sign of displeasure. But Ximenes 
hurried to the Court, and in reply to the royal expostula- 
tions, took upon himself the entire blame of the affair, 
recounted all the means he had used to bring about a more 
peaceful solution, the sums he had expended, the presents 
he had lavished, and winding up with a homily on the 
obduracy of the stiffnecked infidels, boldly declared that 
they had now forfeited all claim to lenient measures, that 
they were guilty of treason, and deserved nothing more 
than the treatment which had already been meted out to 

^ Prescott,!!. 519. 

392 The JHuawnary Riatory of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. XVII. the Jews — the Rltemative of instant baptism or expulsion 
i „7i500^ i'rom the country. 

S7t,'c*II^ Ferdinand and Isabella at length gave in their adhesion 
*"'" to the course thus proposed, and though it was not as yet 

carried out entirely, commissioners were sent to Granada to 
inquire into the late rebellion and punish the guilty. To 
avoid the too certain penalty of obduracy, multitudes now 
received bajitism, or migrated to Barbary. Fifty thoasand 
are said to have abjured their errors, and under the name 
of Jloriscos dragged on a miserable existence, in per- 
petual fear of being brought before the Inquiailion, on the 
least suspicion of relapse. The two following years were, 
as might be expected, not peaceful. The inhabitaats of 
tlie wild Sierras of the Alupaxarras, enraged no leaa it the 
faithlessness of their countrymen, than at this Sagract vio- 
lation of the treaty of Granada, flew to arms, and suc- 
ceeded in inSicting on the Spanish cavaliers wellnigh the 
most humiliating defeat that had ever stained the lustre of 
their contests with the Moslem. But the hardy mountain- 
eers dared not await the terrible revenge that Ferdinand 
prepared to take, and despairing of aid, consented to submit 
to the terms he ofiFered. Those who preferred to depart, 
and could muster the ten dobtas a head, which was the 
price of this privilege, were conveyed in Spanish galleys 
to the Barbary coast, while by far the greater number 
were constrained to stay and submit to baptism'. 
Thr BpanM Thus, at length, the Spanish sovereigns had the aatis- 

•humUjHi" faction of beholding the banner of the Cross waving 
through the length and breadth of the hitherto impreg- 
nable Sierras. But they were not as yet satisfied. In the 
kingdom of Castile there still remained traces of the old 
leaven, and sturdy upholders of Islamism, on whom per- 
suasion and the sword had equally little effect. To prevent 
contamination, therefore, a decree was passed in the year 
^ Fraicotl, u. 1 10. 

Compulsory Conversion of the Jews and Moors. 393 

1501, forbidding all intercourse between such hardened chap. xvii. 
infidels and the converted kingdom of Granada. And ^ „ u^i^ 
when this was found insufficient to prevent the tares 
mingling with the wheat, a pragmatica was passed on the 
12th of February, 1502, directing that the plan proposed 
by Ximenes, in his conference with the sovereigns two 
years before, should be carried out. 

In very similar terms to those employed in the famous 
edict against the Jews, it set forth the solemn obligation 
of the Catholic sovereigns to banish infidelity from the 
laud; and then went on to enumerate the many dangers 
of backsliding, which the new converts must inevitably 
incur, if permitted to mingle with their 'still obdurate 
brethren; and concluded by enacting that all unbaptized 
Moors in the kingdom of Castile, if males, above fourteen 
years of age, if females, 'above twelve, must leave the 
country before the end of the following April, and taking 
the proceeds of their property in anything save gold and 
silver, and regularly prohibited merchandize, emigrate to 
any part of the world, " save the dominions of the grand 
Turk, and such parts of Africa as were not at peace with 
Spain.'' If they failed to do this, confiscation of property 
or death were denounced as the certain penalty. Castilian 
writers pass over the history of the execution of this 
decree as too insignificant to be noticed, and also, we 
may believe, from the very scanty number of emigrants ; 
a "circumstance not to be wondered at," observes Mr 
Prescott, "as there were very few, probably, who would not 
sooner imitate their Granadine brethren in assuming the 
mask of Christianity, than encounter exile under all the 
aggravated miseries with which it was accompanied'." 

It was while the Spaniard was thus maddened with 
centuries of conflict with the infidel at home, and when 
his spirit had drunk deep of intolerance, that a new field 

^ Pretoott, n. 113. 

394 The Missionary Hislary tf the Middle Ages. 

OBiP. xni. for misflionary zeal was opened up in the New World. 
rf.D,i*B4. Already tlie Cape of Good Hope had been rouoded by 
mto*™"/" Kartolemi? Diaz, in 1484, and tlie foundation of llie Portu- 
"""''"'"■ guese Indian "Empire hadbeeu laid by Alfonao Albuquerque, 
in 150S. In the same year, moreover, that the Spanish 
BovereigDs witnessed the fall of Granada, Columbus landed 
on the isle of San Salvador, and the countless wealth of the 
New World attracted thousands from the shores of Europe, 
The Portuguese and Spanish navigators had indeed secured 
the patronage of the Pope for their great enterprises, and 
they had promised wherever they planted their flag, there 
to be zealous also in planting the Christian faith'. But 
their zeal, even when not choked by the rising lust of 
wealth and territorial power, took, too often, a one-sided 
direction. Thus the Portuguese tnnied their energies 
towards repressing the Syrian Christians, and interfering 
with the Abyssinian Church*, while from the pathetic 
narrative of Bartolem^ de las Gasas we can only too truly 
estimate the meaning of the expression, "the conversion of 
the Indians," put forward as the ostensible preterit of Spanish 
conquest. The measure of mercy and justice already meted 
out to the infidel at home, had consigned multitudes in 
the New World, who would not instantly renounce their 
heathen errors at the bidding of their Spanish masters, to 
indiscriminate massacre, or abject slavery. And the feel- 
ings which the Spanish conquerors had inspired in their 
new subjects is terribly illustrated, by the memorable reply 
of an Indian chief when urged by Velasquez, at the stake, 
to embrace Christianity, in order that he might be admitted 
into heaven. "And shall I meet the white man there?" 
asked the wretched victim. When he was answered in the 
affirmative, "Then," said he, "I will not be a Christian; 

' Httrdwiok, 337 n. of Malahar, p. 4. Hordnick, 33811. 

' Geddea' Biilory of the Chartk Hefamatim, p. 437- 

Compulsory Conversion of the Jews and Moors. 895 

for I would not go again to a place where I must find men ohap. xtil 
80 cruel*." 

" This reply," as Mr Prescott truly remarks, " is more a.d. 1619. 
eloquent than a volume of invective," and reveals only too 
truly the spirit that was abroad. The same spirit charac- 
terized the conquests of Cort^z, and tinged all his attempts 
to convert the Indians. If milder measures did not achieve 
their object, the Spanish cavalier was ever ready to employ 
force; nor was the efficacy of any conversion, however 
sudden, however violent, doubted for a single moment". 
The war, in which he was taking part, he deemed a "holy 
war ;" it was for the Jiitth he was in arms, and for a 
champion of the Cross to be careless about the souls of his 
heathen foes, was to disgrace at once his chivalry and his 
creed. Into any details of the campaigns of the conqueror 
of Mexico we do not intend to enter ; they belong to a later 
period than that with which we are concerned, and the 
missions they originated were the commencement of a dis- 
tinct series, which would require special and separate notice. 
Suffice it here to say, that the terrible system of reparti-' 
mientos sadly marred the success of his proselytizing efforts. 
The native <cocaH» might be overthrown, the huge uncouth 
wooden idols torn down from their foundations, the cruel sa- 
crifices of human victims might be interdicted, the image of 
the Virgin might replace that of the god of rain, or of the ter- 
rible Huitzilopotchli, the Christian altar might be raised, 
and amidst solemn ceremony and procession be surmounted 
by the uplifted Cross, but the cupidity of the colonists, and 
the compulsory service they exacted of their conquered con- 
verts, were a sad commentary on the faith they sought to 
propagate'. Here and there, indeed, there might be bright 
exceptions ; Dominican missionaries might protest against 

^ Pre8coti*8 Conquut of Mexico^ * Five bishoprioa had been esta- 

p. 71. blishod in ▲.D. 153a 

" Presoott, p. 88. 

396 The MUsionary Hhtory of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. XVII. the cruelty of the system, and strive to lighten the yoke ol 
*n~l6l8 *''^ oppressed. But their protests were too often the prey 
tests of despair. The Aztec worship, indeed, disappeared, 
and the altar no more reeltc4 with the goro of human 
sacrifices. Bnt the Spanish cavalier sacrificed too often on 
the altar of Cupidity, to render the conversion of hta ne* 
subjects either genuine or lasting. J 



EcU lio^y 'Eyc^ fitO* iffiQp elfu wdffat rdt ^fUpas (ioi rijs ffVPrtXtlas roO 

alw¥9t, — S. Matt, xxviii. ao. 

Now that we have reached those limits of our subject chap, xvii^ 
which we do not intend to exceed, it may not be amiss to 
look back, for a short space, on the course we have traversed 
in the preceding pages, and to notice the chief peculiarities 
of the missionary history of the Middle Ages. 

Respecting the Mediaeval period itself, it is useful to ^^*2?j?iJ^i^ 
bear in mind that it was one of transition, a period not ^^'^^ 
ultimate, but intermediate and preliminary. Trite and 
commonplace as the observation may seem, it is one which 
must not be put out of sight, when we wish to form an 
estimate of the value of the efforts made during this period 
to propagate the Gospel. Starting from the time when 
the Christian Church had wellnigh absorbed into herself 
whatever was good in the culture of the Greek and Roman 
world, we paused at the dawn of the bright morning of the 
last three hundred years, which have given birth to what 
has not been inaptly called Teutonic, as contrasted with 
Latin Christianity. As, then, was the period of the Middle 
Ages, so was its missionary work, being to a great extent, 
from the nature of the case, disciplinary and prepara- 
tory. During the first part of this period the Church was 

398 The Missionary Ilistory of the Middle Ages, 

cuAF. XVIII. called to usdertakc one of tho most ditHculC tasks that 
could have been presented to lier energies and her zeaU' 
Herself scarcely recovering from the sliock of the barbariaa 
invasiona, she was called to train and civilize races fre^ 
from their native wilds, filled with all the ardour and im- 
petuosity of youth, and ignorant of the first principles of 
order and settled life. The stage of cultare they had 
attained was low, they were little capable pf discerning the 
outward from the inward, the letter from the spirit ; and 
before learning the simplest lesson in Christian civilisation, 
they had to unlearn a ferocity and a lawlessness whicii 
made them at first a terror even to their teachers'. 
5**™*™ V Moreover, it cannot be denied that the Church herself, 

SipiS?^ in her contact with the world, had lost much of her original 
simplicity, and that the form of Christianity which she 
presented to the new races for their reception was not that 
of purer and apostolic times. But, however defective may 
have been the development attained during this period, it 
may he pleaded, on the one hand, that it was almost inevi- 
table from the nature of the case, and, on the other, that it 
was adapted as a transitionary stage for the childhood of 
these races, which needed parental discipline before they 
could leam or value independence, needed to he governed 
before they could govern themselves. At the first promul- 
gation of the Faith, the old Koman Empire had, in the 
providence of God, supplied the framework which held 

' It has teen well remarked by 
Profi'SSflr Ranke, that "the Usk of 
bending the »fr3ct<iry spirit of the 
Northern tribea to the pure laws of 
Christian trutb wae no light one. 
Wedded, M these naUotis y/ert,, to 
their long^chorished BupentitioDB, 
the religious element required ■ long 
prediiininance before it could gain 
eiiUre posaeBsioD of the German cha- 

tliat close union of Latin and Ger- 
man elements was eSected, on nrhich 

is based the cbnracler of Europe in 
later timen. There is n spirit of 
community in the laodem world 
which has always been regarded as 
the basis of its progressive improve- 
ment, whether in reliijion, pulitio, 
manners, Bu<^al life or literature. 
To bring about this community, it 
was necessary that the Western na- 
tiuns should, at one period, consti- 
tute what may be called a single 
imlitico-ecclesiaalical slate." Raake's 
i/Ulory of lit Popct, l. ti. 

Retrospect and Beflecttana. 899 

together the yarions masses of social Kfe, which the Gospel ohap. xvhl 
was intended to pervade* Similarly, daring this period, 
a great Latin Christian empire was, if not needed, at least 
overruled, to address the nations in language legal and 
formal, and to naturalize Christianity in the West. If 
the age of the Primitive Church may be compared to the 
Patriarchal period of Jewish history, that of the Medieval 
Church may be likened to the Mosaic dispensation, or 
period of legal discipline, destined, indeed, after performing 
its office, to vanish away, but, while it was needed, " of 
great consequence and undeniable aptitude\*' 

i. Such being the characteristics of the period itself, l cmuran 
tlie first feature in its missionary work which calls ^^ ^'^fJJJjLii- 
remark, is the contrast between the efforts then made to pro- ^^*om. 
pagate the Gospel and those of the first age of the Church. 
During the " Century of Wonders," as it has been called, 
we are chiefly struck by the presence of direct miraculous 
agency and spiritual gifts, and the corresponding absence 
of temporal aid. In the sub-apostolic period, again, Chris- 
tianity found a point of contact with the Greek and Roman 
mind, as well as a distinct national culture which it could 
purify and transfigure. It found also a language long 
prepared for its service, in which it could speak everywhere 
to the intellect, the reason, the conscience of its hearers. 
It was the season too of its " first love ;" hence the com- 
plete antagonism of the first believers towards paganism, 
their repudiation of all compromise, their studious renunci- 
ation of all heathen principles and practices. It was the 
season, lastly, of the Church's struggle always for toleration, 
sometimes for existence. Hence, her conversions were 
individual rather than national, the new faith made its way 
from below rather than from above; not "many wise, not 

^ UUmann's Feformers he/ore the Age, p. 41. Compare also some re- 
Reformation, i. 168. Kurtz's Church marks in Stanley s Sermons on the 
history, I. 483. Schaal's Apottolie ApostoUctd Age^ p. 105. 

400 The Missionary Ilinlory of ihe Middh Ages. 

onAP, xriu. many mighty, not many noble," had as yet been callnj: 
the early Church waa working her way, in tlie literal senal 
of the word, " underground, under camp and palace, uuda 
senate and forum, 'aa unknown and yet well knows, M 
dying and beliold it lived'.' " I 

cir«™wtio-. But even before the period which ha3 occupied oM 

oil^' attention, all this had passed away. The consolation d 
the slave, or the fugitive in the catacombs, Iiad becomt 
the creed of the emperor. Instead of pleading for tols 
ration, the Church had learned to be aggressive. Thi 
Greek fathei-a had moulded lier creeds, Home bad regit 
lated her laws, and bequeathed to her its own love ol 
organisation. No longer in dread of the caprice or malica 
of the occupant of the imperial throne, with fixed inati- 
tutions, magistrates, and power, she awaited the coraing 
of the new races. For awhile, indeed, her own safety 
seemed in peril, but when the agitated elements of society 
had been calmed, and the flood had subsided, she emerged 
to present to the world the one single stable institution 
that had survived the shock. In her dealings, therefore, 
with the new races, there was a great change from th< 
missions of the first age. Whereas the latter had, from 
the necessity of the times, worked upwards from below. 

A-nHDmi c<m- till at length the number of the converts became too great 
and too influential to be ignored by the ruler, and the 
voice from the catacombs found an echo in the palace, 
during the Mediieval period all this was reversed. With 
an almost monotonous uniformity, in Ireland and England, 
in Southern and Northern Germany, among the Slavonic 
as well as the Scandinavian nations, the conversion of the 
people followed that of the king or chief. 

The fourth century, indeed, presents the somewhat ano- 
malous spectacle of the Emperor Constantine, as yet unbap- 

' aunlej'i Introd. LKtnrt on Bcel. Hittary, p. zuTiii. 

Retrospect and Reflections, 


tized, taking an active part in Christian preaching *, but chap, xviii. 
turn where we will in this age, we cannot but be struck 
with the religious aspect of the temporal ruler'. Severi- 
nns addresses his exhortations to Kugian, Bemigius to 
rough Frankish chiefs; the apostle of Ireland to Celtic, 
the founder of lona to Pictish princes. It is Ethelbert in Arittoera/ie 
Kent, Sigebert in Essex, Edwin, Oswald, and Oswy mMeSa^titna- 
Northumbria, who take the lead in the work of evangeliz- 
ing their subjects. Columbanus rebukes Thierri and Bru- 
nehaut; Boniface discusses his missions in Thuringia in 
the courts of Austrasian kings ; his disciples follow in the 
track of Charlemagne's victorious armies. It is with a 
prince of Denmark that Anskar embarks on his first mis- 
sionary voyage ; it is to Bogoris, the Bulgarian chief, that 
the Greek "philosopher" displays the awful picture of 
the Last Day. A Polish duke supplies all the necessities 
of the apostle of Pomerania, another welcomes him on 
entering the land he had come to evangelize, and offers 
to protect him with a regiment of soldiers ; and if any- 
thing were wanting to complete the picture, it is supplied 
by the record of the Greek mission to Kussia, where the 
religious aspect of the temporal ruler finds its liighest ex- 
pression, and Vladimir bears the same title as Constan- 
tine, " Isapostolos," Vladimir eqital to an apostle'. 

Of this feature in the missions of this period various ExptanaHon* 

tif this/eature. 

^ Stanley's Eastern ChurcJi, p. 198. 

' This feature in distinctly sJIuded 
to by one of the Pomeranian dukes 
on the occasion of one of Bishop 
Otho's missionary tours : "Superest 
inodo," he says, ** ut nos, qui primi 
et majores dicimus ac sumus, nostne 
di^mitati consulamus, tarn dignissi- 
mse rei consentientes, ut populus, 
qui nobis subjectus est, nostro posait 
erudiri exemplo. Quicquid enim re- 
ligionis vel honestatis secundum De- 
um vel homines aggrediendum eat, 
justius atque docentius autumo, ut 

a capite hoc in membra^ qaam ut a 
membris derivetur in caput. Et in 
primitiva qnidem ecclesia, sicut aa- 
divimus, religio fidei Christianse a 
plebe et plebeiia personis incipiens, 
ad mediocres progressa, etiam max- 
imos hujus mundi principes involvit ; 
reddamus vicem Ecclesise Primitivse, 
at a nobis principibas incipiens et 
usque ad mediocres progressa, faoiii 
proventu totum populum et gentem 
sanctificatio divinae religionis iilua- 
tret." Herbordi Vita Ottonis, 111. 3. 
' Stanley*8 Eastern Churchy p. 307. 


402 The Missionari/ HUIoti/ of tlte Middle Agee. 

oHAP. sviii, explanations have 'been offered. Some have ascribed it Ij 
the delibernte policy of the missionaries themselves ; othoU 
have dwelt on the aristocratic character of society in G«p 
manic tribes, on the docile and imitative tendencies of til 
Slavonic races. But we need not linger over these specfl 
lutions. The success of the Media?val missionary did ng 
more depend on the "will of princes," than that of tiM 
Keforraation movement in every country that became Pro 
testant in the sixteenth century', than that of many mis 
sionaries in modern times. If Boniface writes " withoni 
the patronage of the Frankish kings I can neither govei^ 
the people, exercise discipline over the clergy and monkfl 
nor prohibit heathen rites," he expresses no more thai 
the convictions of the missionaries, who, the other dajr 
addressed the king of Madagascar, and sought liis protec 
tion and encouragement in their work, 
/wpwrnm And if the success of the missionary depended so mud 

tmrtioDa. on thc smile or frown of the prince, we cannot fail ti 
have noticed how often thc conversion of the prince him- 
self was due to alliance with a Christian queen. Th( 
story of Clovis and Clotilda, of Ethelbert and Bertha, ol 
Edwin and Ethelburga, of Vladimir and Anne, repeats 
itself again and again. It has been observed that the 
interpretation adopted generally by early Christian writers 
of the words of St Paul, " What hmwtst thou, wife, 
Kliethcr thou shall save thy husband f or how knoicest thou, 
husband, whether thou shall save thy wife?" exercised 
no small influence, in early times, in promoting the con- 
version of unbelieving husbands by believing wives'. At 
any rate, the saying of Chrysostora, that " no teacher 
Jias 80 much effect in conversion as a wife'," has been 

' Prof. Penrmn'B Early and M!d- 

' See the oWrvationa in Fubricii 
Lttx aiuni/. ciiiip. 1^, "dupropagk- 

Retrospect and Reflections. 403 

verified not only in the instance of the two great king- chap, xviii. 
doms of France and England, but accounts, in some mea- 
sure, for those rapid conversions of. whole tribes, which 
form so characteristic a feature in the missionary annals 
of this period. The intermarriage of the Goths with their 
Christian captives in the days of Ulphilas, of the Saxons 
with their British subjects in England*, of the Northmen 
with the Franks in Normandy, will explain much that is 
otherwise perplexing, and in the latter case will suggest 
a reason why the followers of Rollo ceased to be Teutons 
as well as Pagans, became Frenchmen as well as Chris- 

ii. If, for a moment, we turn to the leaders of the ffreat « '^"TITf i?* 
Mediaeval missions, we can hardly fail to be struck with «^««^ «»»<n^i' 
the immense influence of individual energy and personal 
character. Around individuals penetrated with zeal and 
self-denial centres the life, nay, the very existence of the 
Churches of Europe. In the most troubled epochs of these 
troublous times, they always appeared to do the work of 
their day and their generation. " / am with you always, 
evert unto the end of the world,^^ said the ascending Sa- 
viour to His first apostles. Again and again we have 
seen that promise fulfilled.* While the Roman world was 
sinking in an abyss of decrepitude, and the continent of 
Europe was the scene of the wildest disorder and confu- 
sion, still there were men raised up like Ulphilas and 
Severinus, to sow amongst these new races the seeds of 
civilization, before they took up their positions on the ruins 
of the empire*. When the light of the Frankish Church 
waxed dim, and missionary zeal grew cold, a beacon was 
kindled in the secluded Celtic Churches of Ireland and 
Scotland, whence, in the words of Alcuin, "the light of 
truth might give shine to many parts of the world," and 

^ Prof. Pearson's Early and Middle A^et of England, p. 6i. 
9 Milman's Laiin ChrUtianity, u. 434. * Chap. il. 


404 The Miasumar^ niatortf of the MtddU AgtB. 

cinp, xvm. the disciples of St Coluraba go forth in troops to SwitiW- 
~ ' lanJ and Southern Germany'. When the British Choreh 

ill our owii island failed to evangelize her Teuton in- 
lim'ZnCuie vaJers, a Gregory was ready to send an Angustine' to 
'""""" her shores, whose disciples lalioured Iiere, side by side with 
the enthusiastic colonists of sea-girt Ily, till tUe convei- 
Bion of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms was complete '. Then 
when the Teuton of the Continent was crying from his 
native forests, like the Macedonian of old, " Come orw 
and help us," the sons of the early evangelized Anglo- 
Saxon Church were prepared, in their turn, to go forth and 
emulate the zeal, which had already erected the monas- 
teries of Luxeuil and St Gall in the forests of Switzer- 
land*, and Teutons themselves, to evangelize the Teutons 
of Frisia and Northern Germany. Thus, again, when the 
Churches of Germany needed organization, a monk of 
Nuteacelie was raised up to labour with unwearied zeal in 
Thuringia and Hessia", aud to be(|ueath bis martyr sj>irit to 
numerous scholars and disciples, a Gregory, a Sturnii, a 
Liudger, who lived but to cany on the work he had in- 
augurated, and to cover the face of Germany with mo- 
nasteries and churches^ AVhen, lastly, on the death of 
Chai-lemagnc, the barks of the terrible Northmen were 
prowling round every coast, and carrying havoc and deso- 
lation into the fairest fields of France and England, even 
then an Anakar' was found to go forth with dauntless 
braverj-, and lay the foundations of the Church of Den- 
mark and Sweden, carryitag the Gospel into the very home 
of the Scandinavian Vikings. It was the same with tlio 
(BirvKi.i- Slavonic nations, A Cyril and a Methodius were ready 
to go forth into Eolieuiia and Moravia", an Otho to pen&- 

' Cdap. vii. ■ Chap. nt. 

' Chap. V. * Chap. x. 

• Ubap. VI. ' Cliup, II. 

* Chap. VIII. ' S Chi^. 3U1L 

Betrospect and Beflectiana.' 


trate into the furthest recesses of fanatical Pomerania*, a chap, xviii. 
Vicelin to toil amidst discouragements of every kind, in 
behalf of the savage Wends. Nay, when the Crusading 
spirit had sunk deeply into the heart of European society, 
and the patience of an Anskar was exchanged for the fiery 
zeal of the champion of the Cross, we have seen how even 
then, there was a Raymund Lull* to protest against pro* 
pagandism by the sword, to develop "a more excellent 
way" for winning over the Moslems, and to seal his con- iv^aneeo/ 
stancy with his blood outside the gates of Bugia. Thus, 
even in the darkest times there were ever some streaks of 
light, and the leaven destined to quicken the whole lump 
' was never altogether inert or ineflfectual. Take away these 
men, blot out their influence, and how materially would 
events have varied I They had their defects, no one can 
deny, — the defects of their day and their generation. We 
may question the wisdom of many of the expedients to 
which they resorted ; we may smile at much that savours 
of credulity and superstition'; we may regret that at times 

1 Chap. XIV. 

* Chap. XV. 

' Respecting the credulity of the 
Medioival age it has been well ob- 
served: — "When a man lives in a 
comfortable house in a populous 
country, where his daily wants are 
supplied without toil, where medical 
aid is at hand on the slightest symp- 
toms of disease, where violent deaths 
are almost unknown, and beasts of 
prey and venomous reptiles are 
almost fabulous, it is then that we 
cease to trace every misadventure 
that occurs, or every trifling peril, 
to the direct interposition of a higher 
power. But place that man with 
all bis acquired knowledge — with aU 
the '* glorious gains" of the nine- 
teenth century — in a remote wilder- 
ness, with no literature to distract 
his thoughts from the solitude of na- 
ture — with no newspapers or scien- 
tific tracts to explain to him the last 

theory of electricity, or the latest 
sanative discoveries — with the thun- 
der pealing over his head, and the 
wolves howling in the forest — with 
only a few companions, whose con- 
verse will rather serve to give form 
and shape to his sensations of awe, 
than to drive them away ; and such 
a man, we maintain, will, in process 
of time, lose all that indifference to 
the invisible with which education 
has clothed him ; his so-called en- 
lightenment will crumble away from 
him like plaster, and the naked ha* 
man being remain, whose first in- 
stincts direct him to rely on divine 
aid, who sees some Divine Power 
in the clouds and in the winds, in 
the pestilence and the famine, and 
but the visible agents of his wrath 
in the serpent and the tiger." From 
an Article on St Columba, in the 
DMin University MoffoziTie, Sept. 

40G Tlte Mmionary IlUlory of ike Middle Aget, 

CHAP, xvui. tlicy were induced to liavc recourse to "pious fraBils"iD 
carrying out their work : tlic extreme asceticism of Go- 
lumbanus, the policy of Augustine in dealing with iIk 
British bishops, the pertinacity of Wilfrid at the Council 
of ^\'hitby, the devotion of every Anglo-Saxon tuisaions'}' 
to the Roman see, all these, and mjiny other points, may 
he regarded by U3, in a very different age, as worthy of 
reprobation, but considering the cireum stances of the times 
in which they lived, it becomes ua to speak kindly of men 
who hazarded their lives to hand down to ua the blessings 
of civilization. 
Ij(»*i'wlw" "'■ ^"^ '^°^'^ connexion with the agenta themselves ii 
""^^'^ observable the prominence of the monastic orders. WitH 

scarcely an exception, every missionary, who has been 
mentioned in the preceding pages, was bound by monastic 
vows. Monaaticism founded the Celtic Chui-ches iu Ire- 
land and Scotland ; already existed in England when the 
Saxon invader appeared on her shores; fled with the 
Britisli Church to the fastnesses of Wales and Cumberland; 
returned with Augustine to the coast of Kent ; with Aidan 
to the Fame islands; with Columbanua penetrated the 
forests of Switzerland ; with Winfrld civilized Thuringia 
and i'riaia; with Stumii opened up the forests of Bu- 
chonia; with Anskar found an entrance into Denmark 
and Sweden ; with Methodius and Cyril visited Bulgaria, 
Moravia, and Bohemia ; with members of the Cistercian 
order penetrated Lithuania and Prussia; with ardent dis- 
ciples of St Francis and St Dominie confronted Maho- 
metan Soldans, and preached the word in China. 
Knmiii/m- If we would estimate aright the necessity for such 

'Tiimimii^' pioneers, at least in the earlier portion of the period with 
which we are concerned, let us glance for a moment at the 
condition of the' provinces subject to the Boman Em- 
pire, at the time of the inroad of the barbarian races. 
Little change for the better did thcii social life experience 

Retrospect and JReflecttons. 407 

as the ring of Empire widened and embraced, one after chap, xviir. 
another, Greece and the lesser Asia, Syria and Northern 
Africa, Spain and Gaul. Crushed under a weight of mer- 
ciless taxation, drained of their population by repeated 
levies for the imperial armies, Italy, and Gaul, and even ^I^IIhIIw'** 
more distant provinces, almost ceased to till the soil. Many **»'p»w»<im». 
tracts vere given up to the wasteful tenure of discharged 
soldiers, and tilled by the manacled hands of slaves. Na- 
tive chieftains aspiring to the pomp and state of the Ro- 
man patrician, exalted themselves to their fancied dignity 
on the ruins of the yeomanry class, the kernel of the 
nation's life. To use the words of Sir James Stephen, 
describing the condition of the Romano-Gallic Province, 
" They ejected the old tenantry or clansmen from their 
ancient holdings, to constitute from the aggregation of 
them one of those vast estates or latiftindia, which were 
cultivated entirely by slaves, for the behoof of the pro- 
prietors alone, and to which Pliny and Columella joined 
in ascribing the ruin of Italy. From that vast territory 
they drew the means of boundless self-indulgence, but left 
to the husbandman nothing beyond the most scanty allow- 
ance of the bare necessaries of human existence ; and when 
they were hurried by fatigue, by want, and by sickness 
to premature graves, they recruited their number from the 
Roman slave-markets \" 

And when this work of depopulation had gone on for Further ditar- 
centuries, what was likely to be the condition of the mor^'tKeirrupUonof 
remote country districts in Gaul or on the banks of the 
Rhine, when they were exposed to the ravages of bar- 
barian tribes, as careless of the arts of agriculture as the 
imperial legions they expelled? How were they and their 
wretched populations likely to fare, when their land be- 
came a beaten highway for the passage of the nations, 

^ Sir J. Stephen *8 Lectures on the Hisiofy of France, I. 37. Montalembert*8 
Monks of the West, 11. 316. 

403 The Misaionary BUtory of the MidJIe Age*. 

I, " the centre of the litunaa Maistrom, in which Huns, C*- 
~ pidcn, Allniannen, Rugcn, and a dozen wild tribes nun. 
wrestled up and down round starving and beleiif^ered Iti> 
lunn towns in once ferlile and happy provinces " ? 

A3 it was ia the timca of the Judges in Israel, so was il 
now '. " The villages ceaacd," they ceased througluut tbe 
land. Towns deserted by their inhabitants completely di»* 
appeaitd, or could be traced with difficulty by th* atten- 
tive traveller under the tliick overgrowth of dense woods. 
as in the instance of Anegray and Luxeuil when yisited 
by Columbanua and Gallus, Temples and baths, vilhia 
and streets, became a mass of crumbling ruins, over which 
the tangled underwood gradually extended its sway, tiU 
at length it joined the immense and impenetrable foresb 
which always were a prominent fe-iture in the scenery of 
Gaui and Germany, and formed, by the thick grawth of 
maple and hirch, nspcn and witch-elm, a boundless wilder- 
ness of forest-trees". " On the North of the Rliinc alone," 
writes Montalembert, "six great deserts existed at the 
end of the sixth century; towards the North the wooded 
regions became more and more profound and exten- 
sive. We iinut imagine G.iul and all the neiirhbounng 
countries, the whole extent of France, Switzerland, Bel- 
gium, and both banks of the Rhine, — that is to say, the 
richest and most populous countries of modem Europe, — 
covered with such forests as are scarcely to be seen in 
America, and of which there does not remain the slightest 
trace in the ancient world. We must figure to ourselves 
these masses of sombre and impenetrable wood covering' 
hills and valleys, the high table-land as well as the 
marshy bottoms, broken here and there by water-courses 
which laboriously forced a way for themselves across the 

' On the MialoBj of the period of Jtmith Church, p. 30S, 
tlieJudguB with thut of the MidrJIa ' Sehig^ai'tl'MiotopAyofJIutory, 

Ages, Boe SUiDley's Lecturet on iAe p. igg. 

Betrospect and Refections. 


roots of fallen trees, perpetually divided by bogs andoHAP.XTiiL 
marshes, and inhabited by innumerable wild beasts^ whose 
ferocity had scarcely been accustomed to fly before man, 
and of which many different species have since almost 
completely disappeared from our country." The infant 
agriculture of the Germanic tribes, which knew no land- 
marks or boundaries, which until the reign of Charlemagne 
knew no towns, save the few built by the Romans along - 
the Rhine and the Danube, was ever ready to give way 
to the more congenial occupations of the chase and the 
pastoral life*. 

And now, as from the eloom of these solitudes, a doom M<ma*tic 
80 much in harmony with the worship of Thor and Wo- 
den, the new races, wild and wasteful, without prudence or 
forethought or steady industry, burst forth on the towns and 
cities of Southern Europe, according as internal wars or 
factions drove them forth to seek new homes, the question 
was, Who would seek them out? Who would brave all dan- 
gers in preaching to them the Word of Life? Who would 
settle down amongst them, improve their infant agricul- 
ture, and instil |he first principles of civilization? It was 
a momentous question, but it was answered. Armed with 
none of the inventions of modem industry and mechanical 
art, strong only in invisible protection, the Monastery 
sent forth its sons to carry light and life into these dark 
forests '. 

* See above, p. T49, note. Com- 
pare also Vita 8. Magni^ capp. iii. 
viii. In chap, zviii. we have an ac- 
count of some enormous water-snakes, 
and in chap. xxii. of an encounter 
between this missionary in Switaer- 
land and a huge serpent, whidi he 
vent out to meet, "mitteas in peram 
suam panem sanotificatum, et manu 
sua Bumens picem et resinam, atque 
oambuttam S. Galli, cmcemque in 
collo appendens I" 

■ Halhun*8 Middle Af^es, n. 376. 

' *' It is an ugly thing for an un- 
armed man, wi&out a compass, to 
traverse the bush of Australia or 
New Zealand, where there are no 
wild beasts. But it was uglier still 
to start out under the dark roof of 
that primeval wood. Knights, when 
they rode it, went armed cap-k-pie, 
tike Sintram through the dark val- 
ley, trusting in God and their good 
awoid. Chapmen and merduuits 

410 The Missionary Hielory of the Middle AgeM. 

I. Tlie first sight, indeed, of the quaint garb of ll* 
l^moiika ill the train of the great Athanasius, found liule 
favour with the Roman citizens, when he visited their atj 
in the year 341. But very soon the Faulaa and Maroet 
linas of the capital caught the spirit of £asleTTi mo 
naeUism. Tlic little islands oflf the coasts of Italy and 
Datmalia were quickly dotted with monastic cells; tB« 
peaceful lauras of Nitria and Mesopotamia were tepro* 
ducud in the recesses of the Apennines, in the furt^sts of 
Gaul, aiid the Sierras of Spain. Celtic entliusiasni peo- 
pled the monasteries of Ireland with numbers of ardent 
votaries, and sent forth hosts of missionary monks lo evac- 
gclizc the nations. 

.Strange, very strange, to tlie heathen Saevianfl and 
Alhnannen must have appeared these Celtic pioneers of 
civilization'. Travelling generally in companies, wilh 
long flowing hair, some parts of their bodies, especially 
the eyelids, tattooed, provided with long walking-sticks' 
and leathern wallets, with cases of booiis and relics, they 
flocked across the sea, and landed on the Western shores 
of France, and after paying their devotioES at the shrine 
of St Martin, pressed on to some forest in Switzerland or 
Franconia, and there, all obedient to one man, all, as they 

■tole throagh it b; a few liuciji in 
grcnt campanicB, urineil with bill 
kiiil bow, Puaaanta Tuotured ioto 
it k few miles, tu out timber. »nd 6ad 
paiinnge for their awint, axA whia- 
pored wild legends i>f tha ugly thinga 
tberoin— Hnd aouuitiiuea, too, never 
cuiDS liotui, Awaj it stretched, 
fruDi the fair Rhinel^Dd, n*ve aittiT 
wave cif oak and alder, beech and 
pine, God alone knew hmv far, aUt 
the Uad of night and wonder, and 
the infinite unknown; fuU of elk 
and bison, bear and waif, lynx and 
glutton, and perhap« of wone beaiti 
■till."— " The Manka and the Heo- 
then," in Qooi VfonU, Jon. iS6j. 

' See above, Chap. 
\i^ thu authoriUeB tliei 
iuJded a tnuialalion ___ 

Dr Itocvel of Dr Zillera itiuUiiiHi- 
:jai iUt AnlaiwarUchm Oriellteralfi 
iH Zarick, in the i'lmir Juanutl of 
Arthtmloiiy, Vol. ViU. p. 117. Ste | 
oIbo a curious paper from tht Chron- 
ica Joctlini de Brai^onda, printed 
by the Camden Society, Loadoa, 

■ And a itafF, "ampieni ckin- 
bullain, quom a B. Golla accvperot, 
et crucoin quam aecum portabat." 
Vita S. Mmjni, cap. iviii. Sea alM 
Vita S. Fiacrii, Meuiatjhkm'i Plori- 
U3. 390. 

Retrospect and Beflections. 


styled themselves, " Soldiers of Christ," they settled down. chap, xviii. 
Before long the wooden huts arose, with the little chapel 
and round tower or steeple by its side, with the abbot's 
house, the refectory, the kitchen, the bam for the grain, 
and other buildings \ And here they lived and pray ed 2^/r ii^wnc*. 
and studied, and tilled the waste. Before long the fame 
of their leader would spread abroad far and wide. The 
pagan saw that he cared little for Frankish count or king ; 
in their palaces he was no " reed shaken by the wind ;" 
a Thierri quailed before him ; a Brunehaut could not en- 
dure his pure and upright life, or the rigour with which 
firmly and fearlessly he would rebuke all cruelty and 
sensuality. Such a man the simple people could not but 
revere. He might be austere at times, he might with more 
zeal than love protest against their idolatry; but to the 
widow and the orphan, to the lame and the blind, to the 
sick and the afflicted^ he was ever a friend, for them he 
ever had words of comfort, and mysterious consolation ; 
they might not understand his doctrines, but they could 
understand his life^. 

And thus the first part of the work was done, and ^^/^^^ 
time rolled on, and difierent orders were established ; and 
it soon became clear that if the world was to be carried 
through the dissolution of the old society, if the various 
tribes were to be gathered into the fold of the Church, the 
different monastic orders must become one, they must pre- 

^ See above, p. 136. To the au- 
ihoritieB quoted in Petrie^s Round 
Towers as to the existence of these 
towers in the Irish monasteries, may 
be added Vita S, Virgilii, Messing- 
ham^s Florilegiumj p. 334. 

' This is well illustrated in the 
life of the celebrated S. Fiacre, an 
Irish anchorite, who established a 
monastery at Breuil about the year 
6a 8. " Avulso nemore monasterium 
construxit. . .flagrabat undique opinio 
illius saucta, et multi ad earn veni- 

ebant ; et ut haberet, unde neceast- 
tatibus advenientium subveniret, et 
de laboribus manuum suarum ino- 
piam pauperum relevaret, visum est 
ei quod amplior et spatiosior locus 
foret utilis, et neoessarius ad hortum 
faciendum, ad plantandum olera et 
alianun herbarum diversarum gene- 
ra.'* Messingham, 390. 

' On the subsequent degeneracy 
of the Scottish foundations on the 
continent, see the Ulster Journal of 
Arch€Bology, vu. 311 sq. 

412 TTie MUaionary Jlistory of lie Middle Ages. 

p xviTi. ficnt t!io appearance of an united army, fimi, and compact 
The crisis was a, momentous one, but it had already pro- 

ikiniMb, cluced a Benedict, Witli his marvelloua genius for orgini- 
zation he consolidated the various rulea, and while GalSia 
and his companions were erecting their Celtic monasteria 
in Switzerland, troops of Anglo-Saxons were preparing 
to come forth and establish the Benedictine rule. And 
now, indeed, the missionary monk became the coloriwr. 
Tlie practised eye of men like Boniface or Sturmi sought 
out the proper site with heroic diligence, saw that it otct- 
pied a central position, tliat it possessed a fertile soil, that 
it was near some friendly watercourse. These points se- 
cured, the word was giyen ; the trees were felled, the forest 
cleared, and the monastic buildings rose. Soon the voice 
of prnyer was heard, and the mysterious chant and solemn 
litany awoke unwonted echoes in the forest-glades. "While 
some of the brethren educated the young, others copied 
manuscripts, or toiled over the illuminated missal, or 
transcribed a Gospel or an Epistle, others cultivated tlie 
Boi!, guidsd the plough', planted the apple-tree or the vine, 
arranged the bee-hives, erected the water-mill, opened the 
mine, and thus presented to the eyes of men the kingdi 
of Christ, as that of One Who had redeemed the bodies 
. no leas than the souls of Hia creatures. 

llw"^ Such were the men whom the Providence of God raised 
up to do the work of their day and their generation. 
Their numbers, their union, their singular habits, their 
constant services, could not fail to attract the notice of the 
heathen nations*. They saw in them tljc pioneers jiot less 
of a moral than a physical civilization, W^ith themselves 
force and brute strength were everything, with these mys- 
terious strangers they appeared as nothing. On the one 

' See the Eicumu "dg ciiltu BoU PalgT«ve'i Normandy and England, 
Girmaniei per Ben edict! do»," Ma- II. j6j, 
liiUon, Acta SS. Sated. lu, Fntt 'SeuGnni' 

Retrospect and JReflecttons, 


side was a horror of all dependence, an indomitable spirit ohap. xviil 
of restlessness, on the other was a life of continued self- 
sacrifice and obedience^ "Never were instruments less 
conscious of the high ends they were serving, never were 
high ends more rapidly or more effectually achieved." 
Grant that afterwards these institutions "clear in the 
spring " proved " miry in the stream ;" grant that in the 
days of their prosperity and ease, when the original neces- 
sities which called them forth had ceased to operate, they 
forgat their original simplicity, and became too often a 
byword and a proverb ; yet we must not forget what Euro- 
pean civilization owes to the self-devotion of a Columbanus 
and a Gallus, a Boniface and a Sturmi. " The monks," 
writes Livingstone, " did not disdain to hold the plough*. 
They introduced fruit-trees, flowers, vegetables, in addition 
to teaching and emancipating the serfs. Their monasteries 
were mission stations, which resembled ours in being dis- 
pensaries for the sick, alms-houses for the poor, and nur- 
series of learning. Can we learn nothing from them in 
their prosperity as the schools of Europe, and see naught 
in their history but the pollution and laziness of their 

iv. Next to the prominence in the missionary work of !▼• Epucnpai 
the middle ages, of the monastic orders, few points are more "»«<• 
deserving of note, than the important aid which the work 
received from the superintendence of Bishops, and the de- 
liberations of ecclesiastical Councils. Without entering into 
the vexed question as to the expediency of placing bishops 
at the head of missions in the first instance^ j we cannot but 

^ GmzoVa Lectures on Civilizationf 
I. 1 20. Ozanam, p. 92. 

' "The experieuce of all ages," 
observes Neander, "teaches us that 
Christianity has only made a firm 
and living progress, where, from the 
first, it has brought with it the seeds 
of all human culture, although they 

CAn be only developed by degrees." 
Light in Dark Places, p. 4 17. Com- 
pare Caldwelffl Tinnevclly Afissions, 
pp. 116, 117. 

* See the Report of the Committee 
of Convocation on Missionary Bi" 
ihopSf presented to the Lower House, 
Jan. 25, i860. 

414 The Missionart/ History of the Middle Agea. 

II. notice how, duriug the Medireval period from first to last. 
the introduction of Cliristianity amongst any trihe was 
followed up as speedily as possible hy the establishment of 
episcopal government. The first seeds of the Gospel may 
Iiave been sown liy inferior ministers, by the influence of 
a Christian queen, by the faithfulness of captives, liy Chris- 
tian merchants during trading voyages, and many other 
ways ; but, uniformly in conformity with Apostolic practice, 
the management of the infant Churchea was entrostcd to * 
local episcopate. Sometimes a bishop headed from the 
first a. body of voluntary adventurers; more often, as aoon 
aa any considerable success had been achieved, one of Its 
energetic pioneers was advanced to the episcopal rank, and 
in this capacity superintended the staff of monks or clergy 
attending him, ordaining, as soon as possible, a natire 
ministry from amongst the converted tribes, and establish- 
ing a cathecirnl or corresponding ecclesiastical foundation'. 
And in such a course we trace, not merely, a conformity 
to primitive tradition, or an empty craving after hierarchi- 
cal display, but we see that such a provision had other 
recommendations of the most practical character. Already 
before the inroad of the new races, the Bishops had become 
not only a kind of privy council to the Emperor, but were 
regarded in almost every town as tlie natural chiefs. They 
governed the people in the interior of the city ; they alone 
stood bravely by their flocks when the barbarous host 
appeared before the defenceless town; while the civil ma- 
gistrate and military leader often sought safety in flight, 
they alone were found able and willing to mediate between 
the people and the heathen chief, and to inspire him with 
awe. It is no wonder, then, that on the conversion of any 
district, the native king or chieftain was glad to have near 
liim one who could assume the functions of the pagan 
high-priest, and advise him in any matter of civU or reli- 
* See Eemble'a Snxoru in England, II. jfo. 

Retrospect and JReflectiona. 415 

gious moment. To influence, moreover, the various chiefs, chap, xtiii. 
to counteract the power of the native priesthood, it was 
very desirable that the bishop should at least stand on a 
footing of equality with the nobles. To say that when 
placed in this position, and in his priestly character 
regarded as superior to the king himself, he was prone 
to abuse his influence, and to foster many corruptions 
he ought to have checked, is only to say that he was not 
above the ordinary temptations of human nature. We jJ«^«/'*« 
know, at any rate, what his generation expected from 
him. We know how it was required of the bishop that 
he should " ever be busied with reconciliation and peace, 
as he best might ; that he should zealously appease strifes, 
and effect peace with those temporal judges who love right, 
that in accusations he should direct the Idd, so that no 
man might wrong another, either in oath or ordeal ; that 
he should not consent to any injustice, or wrong measure, 
or false weight ; that every legal right should go with his 
counsel and with his witness ; that, together with temporal 
judges, he should so direct judgments, that, as far as in 
him lay, he should never permit any injustice to spring up 
there; that he should ever exalt righteousness, and suppress 
unrighteousness; that he should flinch neither before the 
lowly nor the powerful, because he doeth naught if he fear 
or be ashamed to speak righteousness*." This was cer- 
tainly no mean standard ; and however far the bishops may 
at times have come short of it, it was a matter of no small 
importance to have in the court of the newly-converted 
chief, one who, by the duties of his office, was bound to be a 
counterpoise to the rude and capricious government of a 
military aristocracy, a mediator between the noble and the 
serf, a defender of the weak and the oppressed. The 
interposition of Boniface in the matter of Gewillieb's suc- 

^ Kemble*8 Saxon$ in England, YoL n. 393. 

416 T?te Missionary Hislort/ of tlie Middle Ages. 

II. cessioa to the bishopric of JIajence ia one instance out ol 
~ many, which most often have occurred in those times of 
constant warfare, where the bishop's exalted position ett- 
ahled him to apeak out boldly against a positive wrong snd 
t to speak with effect. Of the Anglo-Saxon bishops it has 
been said by Kemble, " whatever tlieir class interests amy 
from time to time have led them to do, let it be remembered 
that they existed as. a permanent mediatmg authority be- 
tween the rich and the poor, the strong and the weak, and 
that, to their eternal honour, they fully comprehended and 
performed the duties of this most noble position. To none 
but themselves would it liave been permitted to stay the 
strong hand of power, to mitigate the just severity of the 
law, to hold out a glimmering of hope to the serf, to find a 
place in this world and a provision for the Jeatitute, whose 
existence the state did not recognise'." 

V. And then, again, as regards the provincial and dio- 
cesan SjTiods, we cannot fall to have noticed how much they 
consolidated and supplemented missionary work. They 
decided not only questions of doctrine, but dealt also, and 
more especially, with the most important social problems of 
the age. We find them, from time to time, not only regu- 
lating the life and manners of the clergy, but defining the 
degrees of affinity, protesting against contamination with 
heathenism, detej-mining the mutual relation of master and 
slave, laying down laws concerning false coin, theft, homi- 
cide, and sometimes enacting what we should call sumptuary 
laws and sanitary regulations. If our Indian government' 
boasls that during the laat thirty years the enormities of 
Thuggee and Dacoitce have been suppressed, that piracy 
has been put down, that female infanticide has been check- 
ed, that Suttee has been made criminal, that slavery as a 


:mble'« Sasoyn* in England, U. 
HemorandaM of ImjiToixmaii* 

Beiraspect and BejUcticns. 417 

legal status and compulsorj labour have been abolished, ohap. xTni. 
the MedisBval synods can boast of not less satisfactory re- 
suits. We find them grappling with similar evils of their 
own day*; with the Teutonic and Scandinayian custom of 
exposing weak and deformed children; with sacrifices of men 
and animals in honour of the gods ; with similar sacrifices 
' at funerals ; with witchcraft and sorcery of all kinds ; we 
find them inculcating a due regard for the sacredness of 
human life, and the necessity for pimitive justice and 
regular forms of law, in contradistinction to the low un- 
worthy notions which would condone all crimes, even 
murder, by pecuniary fines ; we find them elevating the 
peasant clasB, and striving to aboUsh slavery. 

In respect to the latter, the methods employed were oradwaaxxh 
necessarily and wisely gradual, instead of sudden and vio- <wy. 
lent. The example of the Jewish legislator, who, while 
he was obliged to recognise slavery as an institution, yet 
endeavoured by all the means in his power to mitigate its 
evils, was followed by the Mediaeval Church. As even in 
the Decalogue the slave in respect to his spiritual relation 
was pronounced equal before God, and was admitted to all 
religious privileges, and never considered as a mere thing 
or chattel, so the Church never faltered in her proclamation 
that the image of God was to be discerned in every human 
creature, that the blessings of Redemption were designed 
for all alike, whether bond or free. The change brought 
about was gradual, but it was sure. At first monks, es- 
pecially Eastern monks, refused to be waited upon at all 
by slaves'. Then, as we have seen so often, missionaries 1^^%^ 
never lost an opportunity of redeeming slaves, and, afl»r p**^** 
suitable instruction, of admitting them to offices in the 
Church. Practical teaching like this gradually left its 
mark. The heathen proprietor was forced to regard his 

^ Kemble's Saxtrnt in England, i. > Itob«rt8on'B Chur<^ Higtoryy n. 


418 The Missionary Bisiory of iU Middle Ago. 

p.xviaslave with other and higher feelings than those of tlu 
"^ " Roman master, with whom it was an axiom incapable of 
disproof, that all men were by nature free or bondsmen'. The 
tone of pnblic feeling was pen-aded more and more with the 
^n/ spirit that dictated the noble words of Gregory the Great, 
'"^ in a deed manumitting two slaves: "As our Saviour, the 
Author of all created beings, was willing for this reason to 
take upon Him the nature of man, that He might free as 
by His grace from the chains of bondage, in which we 
were enthralled, and restore us to our original freedom ; so 
a good and salutary thing is done, when men, whom Na- 
ture from the beginning created free, and whom the law 
of nations haa aubjeeted to the yoke of servitude, are pre- 
sented again witli the freedom in which they were bom"." 
Penetrated with these sentiments, Ecclesiastical legislation 
restored many of the earlier edicts of Conslantiiie*; de- 
eiarcd the slave to be a man, and not a tiling or chattel; 
laid it down tiiut his life was his own, and could not be 
taken without public trial ; imposed on a master guilty of 
involuntary murder of his slave, penance and exclusion 
from the Communion'; opened asylums to those who fled 
from their masters' cruelty ; declared the enfranchisement 
of the serf a work acceptable to God; demanded it at times 
of bisliops on tlieir death-beds, as a necessary prejiaration 
for their release, or of princes at the birth of a son or anv 
other auspicious occasion; and hallowed manumission at 
all times with the sanctity of a religious rite*. The aboli- 

> "OmaeB homing aut liberi (ont thatnre fmoirfl HjtuJIy dearto Go], 

ftut lervi." Justiniui, Iiulit. i. 3. who bought ua all witb oqiimi Tulue." 

l^cnAngveWaJtomanCivU LaiB,ji,2f,. For Alfn»d*B legislation, ieeTiimer'i 

' Gnit(. £p. VI. 11. n, 10. ed, Anylo-Saami, iii. 07. 

1705. CoiD|iare tho latigiutg« of ' ConeUii(iiii M»Eiii Cod. t. tit. 

Bnle, ff. E. IV. li, respecting tlie 13. S. Auguitini Sern. ai. 

eDrraDchuement oF tlftvra hy Wil- ' See Du Cmnge, sub voc. Mant^- 

ftid on recoiving the grant of SolsB^. «s*fWv !V. ^6;;^krriu, Vi, 451; Oi- 

Again, in the AnyU>-Saxan Intti- latvt,-n. tlS6. 

tuf«i, Thoipe, n. 314, w« find the * On theioflueDce oftbcCrusadw 

lord enjomcd to protect his thralli, on lUverT, Me Sir J. Stephen'! Ltc- 

on the ground that " they and thote (urc^ VoL L 190. 

Betrospect and BcJUctiona. 


tion of domestic slavery was one of the most important chap, xyhl 
duties incumbent on the missionary energies of the Mediaj- 
val Church. And " if political Helotry no more interposes 
to perpetuate the severance of race from race in an attitude 
of bitter enduring hostility, it is to the injunctions of the 
Church that we owe the first movement for its extinction. 
Her's is the credit, that prsedial serfdom, the true gulph 
before the Roman senate-house, which the devotion of no 
Curtius might close, no longer swallows people after people, 
draining into its abyss the springs of free industry, 
which are the sap and sustenance of maturer civili- 

Other expedients whereby she sought to elevate the oa«r HvUiHfHf 
moral and social conditon of the newly evangelized tribes 
belong rather to the general than the missionary history of 
this period. On the whole, however, we may say that the 
various modes of ordeal, and the "truce of God," were, at 
least, not unadapted to a people in a transition state from 
a bloodthirsty form of heathenism. We may be startled 
at Ecclesiastical Legislation on the subject of meats and 
drinks'; we may question the wisdom which dictated en- 
actments of the most rigorous character respecting the due 
observance of the fasts of the Church ; we may deem the 
Penitential system something worse than a mistake, and a 
morbid practice of self-analysis the only and the very 
undesirable result of the confessional. Still, after all de- 
ductions for the spirit of the times, and the habits of the 
age, we shall not look down with scorn on the efforts of 
men, who were at least sincere, not forgetting that " immu- 
nity for moral transgressions is of recent date everywhere, 

^ Sectdariay or Surveyt on (he 
Mainstream of History, by Lucas, 

p. «5. 

* Compare the correspondence of 

Pope Zacharias with Boniface on 
the subject of eating horseflesh, mag- 
pies, and storks, and bacon without 
cooking. Migne, ssec. vni. 951. 


420 The Misnonary mslory of the Middle Agta. 


CHAP XVIII, except in the Engliah Church'," that the Scotcli ' 
~ " '~~' American Chnrchea of the last century had tribunals as 

pitiless OS any to which the Anglo-Saxon and the Teutonic 

Churches generally were aubject. 



''Per intervftlla, noBtrU, id est, ChristiAiiis hujusmodi oomparandft lant 
dogznatibas Bupentitionei, et quasi e Utere tangendft, qnatenus magii oon- 
fua quAm eiAsperati pagaai erabeeoaat pro tarn ftbsnrdii opinionibiis.*' 

Ep. Daxixu ad Bovir Aoiuic. 

And now that we have spoken of the agents in the chap, xix. 
missionary work of the middle ages, let ns cast a glance at 
the work itself, and consider some of its more striking 

i. And the first which calls for remark is the national {JJi^JS*!^ 
and seemingly indiscriminate baptisms, which the influence 
of princes secured and the Church did not hesitate to ad- 
minister. It is obvious that, in the Mediseval missionary 
age, necessity would often dictate a departure from ordinary 
rules; but it is hardly possible to read of the numbers 
admitted to baptism, after a very limited preparation, with- 
out suspecting there was at times a &r greater anxiety to 
multiply the number than to enlighten the minds 'of the 
proselytes. And though it is true we ought to bear in 
mind the fewness of the teachers, the masses of the people, 
and the general ignorance, still the habitual practice of 
thus administering the sacred rite must have been the 
reverse of an adequate preservative against the danger of 
relapse. In the instances of the baptism of the warriors 
of Clovis, of the ten thousand subjects of Ethelbert in 

The Muaionartf History of the Middle A^ 

1 Tst^ff 

CHAP SIX. the waters of tlie Swale, of the many thousand 

by the apostle of Germany, of the Rusaians in the waters 
of tlie Dnieper, of the Poraeranians by bishop Otho, the 
absence of adequate preparation, and the influence of tlie 
prince or king, will cause audi administrationa to be re- 
garded by some as a sutject for a compassionate smile, 
rather than for regard or forgiveness. 
u^iuiUZm- ^^^ ^° forming an opinion on the subject, it ought to 

r,t,.fl-om jj^ borne in mind that the missionaries of thia period had 
£ij,^ '"""'' *" contend with more than usual difficulties. To say no- 
thing of the relaxed condition of society, of the constant 
wars which were from time to time setting tribe against 
tribe and people against people, of the tendency on the part 
of the miuistrants, themselves in many cases but newly con- 
verted, to regard the rite as an opus operalum, tliere were 
other and more formidable difficulties in regard to the 
BM^'vIr'' re<^'P'cnts of the rite. They had known nothing of that 
""""^ long education under a preparatory dispensation, which 
had exerted its influences over those three thousand con- 
verts whom the Apostle Peter admitted into the Church 
in one day'. The revelation of an external law, and the 
warnings of prophets, had not made monotheism natural to 
them, or taught, "line upon line, precept upon precept," 
those elementary truths which ajipear to us so easy to 
apprehend, because we have lived in an atmosphere per- 
meated with their influence. They were not proselytes of 
the gate, to whom, as ansions inquirers, like the Ethiopian 
eunuch, a Philip could explain the true meaning of 
Prophecy, and on the simple recognition of Jesus as the 
Messiah, receive into the Christian Church'. Neither were 
they in a condition analogous to that of the Grteco-Romau 
world at the first promulgation of the faith, convinced of its 
inability to regenerate itself, and wearied of its long tossing 
on the ocean of uncertainty. The utter failure of art, and 
> AcU ii. 41. ' Acta ii. 16—40. 

Retrospect and Befiectianss 423 

science, and philosophy to solve the deepest problems of ohap. xix. 
life, had not brought them, like the hero of the Clementines^ 
as proselytes in riper years to the " true philosophy." In- 
fants* in knowledge, in civilization, they were admitted to 
" infant baptism," by teachers themselves in many cases 
but imperfectly educated, whose whole theology was often 
contained in the Creed and the Lord's Prayer. It was the 
day of small things, and the men who did not despise the 
day, but acted up to the extent of their knowledge, hop- 
ing for a day of greater things, reaped no inconsiderable 

ii. We have evidence, however, of the use of a course S^^i/^'**' 
of instruction by at least the early Mediaeval missionaries, as 
preparatory to baptism, which was far from being unworthy 
of its object. It is true that their biographers have not 
given us such full and complete information as we could 
have wished respecting the order in which they considered 
the truths and precepts of the Gospel ought to be imparted" 
to the inquiring heathen. Evidence, however, is not alto- 
gether wanting, and supplies us with several useful hints 
on this subject. 

Much, indeed, has been said of a "peculiar natural and 
national predisposition on the part of the Teutonic nations 
towards Christianity"." Admitting, as far as it is possible, 
that under the poetic legends of Teutonic mythology there 
lay a residuum of truth, to which the new faith could 
attach itself, and which it could transfigure ; that in its 
ideas respecting the origin of the world, its distorted le- 
gends of the creation, its conception, however much after- 
wards overlaid, of a great AUfadir, its belief in the final 
triumph of good over evil, its legends of a conflict between 
Baldr, the lord of light and life, and the goddess of death, 

^ TKe RdigioM htfort Chritt, by ' See the obeervation of Kuiis, 

Pressens^, p. ipo. Church HiMtory, p. a86. 

« Kurtz'a Church Hittory^ p. 187. 

424 Tlie MUsionary Bietory of the Middle Agea. 

ciiAp.xix. in its hope of an ultimate restoration of all things, there 
may liave been scattered seeds which Christianity might 
quicken and make fruitful, yet it must he coDccded that 
there were few amongst the missionariea of this period, 
who could, even if they had been willing, have seen the 
matter in this light. That largeness of heart, that more 
than human wiedom which suggested to the great Apostle 
of the Grentiles, when he stood on Mars' Hill, to take his 
smooth stone out of the Athenian's own brook, as Chrywv 
Btom puts it', and to find a common ground between himseK 
and them, are qualities rare at all times, and which it 
would be folly to look for in the period with which we are 
concerned. This predisposition towards Christianity, this 
recognition of it as adapted to man's deepest needs, mani- 
fested itself, aa Kurtz well remarks, "chiefiy after Chris- 
tianity had gained an entrance by other instmmentali^ 
among the Teutonic races, and only appeared fully at the 
time of the Reformation'." 

Meanwhile, in conformity with the plan recommended 
by the great Augustine, ths teaching of the Medieev&l 
missionaries, from first to last, was eminently objective. 
It dealt mainly and simply with the great facts of Chris- 
tianity ; with the incarnation of the Saviour, His life. His 
death, His resurrection. His ascension, Hia future coming, 
and then proceeded to treat of the good works which onght 
to flow from the vital reception of the Christian doctrines. 
To the worshippers of the powers of nature, and especially 

SI Patna. the sun, we saw how the apostle of Ireland proclaimed the 
existence of one God, the Creator of all things, and then 
went on to dwell upon the life, death, resurrection, and 
ascension of His only-begotten Son Jesas Christ, Who a 
the tnte Sun, of Whom, and by Whom, and to Whom are 

AiifiuHae. all things*. Similarly we saw how Angustine' proclaimed 

> S. CIuTKMt. Op. Ed. Bon. Hl 68. 'See above, Chap. nt. pp. 6S, 69. 

» Kurti, p. a86. 'See Ch«p. v. pp. 101, 101. 

Be^spect and Rejlectums. 


to the royal worshipper of Odin and Thor in Kent the nnity chap, xul 
of God, and then proceeded to treat of the person and work 
of His onlj-begotten Son. The arguments of Oswin^ in omhu 
his exhortations to Sigebert, king of Essex, are directed in 
the strain of the old Hebrew prophets mainly against the 
absurdities' of idolatry, and the folly of a system which 
taught the worship of deities made by human hands, ''that 
might be broken, or burnt, or trodden underfoot," that 
have eyes and see not, feet and walk not; hands and 
handle not. From the worship of such gods he bids his 
royal brother turn to the true Grod, the Creator of all things, 
Who is invisible, omnipotent, eternal. Who will judge the 
world with righteousness, and reward the good with eternal 
life. In the case, indeed, of Coifi^ during the mission oi<^o^ 
Paulinus in Northumbria, we have an instance of one actu- 
ated by low motives, who regarded the new faith as worthy 
of a trial like the systems of heathenism, and deserving of 
instant reception if it produced those temporal advantages 
which the speaker had vainly sought from the national gods. 
But at this very conference his speech is counterbalanced 
by that of the thane* on the briefness and uncertainty oi^^^^^ 
life, which certainly struck a deeper chord, and while it 
bears all the marks of sincerity, is suggestive of those 
"deep searchings of heart" respecting the awful mystery 
of death, which have haunted men in every age. The 
utterer of this parable was, probably, a representative of 
many in those times, who were not only dissatisfied with 
wooden divinities, but were ready to embrace heartily any 
religion which could proclaim to them glad tidings of great 

^ Bede, ni. aa. Above, Chap. vz. 
p. 114. 

' It is on this point that the He- 
brew prophets expatiate so constant- 
ly. Compare the language of Motes, 
Dent xxxii. 37, 38; of Elijah in 
I Kings zyiiL 11 — 19 ; of the Fsalm- 
ist, Ps. cxv. 4—8, cxxxY. 15 — 18; of 
xlL «3, 14, 1^ xlv. 9— II, 

15 — 10; of Jeremiah, U. 17, 18; of 
Habakknk, iL 18, 19. 

' Chap. Y. p. III. 

* Chap. V. p. 1 13. His "Parable" 
nay be compared with the An£^- 
Saxon poem on the last home of 
man, the grave, dted in Tnraer'i 
Anglo-ScaSiM, IIL 339. 

426 The Missionary History of the Middle Agea. 

. SIX. Joy, and assure then) of & life beyond the grave, and tli« 
~^~ glory of a world to come. 

'o/Eii- From the sermons of Rligius we have already offered 
some quotations, which sufficiently illustrate the same ob- 
jective method of preaching, and the earnest way in which 
he sought to reclaim his flock from heathen errors. TLa 
sermon of GoUus on the occasion of the consecration ff 
his disciple John to the see of Constance ia hardly » 
mis^jionary sermon, but it is interesting aa testifying ft 
his very intimate acquaintance with the Old Te«t»- 
ment Hiatory, and the events in the Saviour's life. Tk 
knowledge displayed by this Irish missionary is aa- 
tainly in advance of that which is popularly ascribed to 
the period in which he lived ; and if ho succeeded in re- 
producing in the minds of his disciples similar acquaini- 
ance with the teaching of Holy Writ, their labours coulii 
not have been entirely thrown away on the people to whom 
mdoKc they preached. The correspondence' of Daniel, bishop of 
Cdrt"' Winchester, with hia friend and fellow-countryman Boni- 
'■ face, is particularly deserving of notice, as iUuafrating the 
way in which he would have him preach the word to 
their Teutonic kinsmen, and reclaim them from their hea- 
then superstitions to the true God. To this correspond- 
ence we have already drawn attention, and now would 
allude to it at somewhat greater length'. 

The bishop commences with words of encouragement 
and sympathy with the great work, which the missionaiy 
had undertaken, and the duty and privilege of aiding him 
by advice and counsel in dealing with Teutonic errors. 

' In these letteraweoftenEnd Boni- 
face seniling prEBents to hii friendi 
in EngUad in return for books col- 
lected for him out of the monHUo 
libraries : thus to one he sanda pre' 
mred skins, to Daniel, biahap of 
Winchester, ■ fur to keep bia feet 
wum, to Ethelbald a h*wk, two U- 

eona, two bncklers, two l>u)r«s, to 
bis queen ui ivory comb, uid ftiook- 
inff-glass of ulver. 

■ The letter appesra to have been 
written about the year 714, when 
Boniface had achiered do inconnid^ 
rable success in Tburingia. Migue't 
Patndoffia, see Titi. p. 707. 

Retrospect and ReJUcttons* 427 

He then deprecates any violent and useless declamation chap, xix 
against the native superstitions S and would rather that he contradictioM 
put such questions, from time to time, as would tend to 
suggest the contradictions which they involved, especially 
in relation to the genealogy of the gods. "They will 
admit," he writes, " that the gods they worship had a be- 
ginning, that there was a time when they were not ; ask 
them, then, whether they consider the world also to have 
had a beginning, or whether it has always existed without 
any beginning. If it had a beginning, who created it? 
By this world I do not mean the merely visible parts of 
creation, such as the heaven and the earth, but those in- 
visible and infinite regions, in the existence of which thejr 
themselves believe. If, then, they assert that this world has 
always existed without any beginning, strive to convince 
them of the folly of such an opinion by proof and argument. 

"Then, again, inquire who governed and s^s^^^^^d ^^M*g*«o/ 
the world before the birth of thosG gods in whom they be- ^<^- 
lieve? By what means were they able to gain a supremacy 
of power over a universe which had existed from all time 
before they ever were known? And whence, how, and 
when was the first God or goddess born? Are more deities 
still in process of generation? If not, why and when did 
this law of celestial increase come to an end? Ask them, 
again, whether amidst the multitude of powerful deities 
there is not danger of failing to discover the most power- 
ful, and thus offending him ? Why, in fact, are these gods 
worshipped? For the sake of present and temporal, or 
future and eternal happiness ? If the former, in what re- 
spect are the heathens happier than the Christians? 

"What, again, is the import of their sacrifices? If 

' Conformably to the policy rag- England, Boniface reqnetti a copy 

gested to Augustine by Gregory the of the aueetiona of Auguatine, and 

Great. See above, Chap. v. p. 104. the repliei of Gregory. Ozanam, 

In one of hia letters to friends in p. iSi. 

428 J^ Miasumary Eutory of the Middle Ages. 

cBap. MX. the goda arc all-powerful, what advantage do they besto» 
oti them tliereby? la there not a contradiction in the idea 
of all-sufficient deities needing anything from their worship- 
pers? If, on the other hand, they do not need them, then 
why attempt to appease them with so many and such 
costly 8acri6ces, which muat after all be enperflaous? 
Such and similar questions I would have thee put to theca, 
not, remember, in the way of taunt or mockery, which 
will only irritate, but kindly and with gentleness : then, 
after a while, compare their superatilions with the Christian 
doctrines, and touch upon the latter judiciously, lb tli»t 
the people may be not exasperated against thee, hnl 
ashamed of the foolish errors in which they are entangld, 
and may not fancy that we are ignorant of their neftuiotu 
rites and fabulous stories. 
T " There is another point to which thou mayest direct 
their attention. They say their gods are omnipotent, 
beneficent, and just, that they can not only reward those 
who fear, but punish those who despise them. If they can 
both punish and reward in this world, why do they spar; 
the Christians, who throughout all the world are tmning 
their backs on their worship and throwing down theii 
temples? Why are the Christians allowed to inherit all 
the pleasant and fertile portions of the earth, the lands of I 
the vine and the olive, while the heathen arc constrained 
to put up with the dreariest and most inhospitable regions', 
where, as if banished to a last stronghold, their gods ex- I 
ereise a mere shadow of authority. Tell them of the 
strides which Christianity has made throughout the world, 
of the authority it has gained, while they are but a hand- 
fiil persisting obstinately in exploded errora. If they plead 

' Gibbon Temariu (TV. 315) tlut, tbii ugummtiguDittheChrtetUai. 

at tba date of tbls Epiatle, the Mk- See, howeTer, St Augiutms tk O 

hometuu, vho reigned from Indim teAizandu Evdibat, iG. 
to Spun, might well bars retorted 

Betroaped and Befledians. 429 

that, nevertheless, their deities have a rightftil daim to ohap. xix. 
universal worship, remind them that once they did enjoy 
tmlimited sway, and ask how it is that all this has 
vanished before the coming of Christ the true Omnipotent 
Creator, by whose teaching the world has been illumined, 
by whose life and death it has been reconciled to God?** 

If from this prudent advice of the bishop of Winchester SUKI^^^ 
we turn to such sermons of Boniface as still remain, we 
have proof that he desired something far more real than 
the superficial form of Christianity we are wont to impute 
to this period. Of the first of his fifteen sermons, which a*'"*-^- 
have been preserved*, the subject is the Right Faith, in 
which he expounds the doctrine of the Trinity, the relation 
of Baptism to the remission of sins, the Besurrection of the 
dead, the future Judgment, and the necessity of Bepentance. 
The second, preached on Christmas Day, is concerned with &m. //. 
the Creation of man, the circumstances of his Fall, the Pro- 
mise of a Saviour, His first Advent, and the story of Bethle- 
hem. The third has for its subject the "two-fold operation senn. in. 
of justification ;" the fourth, the "Eight Beatitudes;" the&m./r. 
fifth, " Faith and the works of Love;" the sixth, " Deadly fiem. v. rr. 
Sins and the chief Commandments of God," amongst the 
former of which are enumerated the chief heathen practices 
then rife in the country ; the seventh, eighth, and ninth, -ftjy. vn. 
are occupied with an amplification of the same points. 
The succeeding two are mainly concerned with farther fiem.x.x/. 
explanations of man's original state, his Fall, the Bedemp- 
tion wrought by Christ, His Sufi*ering8, Death, and Besur- 
rection, the hope of the world to come, and the necessity 
for preparation for the day of Judgment, by leading a pure 
and holy life. The subject of the twelfth and thirteenth f»7». xil 
is an explanation of the purport and necessity for observing 
the Lenten fast, while the fourteenth is an Easter sermon. 8erm.xir, 
The last may probably have been preached on the occasion 

1 See Migne, Palroloffia Latino, wo. vm. p. 813. 

430 Tlie Missionary History of the 

ii.ip. SIX. of the celebration of the baptismal rib 

rm.xv. ' simple misaionaiy character of the : 

^'™^*'- begiiia, "my brethren, and consider 

was ye renounced at your baptism. 

devil, and all hia works, and pomps'. 

of (he devil ? They are pride, idola- 

backbiting, lying, perjury, hatred, Vi 

adultery, theft, drunkenness, sorcery, 

to amulets and charms. These and 

works of the devil, and all such ye 

baptism, and, as the Apoatle saith, " 

things are worthy of death, and shall 

HKnciaium. kingdom of heaven.' But because we 1 

God's mercy ye renounce all these sii 

therefore, that ye may deserve to obti 

you, brethren Lelored, to remember whi 

God Almighty. 

'A. " For ye promised to believe in Go 

Jesus Christ His Son, and in the Hoi 

Almighty in a perfect Trinity. 

noKt. "These are the commandments of G 

to observe and keep : ye must love the 

have professed your belief, with all yo^ 

and strength. Be ye patient, tenderhe 

and pure. Teach your children to lo 

household in like manner. Reconcile 

variance. Let him that judges give ri 

let him not receive bribes, for bribes blij 

tlie wise. 

iiiiflii prae- " Observc the Lord's Day, assemble yc 

and there pray, not making vain repeti 

according to your means, for as watea 

flame, so almsgiving blotteth out sin. C 

visit the sick, minister to widows and o 

1 For the reauQciution formula at bapUm 

Betrospect and JReflectiona. 431 

to the Church, and what ye would not men should do unto chap. xix. 
you, that do ye not unto them. Fear God, and Him only. 
Servants, be obedient unto your masters, and maintain the 
rights of your master amongst your fellow-servants. Learn 
diligently the Lord's Prayer and the Creed, and teach them 
to your children, and to those for whom ye stood spon- 
sors at their baptism. Practise fasting, love righteousness, 
resist the devil, receive the Eucharist at the stated seasons. 
These, and such like, are the commands that God bade ye 
do and keep. 

"Believe that Christ will come, that there will be aJJ^j^ 
resmTcction of the body, and a general judgment of man- 
kind. Then the wicked will be separated from the good, 
and the one will go into eternal fire, the other into eternal 
bliss, and they shall enjoy everlasting life with God with- 
out any more death, light without darkness, health with- 
out sickness, happiness without fear, joy without sorrow ; 
there shall be peace for evermore, and the righteous 
shall shine forth as the sun, for ' et/e hath not seen, nor 
ear heard, neither hath it entered into the heart of man 
to conceive what things Ood hath prepared far them that 
love Him^ " 

Such was the missionary instruction which the apostle ^^JleSST 
of Germany imparted to his flocks Further information JSJ^*'''' 
on the same point is supplied in the correspondence of 
Alcuin with the Emperor Charlemagne, who had entrusted 
a mission amongst the Avars to Amo, archbishop of Salz- 
burg*. Congratulating the Emperor on his success, and 
the prospect of the speedy spread of the faith, he impresses 
upon him the necessity of due attention to public preaching, 
and an orderly celebration of baptism'. A mere external 

^ See Ozanam, p. 185. tione Hunnomm, etqualiter docendi 

* Einbardi Annates, at the year smt in fide, et quia ordo sit servan- 
796. du8." Migne, PtUrologiaf bsbc. n. 

• Compare Ep. xxxvn. a.d. 7^: p. 187. Neander, v. 113. 
Ad Dominuin Begem, *'de aubjec- 

432 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. XIX. washing of the body, he declares, will avail nothing, ni 
Order qfOiru- the mind has first duly received the rudiments of 
(KmMrKdion. Christian faith. " The Apostolic Order," he observes, 
first to teach all nations, then is to follow the adminis 
tion of baptism, and further instruction in Christian dm 
Therefore in teaching those of riper years, that order she 
be strictly maintained, which the blessed Augustine* 
laid down in his treatise on this special subject. 

i. " First, a man ought to be instructed in the imn 
tality of the soul, in the future life, its retribution of g 
and evil, and the eternal duration of both conditions. 

ii. " Secondly, he ought to be taught for what crii 
and sins he will be condemned to suffer with the d< 
everlasting punishment, and for what good and benefi 
actions he will enjoy eternal glory with Christ. 

iii. " Thirdly, he ought most diligently to be instruc 
in the doctrine of the Trinity, in the advent of the Savi 
for the salvation of mankind, in His life, and passi 
His resurrection, ascension, and future coming to judge 
world. Strengthened and thoroughly instructed in 1 
faith, let him be baptized, and afterwards let the precc 
of the Gospel be further unfolded by public preaching, 
he attain to the measure of the stature of a perfect man, i 
become a worthy habitation of the Holy Ghost*." 

In another letter, after exhorting the emperor to r 
vide competent instructors for his newly-conquered subje< 
he remarks that " they ought to follow the example of 
apostles in preaching the Word of God ; for they at 
beginning were wont to feed their hearers with milk, tl 
is, gentle precepts, even as the Apostle Paul saith, 'And 

^ Augustine dc CaUchizandu Jtu- 
dihtUt Op. Ed. Bened. Y. 451 sq. 
Compare also the letter of Pope Bo- 
niface to king Edwin, A.D. 635, 
Bede, n. 11. 

' A similar ooune of inftmction 

is said to have been adopted by 
of the Greek misaiouaries sent 
Vladimir, the Russian Prince, 
987. See Grant^s BampUm Lectu 
Appendix, p. 408. 

Betraspect and Reflections. 433 

brethren, could not speak unto you as unto spiritual, but chap. xix. 
as unto carnal, even as unto babes in Christ. ^I have fed 
you with milk, and not with meat : for hitherto ye were 
not able to bear it, neither yet now are ye able*.' And 
thereby that great Apostle of the whole world, Christ 
speaking in him, signified that newly converted tribes ought 
to be nourished with mild precepts, like as children are 
with milk, lest if austerer precepts be taught, their weak 
mind should reject what it drinks. Whence also the Lord 
Jesus Christ Himself in the Gospel replied to those asking 
Him why His disciples fasted not, 'Men put not new 
wine into old bottles : else the bottles break, and the wine 
runneth out, and the bottles perish ; but they put new wine 
into new bottles, and both are preserved'.' For, as the 
blessed Jerome saith, the virgin purity of the soul which 
has never been contaminated with former vice is very dif- 
ferent from that which has been long in bondage to foul 
lusts and passions." 

Again, writing to Arno himself, who had requested in- uturtoAmo. 
formation as to the right method of instructing converts 
from heathenism, he insists even more strongly on the 
worthlessness of baptism without faith and conviction. 
" In this sacrament," he writes, " there are three visible 
and three invisible things. The visible things are the 
priest, the person to be baptized, and the water ; the in- 
visible are the Spirit, the soul, and faith. The three visi- 
ble things efiect nothing externally, if the three invisible 
have no internal operation. The priest washes the body 
with water, the Spirit justifies the soul by faith. He that 
will be baptized must offer his body to the mystery of 
the sacred washing, and his mind to the voluntary recep- 
tion of the Catholic Faith. These points ought a teacher 

^ I Cor. iiL I, a. in initio fidei nom pnedicationiB 

* Matt. ix. 17. "Qui sunt ntres pnecepta tradideiiB, rumpontnr, et 

veteres, nisi qui in gentilitatis er- ad veteres consuetudines perfidiao 

roribus obduraverunt I Quibus si revolyuntur.** 


t 434 The Misswnary History of the Middle Ages. 

i OHAP. XIX. to consider most diligently if he desire the salvation of 

j neophyte, ^nd he must beware of slothfully or carele 

celebrating so great a sacrament." 

The opinions Alcain here puts forth were, doubt] 
j those which, in his school at York, he imparted to men \ 

\ Alubert and Liudger\ and they would naturally act u] 

I them in their missionary operations. They, at any i 

tend to show that they were men, who did not regard 
baptismal rite as a mere opus operatum, and did not son 
to inveigh against the tendency to identify conquest 
iii. jbteneeof iii. The permanent influence, however, of this mod 
'««~*'*^ instruction must have been materially weakened, not c 
by the troubled circumstances of the times, and the < 
I stant wars, but also, and not the least, by the absena 

vernacular translations of the Scriptures and the Litui 
In every country evangelized by the missionaries fi 
Rome, and, therefore, from the docile Anglo-Saxon ki 
doms, we cannot but have observed their anxiety to ret 
for the Scriptures and the Liturgy the Latin language 
the old Latin empire. They seem to have shrunk v 
horror from suffering the barbarous tongues of the 
ferent races to find a place in the sacred services of 
Church. It is with perplexity and misgiving that 
think of Augustine at the court of Ethelbert, or bis 
Otho at Pyritz, addressing their hearers through " the fri 
mediation of an interpreter." It is easier to imagine I 
Boniface and his disciples found access to the hearts of 
people of Hessia and Thuringia. They came forth fi 
"the first Teutonic Church, which remained Teutor 
and with the persuasive eloquence of their own ton 
could announce to their Teutonic brethren " the wonde 
works of God," and exhort them to turn to the living ; 

^ See above, Chap. x. p. 109. 
* MUman's Latin CKrittianityf VL 539. Ozaoam, 167. 

lictrosjH ct and lltfx'tions. 

true (JoJ. And in their ability to do this we are inclined crnp. xix. 
to find one of the chief causes of their rapid success. Yet 
it never seems to have struck them, as it did Ulphilas, and 
Cyril, and Methodius, and other missionaries of the Eastern 
Church, that one of the most important requisites for per- 
manent success was the introduction of the Scriptures and 
the Liturgy, or at least portions of both, in the vernacular 
language of their converts. 

We must be careful, indeed, not to impute to the first 
half of the period we have surveyed, what more truly dis- 
tinguishes the latter. The teaching of the seventh and 
eighth centuries on this point was not that of the fifteenth* 
The force of custom and the long practice of the Church 
had not stiffened a habit into an article of faith. In the P«"«<'**<^ 
Anglo-Saxon Church the mother-tongue was never entirely 3*^ ««*****' 
banished from the most sacred services. The Synod oiiS^^ 
Cloveshoo (a. d. 747) enacted in its tenth Canon, that the 
priest should be able to translate and explain in the native 
language the Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Liturgical 
forms used at Baptism, and at the celebration of the mass\ 
This Council was held in the year after Archbishop Cuth- 
bert received the letter from Boniface, to which we have 
before alluded, and in which he informs him of his own 
plans for the successful organization of the German Church. 
Subsequently we find a Canon of Egbert' requiring that on 

^ Spelman'i Ooneilia, p. 148 : "Ut 
presbyteri omne sui gradus officium 
legitimo ritu per omnia discant ex- 
hibere posse, deinde ut Symbolum 
Fidei ac dominicam Orationem, sed 
et sacrosancta quoque verba qua in 
Missae celebratione, et officio baptis- 
xni solemniter dicuntur, interpretari 
atque exponere posse propria lingua 
qui nesciant, discant ; necnon et ipsa 
sacramenta qus in missa ac baptls- 
mate, vel in aliis Ecclesiastids offi- 
ciis visibiliter conficiuntur, quid spi- 
ritualiter significent, et disoere stude- 
ant." See Joyce's Sacred Synods, 

p. 191 ; Johnson's English Canoni, 
L 247. 

• ExcerpUonetEgberHArchiep.Ebor. 
c. III. '*Ut omnibus festis et diebus 
Dominicis, unusquisque Saoerdos E- 
vangelium Christi prsdicet populo." 
Again, in the letter of Bede to Eg- 
bert, we find him exhorting that 
prelate, "Hoc pra ceteris omni in- 
stantia procurandum arbitror, ut fi- 
dem catholicam que apostolorum 
symbolo continetur, et Dominicam 
orationem quam sancti Evangelii noe 
ScripturaedocetjOmnittinquiad tuum 
regimen pertinent^ memoriae radi- 


436 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 









Cadmon. cbiU 
ere. 680. 

I ' 

each Sunday and festival the priest shonid expound 
Gospel to all committed to his charge, while the wed< 
form, as Lappenberg observes, was no doubt in An 
Saxon, and "its hearty sound and simple sterling 
stance are preserved in the English ritual to the pre 

Numerous versions, again, of various portions of 
Scriptures were in existence. What Ulphilas accomplii 
for the Goths we have already seen, and in our 
island, a former pupil of Adrian, abbot of Canterb 
the celebrated bishop Aldhelm*, gave his countrymen 
earliest Saxon Psalter ; the venerable Bede, who was ■ 
while Wilfrid was evangelizing Sussex, translated at 1 
the Gospel of St John ; King Alfred some portion oi 
Psalms ; while Coedmon had already paraphrased i 
metrical form the chief parts of the Sacred History. ] 
has told us the interesting tale how the Northumbrian 
was bidden by an angel in his dreams to sing "the orig 
things," and how the reeve of Whitby and the abbess o 
convent bade him enter the monastery and exercise his 
" He sang," says Bede, " of the creation of the world 
the origin of the human race, and the whole histor 
Genesis; of the departure of Israel from Egypt, and t 
entry into the land of promise ; of the incarnation, 
death, resurrection and ascension of the Saviour; 
coming of the Holy Ghost, and the teaching of the J 
sties." He first taught his countrymen to think of 
Great AUfather enthroned in majesty ineffable, surroui 
by ten thousand times ten thousand angels, who pay 1 
homage to the Eternal Son. He taught them how of 

citus infigere cures. Et quidem om- 
nes qui Latinam linguam lecdonis 
118U aidicerunt, etiam haoc optimb 
didicinse certissimum est: sed idiotas, 
hoc est, eos qui propris taDtum lin- 
gum notitiam habent^ beo ipsa wa 

lingua dicere, ac sedulo deca 
facito." £p, ad Ecberctum, ed. 

■ey. P- 334. 

^ Hard wick, 96 n. ChurionV 
Ch, 133. 

Setrospeci and Reflections. 437 

celestial host, one, filled with pride, fell from his high estate, chap. xix. 
and in his fall dragged down myriads of other spirits, who " 

thenceforth became the ceaseless foes of the human family*; 
how one of these, "coiling as a serpent round the tree," de- 
ceived our first parents, and persuaded them to eat the " un- 
holy fruit," and then flew in vindictive triumph to cheer 
Satan ** in the swart hell, bound by the clasping of rings." 
The rude Saxon had heard how the goddess of death had 
conquered Baldr, but Caedmon could announce more joyous 
news, how the Redeemer, after suffering death, had de- 
scended into Hades, and proclaimed His triumph over " him 
that had the power of death^" 

Again, in the various continental Churches of the Car- 
lovingian age, we do not trace that anxiety to banish the 
popular tongue from the public services, which afterwards 
dictated its entire withdrawal. The conqueror at Tolbiac 
and his Merovingian successors, Charlemagne and his im- 
mediate descendants, were Teutons, and in their courts the 
German language was to be heard. A Capitulary, dated 
from Frankfort-on-the-Maine, A.D. 794, pronounces it a 
foolish idea, that " God is to be worshipped or addressed 
only in three languages, for He may be addressed in every 
tongue, and in every tongue may He be heard'." The 
Councils of Tours, in a.d. 813*, and of Mayence, in 817, 
enact that the bishops be diligent in preaching throughout 
their dioceses, and that they " study to expound the homilies 
of the Fathers in the rustic Boman or in Theotisc or 
Deutsch, so that all the people may understand." Thirty 
years later we find an archbishop of Tours* recommending 

^ C8Bdinoii'8ParapAraK,ed.Thorpe, * Gieseler, n. 164, n. 14. Hard- 

47. Bede, iv. c. 34. wick's Middle Age, p. 05 n. Pal- 

' Ibid. p. 389. grave's Normandy and England, 

' ** Ut nullus credat quod non nisi I. 65. 
in tribos Unguis Deus orandus sit : ' Herard, archbp. of Tours, A.D. 

quia in omni lingua Deus adoratur, 858. Gieselcr, n. 26^, n. aS. Hard- 

et homo exauditur, si justa petierit." wick, 106 n. 
Gieseler, 11. 365, yi. ag. 

438 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 

CHAP. XIX. that the main events in the Saviour's history. His bi 
death, resurrection, the coming of the Holy Ghost, the fui 
judgment, the necessity for good works, and the imports 
of the sacraments, should form the subject of the pa 
priest's expositions. About the same time we find Hi 
mar of Rheims requiring of his clergy that, in additioi 
committing to memory certain formulae and services of 
Church, they should be able to expound the Lord's Pra 
the Apostles' Creed, and that of St Athanasius, as also f 
homilies of Gregory the Great*. Town and village sch 
were, as all know, extensively encouraged in the reig 
Charlemagne and his successors ; but the knowledge of 
Paternoster and the Creed was too often the limit i 
which the teacher was obliged to be content, and even 
had to be enforced by fines and punishment*. Copie 
the Scriptures, or even parts of them, were comparatr 
scarce, especially among the country clergy, and were < 
fined to them. From versions, however, of some port 
of the Bible, poetic paraphrases, and vernacular hymns, 
people could here and there pick up stray crumbs of kn 
ledge. Louis-le-D^bonnaire especially encouraged the e 
tions of a Saxon husbandman, another Caedmon, and 
metrical version of the Scriptures, called the Helii 
acquired great popularity'. Forty years later another I 
mony, or Paraphrase of the Gospels, was put forth 
Ottfried*, a monk of Weissenburg, and in the elevi 
century the stock of vernacular literature was increased 
the addition of a German paraphrase of the Psalms, dr 
up by Notker Labro, a monk of St Gall, and a Q^n 
translation and exposition of Solomon's Song, by Willii 
master of the cathedral-school at Bamberg*. 

^ HiDcmar, arohbp. of Rheims, Neander, vi. i6i. 

CapituU, A.D. 852. Gieseler, 11. 263, • Hardwick, ao8. Palgrave'a 

n. 23. fnandyand England, i. 188. 

* Kurtz, Oh. HUiwry, 9 118, i. * a.d. 868. Gieseler, ri. 1^ 

Gieseler, ii. 265, n. 30. For the in- ' Hardwick, 409 n. Kurt^ 
flaence of the Irish schools, see 

Retrospect and Bejlections. 439 

But as time rolled on, vernacular translations of the chap. zix. 
Bible or the Liturgy were regarded with more and more sus- vemaeutar 
picion. We saw with what difficulty Methodius succeeded rtffordedwuh 
in persuading Pope John VIII. to look with a friendly eye 
on the vernacular Liturgy he had drawn up for his Slavonic 
converts*. It was only after a struggle, that the Pontiff 
came to the conclusion that God had made other languages 
besides the Hebrew, the Greek, and the Latin. But what 
he conceded with the proviso that the Mass should be cele- 
brated in one of the languages of the Church, was cancelled 
by a later Pope, Gregory VII. Nothing could induce him 
to yield to the earnest entreaties of Duke Wratislav, in the 
year 1080, and sanction the Slavonic Liturgy by similar 
approval. He allowed, indeed, that the concession had 
once been made, but "it was," he declared, "only to serve a 
temporary emergency, and could be no adequate precedent 
with himself; as to a vernacular edition of the Scriptures, 
that was impossible ; it was not the will of God that the 
sacred Word should be everywhere displayed, lest it should 
be held in contempt, and give rise to error." By this time 
the Gospel, now always read in Latin, was fast becoming 
a sealed book to the bulk of worshippers in the West, and 
the Latin Service a succession of unmeaning: sounds. It Eva ^tgietito 
needs but little reflection to se^ how formidable an obstacle *•*<****• 
to any real and permanent reception of the Christian faith 
must have been created by this persistence in creating an 
exclusive hierarchical language. "Our own sense and 
experience teach us," writes Professor Stanley', "what 
barriers this single cause must have created in many coun- 
tries between the conquerors and the conquered, between 
the educated and the vulgar, above all, between the clergy 
and the laity. The ill effects of the tardy translation of 
our own Bible and Prayer Book into Welsh and Irish 

* Above, Chap. xtn. p. ^86. 
' LtcturtB on the Eoitem Chur^, p. 309. . 

?'"■« •■„,;„„,;. 

^""TO OI,„,c|, 

2°«°«Se till the 
"etodiu, cOMft 

Jestamenl, thm 

'^em.n Chard 

*"'«■«. i„„„„j 

Betroapect and BejUctiona* 441 

lie eye of the ill-instructed mass, by representations of chap. xix. 

1 scenes in the Gospel-history as the Infancy, the 

sion, the Besurrection, and the Ascension. It is not dif- 

It to enter into the feelings of the Prince-Archbishop of 

sburg, who, in his manifesto respecting the Ammergau tiu Ammargam 

itery, in the year 1779, viewed with misgiving "the "''''*^* 

ture of sacred and profane," "the ludicrous and disa- 

^ble effect of the bad acting of the more serious actors, 

f the intentional buffooneries of others," "the distraction 

he minds of the lower orders from the more edifying 

les of instruction by sermons, church-services, and re- 

ils." Still we must be careftil to avoid the language 

ndiscriminate censure. The " religious mystery" can 

m. the patronage of Gregory Nazianzen, and the 

roval of Luther, who is reported to have said, " Such 

itacles often do more good, and produce more impres- 

, than sermons." It has been sanctioned also by Lu- 

an bishops of the Church of Denmark and Sweden, as 

gitimate method of imparting instruction. The recorded 

ression made upon a cultivated mind by the represen- 

m of the Ammergau Mystery, in I860*, is a suflBcient 

)f of its power to kindle the emotions of an enwrapped 

ience ; and doubtless, as Dean Milman remarks, " the 

skeletons of these Latin Mysteries which have come 
n to us, can give no notion of what they were when 
e, with all their august, impressive, enthralling ac- 
ories, and their simple, unreasoning, but profoundly 
ated hearers'." It cannot, however, be a matter of 
)rise that the temptation to exceed the bounds of 
leration and even decency was soon sufficient to ren- 

their utility a matter of great question, and to call 
n the severest denunciations of Popes and Councils. It 
Id have been well if these very excesses had suggested 

^ See A. P. S. in MaemiUan^i Magiain€f Oct. i860, p. 464. 
' Milman, LaHn ChriatianUy, vi. 496. 

442 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages, 

CHAP. XIX. to these high authorities the inquiry, whether they were 
not themselves causing ** offences to come," by hiding the 
key of knowledge, and retaining in their most sacred ser- 
vices a language which, to the majority of the hearers, wii 
simply unintelligible. 
It. ThemitHm- iv. And here a few remarks on the policy of the mis* 
thenitm. sionarics as regards heathenism may not be out of place 
especially as they have sometimes been accused of too great 
accommodation to the weaknesses and scruples of their p»-| 
gan converts. A review of the eflforts made during this period > 
does not tend to substantiate the charge at least against tie 
missionaries themselves. Again and again we have sea 
them hewing down the images, profaning the temples, ad 
protesting with vehemence against sorcery, witchcraft, ai^ 
Dther heathen practices. The apostle of Ireland did not 
as we saw, spare the great object of Celtic worship ; life 
countrymen, Columbanus and Gallus, provoked the griet- 
ous wrath of the Suevians by their hostility to Thor and 
Odin; Willibrord, at the peril of his life, polluted tb 
sacred fountains of Fosites-land ; Boniface risked not only 
personal safety but all his influence over the people i 
Hesse by hewing down the sacred oak of Geismar ; the 
address of Lebuin to the Saxon assembly did not betraj 
one easily " shaken by the wind;" Bogoris flung away his 
idols at the first request of Methodius ; Vladimir flogged 
the huge image of Peroun, and flung it into the 'waters of! 
the Dnieper before the face of his people ; Olaf and Thanf 
brand overthrew the monuments of Scandinavian idoUtrt 
with a zeal worthy of a Jehu ; Bishop Otho in Pomeranii 
insisted, in spite of imminent danger to himself, on destroj- 
ing various Slavonic temples. As far as such extemil 
protests against idolatry could avail, their missionary Ktl 
did not err on the side of laxity. It cannot be said tba<' 
there was any accommodation here to the views of the 

Hetraapect and Reflections. 443 

heathens, or anything like the policy of the unworthy chap. xix. 
followers of Xavier, in India*. 

In several cases, however, the advice of Greffory iScie Advice <^ ore- 

o ./ ff(frp to AftffUi' 

Great to Augustine appears to have been mainly followed, "'»«■ 
at least by the Anglo-Saxon missionaries. From the letter 
of that Pope to Mellitus' it seems that the question of the 
destruction of the heathen temples had caused him con- 
siderable anxiety, and had long occupied his thoughts. 
The conclusion to which he at last came, was, that in- 
stead of being destroyed, they should be "cleansed from 
heathen pollution by being sprinkled with holy water," 
and consecrated to Christian purposes by the erection of 
the Christian altar, and the " deposition of relics of the 
saints." Whatever may be the reason of the strange • 
contrast between the policy advocated in this letter and 
in that addressed to Ethelbert', it is certain that Gregory 
was wisely anxious to facilitate the transition from hea- 
thenism to Christianity. In this spirit, therefore, he 
advised Augustine to deal cautiously with the heathen 
festivals which were celebrated in or near the temples ; he 
would not have them abolished altogether, but suggested 
that on the annivei-saries of the Martyrs, whose relics had 
been placed in the temples now converted into churches, 
booths should be erected, and the people permitted to 
celebrate their feasts in honour not of the old pagan deities, 
but of the True Grod, the Giver of all good. Gregory, 
whose spirit is said to have yearned towards the old 
heathen sages who had died without hearing of the 
work of Christ*, considered that he had found a precedent i 

for the advice he now gave in the divine system of 
educating the Jewish people after their departure from 

^ Sir £. TennanVs Ceylon, p. 17. rum cogitans traciavL** 

Hardwick's Reformationy p. 443. * Bede, i. 33. 

' Epp. Greg, Lib. xi. 76. Bede, ^ Stanley's MemoriaU of Ccmter" 

I. 30: **J)iu mecum de causa Anglo- bury, p. 7. 

444 The Missionary History of the Middle Ages. 


/or hit advice. 

■ \. 





Egypt. " They had been wont," he remarks, " to 8acrifi< 
false gods, they were not forbidden now altogethe 
abstain from offering sacrifice. The object only of 1 
worship was changed, and the same animals they had 1 
wont to sacrifice to idols, they now sacrificed in honoi 
the Lord their God." 

Grant that he may have regarded the Jewish sacrii 

system from far too low a point of view, still in the 

cumstances of the Anglo-Saxons just emerging : 

heathenism, there was much to remind him of the Je 

nation during its long contact with idolatry in Eg 

The latter unfitted, as the very genius of their lang 

attests*, for abstract thought or metaphysical speculat 

absolutely required material symbols, and with a Boc 

Symbols they were mercifully provided. The same i 

of proceeding Gregory was of opinion was requisite in 

case of the Anglo-Saxon converts, and if existing cer( 

nies could only be exalted and purified, a gradual ai 

might be supplied towards understanding higher tru 

Where, as in England, and probably on the Conti 

every Mark had its religious establishment', the Medi 

missionaries, themselves in many cases but lately conv€ 

may be pardoned for the natural desire to make as i 

as possible of the reltgio loci^ and to avail themselv^ 

far as it was practicable, of old associations. Thi 

England the temple of Ethelbert was converted intc 

Church of St Pancras*, and the sites granted by the 

king for St Paul's in London, and St Peter's in \ 

minster, had both before been places of heathen woi 

^ Hard wick*B C%riif an(£ otA^rifoj- 
ten^ 1. 1 o I . Wiseman's Lecturei, 1. 1 3p. 

^ '' Duris mentibus simul omnia 
abscidere impossible esse non dubi- 
tun est, quia et is, qui summum lo- 
cum ascendere nititur, gradibus vel 
paasibuB, non autem saltibus, ele?a- 

tur." Bede, I. 30. 

' Kemble's Scueont in EngU 

^ Stanley's MemoriaU of i 
huryt p. 11. The Pantheon ¥ 
dicated to All Saints about fou 
after Gregory's death. 

Retrospect and Reflections. 445 

even as at Rome the statues of the Caesars had vanished chap. xix. 
from the apsis of the basilica, and given place to the image 
of the Son of Man\ 

Architectural reasons may very probably have prevented 2SSf ^ow 
in many cases a compliance with Gregory's advice, but its '^nfentitiatu. 
spirit was obeyed, wherever the Teutonic missionary went 
forth to evangelize Teutons.. And independently of the 
sound principle which was thus taught, "that the evil 
spirit can be cast out of institutions without destroying 
them," the early missionaries must have found that it is 
easy to destroy the image or to fling it into the stream, but 
very hard to extirpate a faith, and eradicate time-honoured 
superstitions. They to whom they preached were, as we 
have already seen, worshippers of all above them and 
around them ; in the skies, the woods, the waters, they found 
their oracles and sacred books ; they revelled in spirits of 
the grove and of the fountain, of the lake, and of the hill ; 
they believed devoutly in divinations, and presages, and 
lots. Imagine, then, one who from his earliest years, had 
lived and moved in the atmosphere of a faith like this, 
which identified itself with all the associations of nature 
and the world around, which taught him to hear voices 
from another world in the forest roaring round his cottage 
in the wintry night, or on the lake where he flung his net", 
— imagine such an one, out of deference to the will of his 
chief, or the stem command of the conqueror, in an age of 
" implicit, childlike, trusting, fearing, rejoicing faith," — ex- 
changing his early creed for that of the Christian, and can 
we wonder that the old ideas long retained their sway, or 
that Councils were obliged to denounce, and the mis- 
sionary to inveigh against lingering traces of well- worship, 
and tree-worship, against divination, and witchcraft'? 

1 Ranke'B Popet, I. 5. 364, 365. Thorpe's iV. MyiKdogy^'L 

1^6. Dasent's T ' ' 
Introd. p. Izxxi. 

A1KM4AV o M. vjTbmf *. 3. %r--ww %,-v- -jr «r *r^» — 

* Compare Chap. vii. p. 147. 356. Dasent's Tak» from the NorH, 

* Kemble's Saxcm infiiglcmd, I. 

■"■'"" iJimseir, 
■"■■■"J, iiiiabl,, ,, 
'■«<! tkeir being ■ 
«■=« sacrifices, ', 
»=e', to resort to 
"= «««( that a, 
™ engaged in , 

f' "orahip, it i 
■"nnduy linj ^^^ 

T^t «•> between ( 
« was no Mttled , 
Ewopean civiliM/ 

»" Chnstian bolid. 

°™qn8« in l,™„._ , 

Betro^ped <md Be/lections. 447 

lextricably united the name of a Saxon goddess with chap. xix. 
lie most joyous of the Christian festivals ; names which 
aye suryived all the intervening changes of thought and 
deling, and remain to the present day the undying memo- 
ials of the period of twilight between heathendom and 

V. Our retrospect has, from the nature of the case, been t. iuauimate 
hiefly concerned with the more legitimate efforts madeg^^^^* 
uring the earlier period of the Middle Ages to propa- 
ate the GospeL But during the later period we no-' 
iced how other agencies besides the holy lives and eloquent 
:>ngue8 of devoted men, besides the monastic colony and 
be missionary school, were employed to complete the circle 
f European Christendom. We saw how the genuine 
lissionary spirit became tinged with fanaticism, and was 
acceeded by violent and coercive propagandism. 

In its earliest phase we noticed this in the history (kmrnaunu of 
f CJovis*. When that chief rose from the font cleansed «*« yitn^- 
f the leprosy of his heathenism, and became the single 
overeign of the West, who adhered to the creed of Nicsea, 
le entered with a ferocious zeal on the conquest of the 
brian Visigoths. The difference of Creed became an easy 
►retext for war, and for the invasion of fertile provinces 
^ith fire and sword. And though the hands of the '^Eldest 
>on of the Church" were never free from the stain of 
»lood, though his life was disfigured by the darkest vices, 
hough he made nothing of cruelly assassinating every chief 
rom whom he apprehended any danger to his family, 
et his zeal for the Church atoned for all his crimes in 
be eyes of Catholic prelates. Nowhere have we a more 
ignal instance of the extent to which religious partlzan- 
hip can obscure the moral perceptions, than in the fact 
bat Gregory of Tours does not scruple to say of Clovis, 
bat " God frustrated his enemies daily before him, and 

^ See above. Chap. n. p. 55. 

448 The Missionary ITislorif of the Middle Aqtt. 

;. increased Iiib realm, because he walked with an apri^t 
" heart before Him, and did what wa3 pleasing in His eyes'.' 
Clovis, however, mtist not be judged too harehlT 
War was the single art in which he excelled, and wi* 
kind of troops they were of which he was the leader w 
can form some idea from the description Sidonins Ajxrf' 
linaria has left of the Mero\'ingian armies. The host in 
describes as "bareheaded, with masses of long red luir 
falling between their shoulders, their bodies tigbtlr ein 
' about with raw hides, though naked from the knee dowj 
wards, carrying neitlicr sling nor bows nor other missik 
except a hatchet and a short pike, to which was atnnc 
a barbed harpoon, marching ou foot, and protected br * 
defensive armour'." Of the leader of such a host, wfe 
there is not the slighteJit reason for believing was able f 
read, whose glimmering acquaintance with Cliristianitv« 
confined to such stray crumbs as he could pick up from 
converse with hia clergy, we must not exact more tHai 
from a Dyak or Kaffir chief, 
r The wars of Charlemagne against the Saxons are lif 

subjects of more legitimate cuusurc'. That these w»n 
were carried on with relentless severity, that the Saxff 
territory was invaded from year to year, that on <M 
occasion four thousand five hnndred prisoners were 1* 
headed for sharing in an insurrection, that, on another to 
thousand Saxons were forcibly removed from their oin 
country into the older Frankish territory, cannot be dcnieA 
Still the peculiarities of Charlemagne's position must nd 
be overlooked. Other causes than the simple lust rf 
conquest promoted these -wars'. Antipathies of race anJ 
divergences of religious belief lent a peculiar bitterness V: 
the conflict between the Frank and the Saxon. Charlc- 

1 Greg, Turon. Op. n. 40. Perry's Tliilnry of Franer, t. 53. 
Franii, p, g6. ' S™nl>ove,Ch»p,s. pp.nj^liJ 

■ Sir J. StepliBii'B Ltelvm on tt< • See p. 1 1 j, n. 

Reirotpect and Beflecttons. 449 

magne knew well, that if these hardy pirates of the North chap. xix. 
gained the upper hand, all order and security in Europe 
would be at an end. At the root of the new civilization, 
whereof he was the champion, lay the Christian faith. In 
the Christian Church he felt were the only elements of 
order, and he had strengthened his own power by the 
most intimate relations with it. It is no wonder, there- 
fore, that he believed himself bound, as a Christian king, 
to impose that faith, which alone promised any definite 
union or concord, on races that still clung to the blood- 
stained rites of Odinism. '^ That the alternative, ' Believe 
or die,' was sometimes proposed by Charlemagne to the 
Saxons," writes Sir James Stephen, " I shall not dispute. l^iSTSi 
But it is not less true that before these terms were ten- S?!?"*^^' 
dered to them, they had again and again rejected his less 
formidable proposal, 'Be quiet and live.' In form and 
term, indeed, their election lay between the Gospel and the 
Sword. In substance and in reality, they had to make 
their choice between submission and destruction. A long 
and deplorable experience had already shown that the 
Frankish people had neither peace nor security to expect 
for a single year so long as their Saxon neighbours retained 
their heathen rites, and the ferocious barbarism inseparable 
from them. Fearful as may be the dilemma, ' submit or 
perish,' it is that to which every nation, even in our own 
times, endeavours to reduce a host of invading and deso- 
lating foes; nor if we ourselves were exposed to similar 
inroads, should we offer to our assailants conditions more 
gentle or less peremptory*." These considerations may 
tend to modify our view of Charlemagne's policy, but the 
wholesale and indiscriminate mode of administering the 
rite of baptism on the conclusion of his campaigns, cannot 
possibly be defended, and drew forth, as we saw, the indig- 
nant expostulations of Alcuin, and men of kindred spirit. 

^ Lecture I. p. ol. 


450 Tke Miaaionary HUtory of Ot Mtddh Ag 

CHAP. irx. The violent efforts of the Norwegian princes t 

viifB^ftiau Ghriatianitj ae the national faith have a grotesqi 
their own, which relieves them from the impu 
those darker motives which prompted the All 
Cnisades, and the establishment of the Inqaisitii 
emotions, which the latter events call forth, are to 
to be dwelt upon, and only call for the expr 
gratitude that the age which witnessed them hi 
away without the possibility of recall. As for the 
of the Viking, it may be pleaded that, however 
unworthy the conceptions he had formed of the i 
iaith, his mode of enforcing his new Creed on fa 
and hardy subjects was at least straightforward, 
believed once in the might of Thor's great hamn 
crusher and smasher," and force was the only we 
could conceive capable of effecting his purpose. 
Inquisition and the Albigensian Crusades present t 
the efforts of Hacon and the Olafs present the g 
side of the same truth, that acts of violence in th 
world are sjrmptoms of weakness, for " we only i 
religions despotism when we despair of prevailing 
suasion." To expect maxims of toleration from a 
would indeed be absurd ; but the fact that, in spil 
violence with which Christianity was introduced 
Scandinavian and other kingdoms, the leaven wi 
able to work mightily, and to do great things i 
advancement, is surely an encouragement as r^ 
future of modem missionary efforts. When we rel 
long a period even the partial evangelization of 
occupied, how slow, how gradual was its progress, 
times order seemed to have vanished and chaos 
come back to earth, we shall not be impatient fo 
diate results of missionary work in modem times. 
Whenever the Church effected anything real 
ing, it was when she was coutent to persevere ii 

Retrospect and Rejlectiona. 451 

of absolute dependence on Him who has promised to be chap. xir. 
with her " always, even nnto the end of the world;" when omdwum, 
in the person of a Columba, a Boniface, a Stormi, an 
Anskar, a Bajmund Lull, she was contented to go forth 
and sow the seed, and then leave it to do its work, remem-* 
bering that if " earthly seed is long in springing up, im^ 
perishable seed is longer still." Whenever she failed in 
her efforts, it was when she forgot in Whose strength she 
went forth, and for Whose glory alone she existed, when 
she was tempted to resort to other means and to try other 
expedients than those which her great Head had sane* 
tioned, when instead of patiently leaving the good seed 
to grow of itself, she strove to hurry its development, 
and was impatient of small beginnings and weak instru* 

For, if the retrospect of the missionary efforts of the 
Middle Ages teaches one lesson more than another, it is 
the value of those " slender wires " on which the greatest 
events are often hung, and the importance of not despising 
the day of small things. " Let any one," writes the author ^J^^^^ 
of the Historical Memorials of Canterbury ^ ** sit on the SSSSii. 
liill of the little church of St Martin at Canterbury, and 
look on the view which is there spread before his eyes. 
Immediately below are the towers of the great Abbey of 
St Augustine, where Christian learning and civilization 
first struck root in the Anglo-Saxon race; and within 
which now, after a lapse of many centuries, a new in* 
stitution has arisen, intended to carry far and wide, to 
countries of which Gregory and Augustine never heard, 
tlie blessings which they gave to us.. ..From Canterbury, 
the first English Christian city — from Kent, the first 
English Christian kingdom — has, by degrees, arisen the 
whole constitution of a Church and State in England, 
which now binds together the whole British Empire. And 
from the Christianity here established in England, has 



453 The Miutonaty History of the Middle Ag^ 

OHAP. XIX. flowed, ty direct consequence, first, the Christi 
' Germany, — then, after a long interval, of North Ai 

and lastly, we may trust, in time, of all India, 
Australasia. The view from St Martin's church 
one of the most inspiriting that can be found in tli 
there is none to which I would more ■willingly b 
one, who doubted whether a small beginning wo 
to a great and lasting good, — none which carries 
vividly back to the past, or more hoi>efully forwa: 

' StanlcT'a Mcmorialt of CanUxhari/, p. 33. 


Absaloh , bishop of Boeiltilde, 331 ; de- 

■CrojTB the image of Svuitovit, 33J 
Abjnmiaji Cburcb, iaterference in of 

the Portugaeee, 304 
Adal bert, consecnted bishop of Jul in , 3 1 5 
Ailoldag, krchbishop of Buaburg-Bre- 

men, 35' 
AdaiDDaD, biographer of St Colamba, 

31 D., and patiim, 
Addulo, ftbbesa, visited b; Boniface, 107 
Adelbert, FnnkiBh prelAte, opponent of 

Bnniface, 106, 7 
Adalbert, or Wogteich, bishop of Pnigue, 

389 i attempts to christianize Fniaaia, 

190, 340; hu martyrdom, 341 
Adelbert, prince ef Northumbru, mis- 

aionary in Northern HoUmd, 174 
.^thelbrat, vide Ethclbert 
Agbkbo, Irish motiarteiy, 197 n. 
Agil, or St Aile, mianonary in Bavaria, 

Agilulf, the Lombatd king, risited by 
St Columbaniu, I4S 

A^ilbert, bishop of Dorchester, 111 i it 
Iho council of Whitby, 117 

AidaD, Scottish king, 90 ; at the Coundl 
of Druinceatb, ib. 

Aldan, Irish mitdonary from Hy, i r 8 ; 
hin lineage, i IQ and note ; founds the 
abbey of Lindiifanie, i&.; described 
by Bede,ift. 

Albert ran Apeldero, bishop of Bremen, 
lays the foundation of Riga, 336 ; in- 
vokes the Md of the military knights 
in chriBtianiiing Livonia, 337 

Alliert, margrave of Baren, 3 1 9 

Albigenses, rise of, 379; their tenets A. 

Albigennim CnisadeH, 380 

Albin, missionary in Pcanerania, 317 

Albnc, suooewor of Gregory, abbot of 
Dtrecfat, no; ootifecrated bishop of 
Cologne, aaa 

Albrecht, archbishop of BrcEmen, pro- 
motes the Slavonic misdou, 318 

Alcuin, his school at York, 909; his 
remonstrancea with Charlemagne re- 
apecting the oompulsory baptism of 
Ihs Saiona, tti ; his remarks nspeot- 
ing missionary inotniction, 431 

Aldgis, Frisian chief, visited by Wilfrid, 

Alfifg, mother of Swend, her incredoli^ 

as to tbe sanctity of Olaf, 173 
Alfred the Great and the Buielaghe, 

131 n.; his defeat of Outhrum, 333 u,; 

bia mission to Che East, 3G9 n. 
Alto, Irish missionary in Bavaria, igj n, 
Alubert, missionary in Germany, 109, 
Amondiu, missionary bishop frfnn Aqni- 

tania, 15;; his labonrs among tbs 

Frisians, 15S; appointed to tha tM 

of Mtiatricht, 159 
Ambrose, his treatise on TkeAdvantt^ 

of Dtatk, »04 
Amoneburg, monastery of, foimded by 

Boniface, 184 
Anatolius, biahop, T40 
Andrew, St, legendaiy apostle of Scythi^ 

Anegray, monastery of, founded hy Co- 

lumbanus, 13G 
Anglia, East, evangelized by FeJit, a 

Burgundian bishop, It6; visitod by 

Fmrsnos. 1 1 7 
Anglo-Saions, their mytboli^y, 16; 

England, 97 


e of 

Sweden, his birth and ednoation, 133; 
hears of the death of Charlemagne 
134 ; reaolvee the Danish mianon, 935; 
jciined by Antbert, ii.; aooompaniea 
Harold to Denmark, 136 ; difBenltica 

454 U 

efforts in Sweden, »J7; viaiW Eome 
nnd rpcidves tlu) PkU, 33S; repairs 
toHaniburg, I'i.; mtpuLriou, 339; hia 
endiiDuira under misfortune, 9401 •«■ 
conil visit to Sweden, lit: permitted 
£b preach at Birka, 1 ^6 ; efforts to 
che<:k alavery, 14S; iUnca% ib,; bis 
character, 149; death, 150, 

Ardgor, Daniah miiiaioDar;, 344. 

ArianiHm of the Wef tern Goths, 3^ ; 
dil!iiBiou nmongft the Eaotern Gotha, 

Aristocratic fentare of the MediiBval 
missioDa, 40] 

Aaceliii, Dominican monk, nudertakoa a 
miaiiou Cu the Mongols, 370 

Aateriue, tiiiihiip, 11 r 

Auguatdut, St (of Hipim), his Enchiri. 
dion, ito; plan for misaiouiLrj iu' 

Auguetine, BtchMshop oF Camterbur;, 
Bent b; Gregon' 1« England, ijg ; 
lauds at Eblw'a Fleet, 100; coiiferf lice 
with Ethelbcrt, ib.; aubject tiuittfir of 
hia preaching, 1 01 ) baptizea Etbelbert, 
ib. ; correapondanoe with Greyury, 
104, 5 ; oonferenm with the Brititih 
bishope, 106 ; limits uf hia succesa 
and death, 107. 

Aatbert, oompoiiion of Anakar in the 
Swediah mission, 13;; dentb, 136 

Anierre, viaited b; St Patrick, 64 

AuxiliuB, aeconipaniea 8t Patrick to 
Ireland, 65 ; coneecrated bishop, 6ij 

AveTToea, hU pbiloxopb; oppoatiL by 
fiaymund Lull, 366. 

Baldr, Tcutonio god, ii ; hia attributes, 
11 n,; contest with Loki, 13 

Banchor, monastery of, 135 

Bangor, monastery of, 106 

Baptism of Clovia, sj ; of Ethelliert, 101; 
ofEdwiu, 114; of VToilirair, 794 

Baptisms, mitional, feature of the Me- 
diDjval missions, 43[j remarks on. 

Bardic Onier. the influence of, 13; 

advice uf Coluiaba rE»pecting, 91 
Bavaria, conversion of, 155; churches 

of, organized by archbishop Boniface, 

Bedu, the Venuruble, his opinion of St 

Columba, S3 n,; of Aidan, 119; 

quoted painiit 
Belbog, a SUvooic dwty, 33 
Bells, church, aDtJpathy of the Dane* 

to, 148 
Benedict, biahop, accompaiUB* WU&iil 

to Home, 116 
Beneilict, consoliilates the varioua no- 

iiaMic rules, 411 
Benignus, favourite diaciplo of St Patrick, 

M ; arclibishop of Armagh, j6 
Bernard, a Spanish ecclesiastic, bis mio- 

aionary efforla in Pomet»aia, 301: 

meets Inahop Otbo. 303 
Bernard, of Chuiraux, defends the Jews, 

Bernicia, 117, m8 
Bertchwald, archbishop, 181 
Berchn. marries Etbelbert, 9S ; her in- 
fluence over him, 98 
Bsrthold, abbot, beads a miaaioii at 

Yxkull, 33J ; falls IQ battle againil 

the Liefttnde™, 356 
Betbube, munastery uf, 3(19 
Betii, Irish misaionary, ni 
Bible, translation of by Clphiliu, 40 u.; 

by Cyril and Methodius, 184 
Billcrbock, 114 
Binua, missionary in Friaia, 184; aeDI 

to Rome by Boniface, ib. 
Biijru, Danish king. 337, 8 
BirinuB, niissionary in Wessei, 1 10 ; ap- 

]>ointeil bishop of Dorchester, 111 
Birka, town of, 137 ; Auakar, praacbea 

at, 346 
Biachufsheim, 193 
Bishopa, their importance in Medieval 

miaaians, 413; their early influuucr, 

414; their dutivB, 415 
Blexem on the Weser, 176 
Bobliio, iiionastery of, founileil by Co- 

fumbanus, 14S ; its abbatial presi- 

doncy, ib, note; its lil)rary, 16. not* 
Bognmilee, sect of, 379; their teueti ^ 

diffuaion in Europe, ib. 
Bogoris, a Bulgarian prince, baptised by 

PbotiuH, ]8o; viaited by vtuioua mi>. 

sionaries, iSi 
Bohemia evangalizcd by Greek mission' 

ariea, 887; overrun by Bolealav tho 

Cnioi, J as 

the C'iiriatians, 1S8; conquered l.v 
Olho I. 1^9 
Bolealuv II, or the ^I'uiu, iSg 



Boleslar, a Polish duke, penuades bp 
Otho to uodertake the Pomerariiui 
miarioD, 304 ; invaules Pomerania, 321 

Bonaven Tabenus, birth-plaoe of St Pa- 
trick, 61 

Boniface, or Winfrid, the "Apostle of 
Germany," birth and education, 183 ; 
honoured by king Ina» ih, ; first mis- 
sionary voyage to Frisia, 183 ; jour- 
ney to Rome, i6. ; early efforts in Thu- 
ringia, 184; second journey to Rome, 
ib. ; interview with the Pope, 185; 
takes the oath of obedience to the 
Holy See, ib. ; returns to Hesse, 186 ; 
letter from Daniel bishop of Winches- 
ter, 187; destroys the sacred oak of 
Giesmar, 188; invites aid from Eng- 
land, 189 ; befriended by Charles Mar- 
tel, 190 ; third journey to Rome, 191 ,* 
invested with Uie pall, ib. ; visits the 
diocese of Bavaria, 193 ; joined by 
freuh missiouaries, 193; revives the 
Synodal System, 194 ; regulations of 
his first synod, 195, 6 ; his quarrel 
with Adelbert, Clemens, and Feargil, 
197, 8 ; rebukes Pope Zacharias, 198 ; 
interferes in the matter of Gewilheb, 
199; bis metropolitan seat fixed at 
Mentz, 200 ; wishes to retire to Ful- 
da, 201 ; corresponds with king Ethel- 
bald and archbishop Cuthbert, 102 \ 
his letter to Fuldrede, 103; his last 
efforts in Frisia, 104 ; his martvrdom, 
ao5 ; refiections on his life ana work, 
ao5, 6 

Books of Eells and Durrow, 87 ; descrip- 
tion of, 87 n. 

Boructuarians, missious to, 170 

Borziwoi, Bohemian duke, his baptism, 

Bosham, cell o^ 118 

Boso, bishop of Mersebnrg, 397 

Bregenz, monastery of, 145 

Breisgau, penetrated by TVudpert^ 153 

Brigid, St, her cell in Kildare, 76 

British Ch